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  1. Dadaocheng - Wikipedia

    Dadaocheng is an area in Datong District, Taipei, Taiwan. It was also known as Twatutia (a transliteration of the Taiwanese Hokkien Tōa-tiū-tiâⁿ),[1][2] Daitōtei during Japanese rule, and Tataocheng (Mandarin) during the Kuomintang era. ...

    • 大稻埕
    • 大稲埕
    • big rice-drying field
    • 大稻埕
  2. Fushimi Inari-taisha - Wikipedia
    • History
    • Fox
    • Access
    • Environs
    • in Popular Culture
    • See Also
    • References
    • External Links

    The shrine became the object of imperial patronage during the early Heian period. In 965, Emperor Murakami decreed that messengers carry written accounts of important events to the guardian kami of Japan. These heihakuwere initially presented to 16 shrines, including the Inari Shrine. From 1871 through 1946, Fushimi Inari-taisha was officially designated one of the Kanpei-taisha(官幣大社), meaning that it stood in the first rank of government supported shrines.

    Foxes (kitsune), regarded as the messengers, are often found in Inari shrines. One attribute is a key (for the rice granary) in their mouths. Unlike most Shinto shrines, Fushimi Inari-taisha, in keeping with typical Inari shrines, has an open view of the main object of worship (a mirror). A drawing in Kiyoshi Nozaki's Kitsune: Japan's Fox of Mystery, Romance and Humor in 1786 depicting the shrine says that its two-story entry gate was built by Toyotomi Hideyoshi. The shrine draws several million worshipers over the Japanese New Year, 2.69 million for 3 days in 2006 reported by the police, the most in western Japan. 1. Fox holding a key in its mouth, at the main gate of the Fushimi Inari shrine 2. Fox holding a jewel in its mouth at the main gate of the Fushimi Inari shrine 3. Fox sculpture in Fushimi Inari-taisha shrine 4. Fox fountain in Fushimi Inari-taisha shrine 5. Another view of the fox fountain 6. Fox altar in Fushimi Inari-taisha shrine

    The shrine is just outside the Inari Station on the Nara Line of the West Japan Railway Company (JR), a five-minute ride from Kyoto Station. It is a short walk from Fushimi-Inari Station on the Main Line of the Keihan Electric Railway. The shrine is open 24 hours with both the approach to the shrine and the Honden(本殿, main hall)itself illuminated all night. There is no entrance fee.

    In the approach to the shrine are a number of sweet shops selling tsujiura senbei(辻占煎餅), a form of fortune cookiedating at least to the 19th century, and which are believed by some to be the origin of the American fortune cookie.


    1. Breen, John and Mark Teeuwen. (2000). Shinto in History: Ways of the Kami. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-2363-4 2. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (1998). Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5 3. Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1962). Studies in Shinto and Shrines. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 399449 4. Ponsonby-Fane, Richard (1959). The Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887 5. Sm...

  3. Radical 115 - Wikipedia

    Radical 115 meaning "grain" is 1 of 23 Kangxi radicals (214 radicals total) composed of 5 strokes. In the Kangxi Dictionary there are 431 characters (out of 49,030) to be found under this radical.

  4. PDF - Wikipedia
    • History
    • Technical Foundations
    • File Format
    • Imaging Model
    • Additional Features
    • Licensing
    • Security
    • Software
    • Alternatives
    • See Also

    Adobe Systems made the PDF specification available free of charge in 1993. In the early years PDF was popular mainly in desktop publishing workflows, and competed with a variety of formats such as DjVu, Envoy, Common Ground Digital Paper, Farallon Replica and even Adobe's own PostScriptformat. PDF was a proprietary format controlled by Adobe until it was released as an open standard on July 1, 2008, and published by the International Organization for Standardization as ISO 32000-1:2008, at which time control of the specification passed to an ISO Committee of volunteer industry experts. In 2008, Adobe published a Public Patent License to ISO 32000-1 granting royalty-freerights for all patents owned by Adobe that are necessary to make, use, sell, and distribute PDF-compliant implementations. PDF 1.7, the sixth edition of the PDF specification that became ISO 32000-1, includes some proprietary technologies defined only by Adobe, such as Adobe XML Forms Architecture (XFA) and JavaScript...

    A PDF file is often a combination of vector graphics, text, and bitmap graphics. The basic types of content in a PDF are: 1. Text stored as content streams (i.e., not encoded in plain text); 2. Vector graphics for illustrations and designs that consist of shapes and lines; 3. Raster graphics for photographs and other types of images 4. Multimedia objects in the document. In later PDF revisions, a PDF document can also support links (inside document or web page), forms, JavaScript (initially available as a plugin for Acrobat 3.0), or any other types of embedded contents that can be handled using plug-ins. PDF combines three technologies: 1. A subset of the PostScriptpage description programming language, for generating the layout and graphics. 2. A font-embedding/replacement system to allow fonts to travel with the documents. 3. A structured storage system to bundle these elements and any associated content into a single file, with data compressionwhere appropriate. PostScript is a p...

    A PDF file contains 7-bit ASCII characters, except for certain elements that may have binary content.The file starts with a header containing a magic number (as a readable string) and the version of the format, for example %PDF-1.7. The format is a subset of a COS ("Carousel" Object Structure) format. A COS tree file consists primarily of objects, of which there are nine types: 1. Boolean values, representing true or false 2. Real numbers 3. Integers 4. Strings, enclosed within parentheses ((...)). Strings may contain 8-bit characters. 5. Names, starting with a forward slash (/) 6. Arrays, ordered collections of objects enclosed within square brackets ([...]) 7. Dictionaries, collections of objects indexed by names enclosed within double angle brackets (<<...>>) 8. Streams, usually containing large amounts of optionally compressed binary data, preceded by a dictionary and enclosed between the stream and endstreamkeywords. 9. The nullobject Furthermore, there may be comments, introdu...

    The basic design of how graphics are represented in PDF is very similar to that of PostScript, except for the use of transparency, which was added in PDF 1.4. PDF graphics use a device-independent Cartesian coordinate system to describe the surface of a page. A PDF page description can use a matrix to scale, rotate, or skew graphical elements. A key concept in PDF is that of the graphics state, which is a collection of graphical parameters that may be changed, saved, and restored by a page description. PDF has (as of version 2.0) 25 graphics state properties, of which some of the most important are: 1. The current transformation matrix(CTM), which determines the coordinate system 2. The clipping path 3. The color space 4. The alpha constant, which is a key component of transparency 5. Black point compensationcontrol (introduced in PDF 2.0)

    Logical structure and accessibility

    A "tagged" PDF (see clause 14.8 in ISO 32000) includes document structure and semantics information to enable reliable text extraction and accessibility. Technically speaking, tagged PDF is a stylized use of the format that builds on the logical structure framework introduced in PDF 1.3. Tagged PDF defines a set of standard structure types and attributes that allow page content (text, graphics, and images) to be extracted and reused for other purposes. Tagged PDF is not required in situations...

    Optional Content Groups

    With the introduction of PDF version, 1.5 (2003) came the concept of Layers. Layers, or as they are more formally known Optional Content Groups (OCGs), refer to sections of content in a PDF document that can be selectively viewed or hidden by document authors or consumers. This capability is useful in CAD drawings, layered artwork, maps, multi-language documents, etc. Basically, it consists of an Optional Content Properties Dictionary added to the document root. This dictionary contains an ar...

    Encryption and signatures

    A PDF file may be encrypted, for security, in which case a password is needed to view or edit the contents. PDF 2.0 defines 256-bit AES encryption as standard for PDF 2.0 files. The PDF Reference also defines ways that third parties can define their own encryption systems for PDF. PDF files may be digitally signed, to provide secure authentication; complete details on implementing digital signatures in PDF is provided in ISO 32000-2. PDF files may also contain embedded DRMrestrictions that pr...

    Anyone may create applications that can read and write PDF files without having to pay royalties to Adobe Systems; Adobe holds patents to PDF, but licenses them for royalty-freeuse in developing software complying with its PDF specification.

    In November 2019, researchers from Ruhr University Bochum and Hackmanit GmbH published attacks on digitally signed PDFs .They showed how to change the visible content in a signed PDF without invalidating the signature in 21 of 22 desktop PDF viewers and 6 of 8 online validation services by abusing implementation flaws.On the same conference, they additionally showed how to exfiltrate the plaintext of encrypted content in PDFs.In 2021, they showed new so-called shadow attacks on PDFs that abuse the flexibilty of features provided in the specification.An overview of security issues in PDFs regarding denial of service, information disclosure, data manipulation, and Arbitrary code executionattacks was presented by Jens Müller. PDF attachments carrying viruses were first discovered in 2001. The virus, named OUTLOOK.PDFWorm or Peachy, uses Microsoft Outlookto send itself as an attached Adobe PDF file. It was activated with Adobe Acrobat, but not with Acrobat Reader. From time to time, new...

    Viewers and editors

    PDF viewers are generally provided free of charge, and many versions are available from a variety of sources. There are many software options for creating PDFs, including the PDF printing capabilities built into macOS, iOS, and most Linux distributions, LibreOffice, Microsoft Office 2007 (if updated to SP2) and later, WordPerfect 9, Scribus, numerous PDF print drivers for Microsoft Windows, the pdfTeX typesetting system, the DocBook PDF tools, applications developed around Ghostscript and Ado...


    Raster image processors (RIPs) are used to convert PDF files into a raster format suitable for imaging onto paper and other media in printers, digital production presses and prepress in a process known as rasterisation. RIPs capable of processing PDF directly include the Adobe PDF Print Engine from Adobe Systems and Jaws and the Harlequin RIP from Global Graphics. In 1993 the Jaws raster image processor from Global Graphicsbecame the first shipping prepress RIP that interpreted PDF natively w...

    Native display model

    PDF was selected as the "native" metafile format for Mac OS X, replacing the PICT format of the earlier classic Mac OS. The imaging model of the Quartz graphics layer is based on the model common to Display PostScript and PDF, leading to the nickname Display PDF. The Preview application can display PDF files, as can version 2.0 and later of the Safari web browser. System-level support for PDF allows Mac OS X applications to create PDF documents automatically, provided they support the OS-stan...

    The Open XML Paper Specification is a competing format used both as a page description language and as the native print spooler format for Microsoft Windows since Windows Vista.

  5. Radical 32 - Wikipedia

    Radical 32 or radical earth (土部) meaning "earth" is one of the 31 Kangxi radicals (214 radicals total) composed of three strokes. In the Kangxi Dictionary, there are 580 characters (out of 49,030) to be found under this radical.土 is ...

  6. Talk:Fusang - Wikipedia
    • Fusang Is Not Japan
    • Was Hui-Sheng Really Chinese?
    • Fusang as Part of North America?
    • li ( Chinese Mile ) Values
    • Huiseng
    • Hui Shen Was A Fusang Native Instead of A Chinese
    • External Links Modified

    Though the term Fusang refers to Japan in modern days, ancient Chinese literature such as Book of Liang (《梁書•五十四•列傳四十八》) described Wa(倭 Japan) and Fusang (扶桑) in the same chapter. That indicates Fusang is not Japan. (exerpt from the Book of Liang on Wa) (exerpt from the Book of Liang on Fusang) It is interesting that the last paragraph above describe a tribe of women, further east from Fusang. Could it be the Amazon tribe in Brazil? 1. Er, um, that's a really bad interpretation. WHICH tribe in the Amazon were you thinking of? Or is it because of the name Amazon you're presuming there was a tribe of women?Skookum121:39, 23 June 2006 (UTC) 1. 1.1. ... I think he(she) meant the Amazon tribe in Greek mythology. Lol. --Sumple (Talk) 05:19, 24 June 2006 (UTC) Regarding the above proposition "Fusang is not Japan"... the only thing that can be said in respect with the sources is that "Fusang is not Wa", Wa being described as a statelet in Western Japan centered in Kyushu. Fusang is said to...

    Doubtless he was Buddhist, of course, but assuming he was Chinese Buddhist just because his budget was covered by the Son of Heaven is a stretch. As I recall from other write-ups, and missing here, is that he was from Jilin (sp?), the Chinese name for Kabul. He could have been Pashtun, Dari, Sassanid, Tokharian, even Greek; unless there's a bio which says he was born in China, and travelled to Jilin to become a monk, then came back to China inspired to travel to the west etc. then it's not really proven, although too often assumed, that he was Chinese. Much in the same way that it is forgotten by some that Columbus was Italian and not Castilian and Juan de Fuca was Greek and not Portuguese. One of the reasons I'm interested in the story, other than the side-issue of Hui-sheng's origins, is because of the traces of contact with Asia (not necessarily China) and various apocryphal legends in western North America; in the valley I'm from ( and shalalth.h...

    There seems to be evidence that Fusang was part of North America. Based on both interpretations of geographic distances and of observations. Two links follow: I have no way of knowing the "right" answer, but it seems there is enough of a case for the main article to acknowledge the possibility. Failing that, to acknowledge the claims. the article is wrong, there were horses in N.America way before Columbus time — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 03:23, 25 October 2013 (UTC) 1. Sure, but long before there was a China. Dougweller (talk) 05:11, 25 October 2013 (UTC)

    The suggestions that the li appears to have been used as 77 meter in Liang times are removed. There is no reason to change the li to a standard that is 5-7 times less than normally, based on one or a few obscure passages. Really compelling evidence is needed for such a drastic, absurd change. There are enough passages in the Liang book and contemporary works to show that the li had the more regular values. About the passage (which was unsourced)where a sea was crossed and was used to give the li that new standard of 77 meters : It can be erroneous or a copyist error but more important, the given distances in journeys are rather travel distances. The sea /strait might be 100-150 km wide between certain points but that does not mean that it was crossed from these points and nobody said that crossing a sea needs to happen in a straight line. Its very easy to travel 300 km or more on the water to cross the sea between Korea and Japan. A. Post-Muller (talk) 12:11, 3 December 2008 (UTC) 1...

    Long before Huiseng, fusang was mentioned in Chinese book such as Huainanzi(日出于旸谷,浴于咸池,拂于扶桑,是谓晨明), Shanhaijing(汤谷上有扶桑,十日所浴). And in Tang have a fusang county in Lingnan(扶桑县, 属岭南道禺州)KJ, And fusang also is the chinese name of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis.(talk) 09:17, 17 March 2009 (UTC)

    I edited the page on Aug 21,2009 correcting the sentence "described by the Chinese Buddhist missionary Hui Shen".According to the original text from Book of Liang,the country of Fusang was described by "a Shramana from there called Hui Shen" who "came to Jingzhou"(“其國有沙門慧深来至荆州”,literal translation:"A Shramana from the country called Hui Shen came to Jingzhou",meaning Hui Shen is a Fusang Native instead of a Chinese. —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 13:58, 21 August 2009 (UTC) (talk) 14:01, 21 August 2009 (UTC)Lin Jingqiu

    Hello fellow Wikipedians, I have just modified one external link on Fusang. Please take a moment to review my edit. If you have any questions, or need the bot to ignore the links, or the page altogether, please visit this simple FaQfor additional information. I made the following changes: 1. Added archive to When you have finished reviewing my changes, you may follow the instructions on the template below to fix any issues with the URLs. As of February 2018, "External links modified" talk page sections are no longer generated or monitored by InternetArchiveBot. No special action is required regarding these talk page notices, other than regular verification using the archive tool instructions below. Editors have permission to delete these "External links modified" talk page sections if they want to de-clutter talk pages, but...

  7. Differences between Shinjitai and Simplified characters - Wikipedia
    • List of Different Simplifications
    • Traditional Characters That May Cause Problems Displaying
    • Different Stroke Orders in Chinese and Japanese

    The old and new forms of the Kyōiku Kanji and their Hànzì equivalents are listed below. In the following lists, the characters are sorted by the radicals of the Japanese kanji. The two Kokuji働 and 畑 in the Kyōiku Kanji List, which have no Chinese equivalents, are not listed here; in Japanese, neither character was affected by the simplifications. Note that 弁 is used to simplify three different Traditional characters (辨, 瓣, and 辯) in Japan. 1. No simplificationin either language (The following characters were simplified neither in Japanese nor in Chinese.) 1. 一 丁 下 三 不 天 五 民 正 平 可 再 百 否 武 夏 中 内 出 本 世 申 由 史 冊 央 向 曲 印 州 表 果 半 必 永 求 九 丸 千 久 少 夫 午 失 末 未 包 年 危 后 兵 我 束 卵 承 垂 刷 重 省 看 勉 七 乳 才 予 事 二 元 亡 六 主 市 交 忘 夜 育 京 卒 商 率 就 人 化 今 仁 付 代 仕 他 令 以 合 全 任 休 件 仲 作 何 位 住 余 低 似 命 使 念 例 供 信 保 便 値 修 借 候 倍 俳 俵 健 停 働 像 先 入 八 分 公 共 弟 並 典 前 益 善 尊 同 周 次 兆 冷 弱 刀 切 別 判 制 券 刻 副 割 力 加 助 努 勇 勤 句 北 疑 十 古 孝 直 南 真 裁 博 上 反 灰 厚 原 台 能 友 収 口 司 右 兄 吸 告 君 味 呼 品 唱 器 四 回 因 困 固 土 去 地 在 寺 均 志 坂 幸 型 城 基 域 喜 境 士 冬 各 夕 外 名 多...

    Some of the traditional Kanji are not included in the Japanese font of Windows XP/2000, and only rectangles are shown. Downloading the Meiryo font from the Microsoft website (VistaFont_JPN.EXE) and installing it will solve this problem. Note that within the Jōyō Kanji there are 62 characters the old forms of which may cause problems displaying: Kyōiku Kanji (26): Grade 2 (2 Kanji): 海 社 Grade 3 (8 Kanji): 勉 暑 漢 神 福 練 者 都 Grade 4 (6 Kanji): 器 殺 祝 節 梅 類 Grade 5 (1 Kanji): 祖 Grade 6 (9 Kanji): 勤 穀 視 署 層 著 諸 難 朗 Secondary-School Kanji (36): 欄 廊 虜 隆 塚 祥 侮 僧 免 卑 喝 嘆 塀 墨 悔 慨 憎 懲 敏 既 煮 碑 祉 祈 禍 突 繁 臭 褐 謁 謹 賓 贈 逸 響 頻 These characters are Unicode CJK Unified Ideographs for which the old form (kyūjitai) and the new form (shinjitai) have been unified under the Unicode standard. Although the old and new forms are distinguished under the JIS X 0213 standard, the old forms map to Unicode CJK Compatibility Ideographs which are considered by Unicode to be canonically equivalent to the new forms and ma...

    Some characters, whether simplified or not, look the same in Chinese and Japanese, but have different stroke orders. For example, in Japan, 必 is written with the top dot first, while the Traditional stroke order writes the 丿 first. In the characters 王 and 玉, the vertical stroke is the third stroke in Chinese, but the second stroke in Japanese.Taiwan and Hong Kong use Traditional characters, though with an altered stroke order.

  8. List of jōyō kanji - Wikipedia

    List of characters For brevity, only one English translation is given per kanji. The "Grade" column specifies the grade in which the kanji is taught in Elementary schools in Japan.Grade "S" means that it is taught in ...

  9. List of CJK Unified Ideographs, part 1 of 4 - Wikipedia

    This list is a part of a single Unicode block. For an overview of all CJK ideograph blocks in Unicode, see CJK Unified Ideographs. CJK Unified Ideographs (Part 1 of 4) Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF) 0. 1.

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