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  1. Carrefour - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Carrefour

    History The first Carrefour shop (not a hypermarket) opened in 1960, within suburban Annecy, near a crossroads.The group was created in 1958 by Marcel Fournier, Denis Defforey and Jacques Defforey, [3] who attended and were influenced by several ...

    • 321,383 (2019)
    • 80.73 billion (2019)
  2. Carrefour Market - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Carrefour_Market

    Carrefour Market is a French supermarket chain created in 2007, owned by the international retail group Carrefour, and has currently stores in France and several other countries, see below. Carrefour Market stores generally range from 1000 m² to ...

  3. Carrefour Express - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Carrefour_Express
    • History
    • International Locations
    • Former Locations
    • See Also
    • External Links

    In 2007 the Carrefour express concept was created to replace almost everywhere in the world the convenience stores owned by the Carrefour Group in locations that has small retail area. These include Champion, Norte, GB, Globi and Gima.

    Belgium

    Belgian retail chain GB opened its first convenience store, GB express in 1997. In 2000 Carrefour acquired GB from the GIB Group. In 2007 all GB Express locations were rebranded as Carrefour Express.

    France

    In France, the chain's goal is to replace all convenience stores owned by Carrefour, that could not be converted to either Carrefour Cityor Carrefour Contact. In December 2010, the first Carrefour Express is created in Caen, and a second in January 2011 in Poitiers, the third opened in 5th arrondissement of Paris. In April 2013, there are 252 Carrefour Express stores in France. In August 2013, 272 stores.

    Italy

    In Italy the chain Dì per Dì was acquired from Promodès in 2007 and starting late 2009 were rebranded Carrefour Expressas part of Carrefour's international reorganization.

    UAE

    In the summer of 2011, Carrefour MAF began a rebranding and expansion program with 17 Carrefour express stores across the UAE being converted to Carrefour marketoutlets.

    Greece

    In the spring of 2007, Carrefour express acquired all "5' Marinopoulos" from Champion Marinopoulos. On 1 March 2017, they left the Greek market after the acquisition of Marinopoulosby Sklavenitis.

    Indonesia

    In January 2008, Carrefour Indonesia acquired 75 percent share of local retailer Alfa Supermarket, creating a new supermarket business chain next to the Carrefour hypermarkets in Indonesia. The name "Alfa" was converted to "Carrefour Express". As of 2019[update], there were only two Carrefour Express stores in Indonesia: one in Kebayoran Lama, South Jakarta and one in Meruya Ilir, West Jakarta. These Carrefour express were the first Carrefour's supermarket in Asia; earlier there were only Car...

    • 2007 (International), 2010 (France)
    • Évry, France
  4. Tia Maria - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Tia_Maria

    Tia Maria is a dark liqueur made originally in Jamaica using Jamaican coffee beans, but now made in Italy.The main ingredients are coffee beans, Jamaican rum, vanilla, and sugar, blended to an alcoholic content of 20%. History The historical ...

  5. Yangmingshan - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Yangmingshan
    • History
    • Landscape and Geology
    • Xiaoyoukeng
    • Flora and Fauna
    • Historical and Cultural Sites
    • Gallery
    • See Also
    • External Links

    This mountain range was originally called "Grass Mountain" (Chinese: 草山; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Chháu-soaⁿ) during the Qing Dynasty, in reference to the Datun Mountain (大屯山; Tōa-tūn-soaⁿ).Officials during this period were worried about thieves stealing sulfur from the rich sulfur deposits in the area, so they would regularly set fire to the mountain. Thus, only grass and no trees could be seen. Daiton National Park[ja], Taiwan's first national park, was established on 27 December 1937. It was one of three national parks designated by Governor-General of Taiwan Seizō Kobayashi during Japanese rule. In 1950, President Chiang Kai-shek renamed Grass Mountain to Yangmingshan to commemorate the Ming Dynasty scholar Wang Yangming. In 1962, the then Taiwan Provincial Bureau of Public Works began to plan the Yangmingshan National Park. The initial planning area was 28,400 hectares, including Mount Kwan-in and the Tatun Volcano Group.

    Different from the high mountain national parks, Yangmingshan National Park has a lower elevation. Even though mountain elevations range from only 200–1120 meters, beautiful landscapes such as ridges, valleys, lakes, waterfalls and basins are abundant. Andesite rocks make up most of the area's geology.

    Xiaoyoukeng is a post-volcanic geological landscape area located in the north of Taiwan in Yangmingshan National Park at the northwestern foot of Seven Star Mountain. It is approximately 805 meters above sea level and is famed for the fumaroles, sulfur crystals, hot springsand spectacular 'landslide terrain' formed by post-volcanic activity. Hiking trails to Seven Star Mountain are accessible from the Xiaoyoukeng parking lot. The top of the trail is 1,120 meters above sea level, which is the highest peak of Taipei City. The Xiaoyoukeng trail can connect to Qixing Park, Menghuan Pond, and Lengshuikeng. The trail also connects to visitor center, Yangmingshan Second Parking Lot and the Yangmingshan Bus Station.

    Due to the effects of post-volcanic activity and precipitation, soil in the region is highly acidic. With the influence of the northeast monsoon and the area's microclimates, winter temperatures are much lower than the surrounding areas. The above factors cause the vegetation to differ from those in other regions at the same latitude. Some medium and high altitude plants can be found here such as bird-lime tree and hairy Japanese maple. Vegetation groups can be divided into subtropical monsoon rain forests, temperate evergreen broadleaf forests and mountain ridge grasslands. There are 1360 species of vascular bundle plants in the region. Some of the common ones are red nanmu, large-leaved machilus, Formosan sweet gum, Taiwan cherry, Mori cleyera and dark spotted cherry. The most famous is Taiwan isoetes in Menghuan pond, an aquatic fern only found in Taiwan. Mt. Datun is one of the most well known places to see some of the 168 species of butterflies in northern Taiwan. The best time...

    Chinese Culture University

    The school was founded in 1962. The founder Dr. Zhang Qiyun and the Chinese Culture Foundation Committee originally proposed the school to be called "Far Eastern University". After a letter from the previous President Jiang Gong, he suggested that it be changed to "Chinese Cultural Institute". In 1963, 15 departments of the day department of the University Department began to enroll students, and then 4 departments of the night department were established and renamed "Chinese Culture College"...

    Chung-Shan Building - Meeting place of the now defunct National Assembly of the Republic of China

    During the administration of President Chiang Kai-shek, the Chung-Shan Building in Yangmingshan National Park was built in 1965 to honor the centenary birthday of Sun Yat-sen, the country's founding father. Ms. Xiu Zelan, a well-known architect, designed it. It is surrounded by mountains and is surrounded by flora. The exterior is a typical Chinese classical structure with exquisite and precise interior décor. It was once the home of the National Assembly and a popular location for heads of s...

    Grass Mountain Chateau - Summer residence of Chiang Kai-shek

    Grass Mountain is a valley area surrounded by Datun Mountain, Qixing Mountain, and Shamao Mountain, but it is not a mountain. The Grass Mountain Hotel was formerly the guest home of Taiwan Sugar Corporation, and Jiang Gong moved in when the Nationalist Government moved to Taiwan in 1949. The hotel is positioned on a strategic high point of a grassy mountain and is quiet and pleasant. In front of you, the Keelung River and the Danshui River meet. The natural splendor may be seen from the Guand...

  6. Absinthe - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Absinthe
    • Etymology
    • History
    • Production
    • Preparation
    • Styles
    • Storage
    • Health Effects
    • Regulations
    • Cultural Influence
    • See Also

    The French word absinthe can refer either to the alcoholic beverage or, less commonly, to the actual wormwood plant. Absinthe is derived from the Latin absinthium, which in turn comes from the Greek ἀψίνθιον apsínthion, "wormwood". The use of Artemisia absinthium in a drink is attested in Lucretius' De Rerum Natura (936–950), where Lucretius indicates that a drink containing wormwood is given as medicine to children in a cup with honey on the brim to make it drinkable. Some claim that the word means "undrinkable" in Greek, but it may instead be linked to the Persian root spand or aspand, or the variant esfand, which meant Peganum harmala, also called Syrian Rue—although it is not actually a variety of rue, another famously bitter herb. That Artemisia absinthium was commonly burned as a protective offering may suggest that its origins lie in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language root *spend, meaning "to perform a ritual" or "make an offering". Whether the word was a borrowin...

    The precise origin of absinthe is unclear. The medical use of wormwood dates back to ancient Egypt and is mentioned in the Ebers Papyrus, c. 1550 BC. Wormwood extracts and wine-soaked wormwood leaves were used as remedies by the ancient Greeks. Moreover, there is evidence of a wormwood-flavoured wine in ancient Greece called absinthites oinos. The first evidence of absinthe, in the sense of a distilled spirit containing green anise and fennel, dates to the 18th century. According to popular legend, it began as an all-purpose patent remedy created by Dr. Pierre Ordinaire, a French doctor living in Couvet, Switzerland around 1792 (the exact date varies by account). Ordinaire's recipe was passed on to the Henriod sisters of Couvet, who sold it as a medicinal elixir. By other accounts, the Henriod sisters may have been making the elixir before Ordinaire's arrival. In either case, a certain Major Dubied acquired the formula from the sisters in 1797 and opened the first absinthe distiller...

    Most countries have no legal definition for absinthe, whereas the method of production and content of spirits such as whisky, brandy, and ginare globally defined and regulated. Therefore, producers are at liberty to label a product as "absinthe" or "absinth" without regard to any specific legal definition or quality standards. Producers of legitimate absinthes employ one of two historically defined processes to create the finished spirit: distillation, or cold mixing. In the sole country (Switzerland) that does possess a legal definition of absinthe, distillation is the only permitted method of production.

    The traditional French preparation involves placing a sugar cube on top of a specially designed slotted spoon, and placing the spoon on a glass filled with a measure of absinthe. Iced water is poured or dripped over the sugar cube to mix the water into the absinthe. The final preparation contains 1 part absinthe and 3–5 parts water. As water dilutes the spirit, those components with poor water solubility (mainly those from anise, fennel, and star anise) come out of solution and cloud the drink. The resulting milky opalescence is called the louche (Fr. opaque or shady, IPA [luʃ]). The release of these dissolved essences coincides with a perfuming of herbal aromas and flavours that "blossom" or "bloom," and brings out subtleties that are otherwise muted within the neat spirit. This reflects what is perhaps the oldest and purest method of preparation, and is often referred to as the French Method. The Bohemian Method is a recent invention that involves fire, and was not performed durin...

    Most categorical alcoholic beverages have regulations governing their classification and labelling, while those governing absinthe have always been conspicuously lacking. According to popular treatises from the 19th century, absinthe could be loosely categorised into several grades (ordinaire, demi-fine, fine, and Suisse—the latter does not denote origin), in order of increasing alcoholic strength and quality. Many contemporary absinthe critics simply classify absinthe as distilled or mixed, according to its production method. And while the former is generally considered far superior in quality to the latter, an absinthe's simple claim of being 'distilled' makes no guarantee as to the quality of its base ingredients or the skill of its maker. 1. Blanche absinthe ("white" in French, also referred to as la Bleue in Switzerland) is bottled directly following distillation and reduction, and is uncoloured (clear). The name la Bleuewas originally a term used for Swiss bootleg absinthe (wh...

    Absinthe that is artificially coloured or clear is aesthetically stable, and can be bottled in clear glass. If naturally colored absinthe is exposed to light or air for a prolonged period, the chlorophyll gradually becomes oxidized, which has the effect of gradually changing the color from green to yellow green, and eventually to brown. The colour of absinthe that has completed this transition was historically referred to as feuille morte ("dead leaf"). In the pre-ban era, this natural phenomenon was favourably viewed, for it confirmed the product in question was coloured naturally, and not artificially with potentially toxic chemicals. Predictably, vintage absinthes often emerge from sealed bottles as distinctly amber in tint due to decades of slow oxidation. Though this colour change presents no adverse impact to the flavour of absinthe, it is generally desired to preserve the original colour, which requires that naturally coloured absinthe be bottled in dark, light resistant bott...

    Absinthe has been frequently and improperly described in modern times as being hallucinogenic. No peer-reviewed scientific study has demonstrated absinthe to possess hallucinogenic properties. The belief that absinthe induces hallucinogenic effects is rooted, at least partly, in the findings of 19th century French psychiatrist Valentin Magnan, who carried out ten years of experiments with wormwood oil. In the course of this research he studied 250 cases of alcoholism and concluded that those who abused absinthe were worse off than those who abused other alcoholic drinks, experiencing rapid-onset hallucinations. Such accounts by opponents of absinthe (like Magnan) were cheerfully embraced by famous absinthe drinkers, many of whom were bohemianartists or writers. Two famous artists who helped popularise the notion that absinthe had powerful psychoactive properties were Toulouse-Lautrec and Vincent van Gogh. In one of the best-known written accounts of absinthe drinking, an inebriated...

    Most countries (except Switzerland) at present do not possess a legal definition of absinthe (unlike Scotch whisky or cognac). Accordingly, producers are free to label a product "absinthe" or "absinth", whether or not it bears any resemblance to the traditional spirit.[citation needed]

    Numerous artists and writers living in France in the late 19th and early 20th centuries were noted absinthe drinkers and featured absinthe in their work. Some of these included Édouard Manet, Guy de Maupassant, Paul Verlaine, Amedeo Modigliani, Edgar Degas, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Vincent van Gogh, Oscar Wilde, Arthur Rimbaud, and Émile Zola. Many other renowned artists and writers similarly drew from this cultural well, including Aleister Crowley, Ernest Hemingway, Pablo Picasso, August Strindberg, and Erik Satie. The aura of illicitness and mystery surrounding absinthe has played into literature, movies, music, and television, where it is often portrayed as a mysterious, addictive, and mind-altering drink. Absinthe has served as the subject of numerous works of fine art, films, video, music, and literature since the mid-19th-century. Some of the earliest film references include The Hasher's Delirium (1910) by Émile Cohl, an early pioneer in the art of animation, as well as two...

  7. Hernán Crespo - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Hernán_Crespo

    Hernán Jorge Crespo (Spanish pronunciation: [eɾˈnaŋ ˈxoɾxe ˈkɾespo]; born 5 July 1975) is an Argentine professional football coach and former player. A prolific striker, Crespo scored over 300 goals in a career spanning 19 years.At international ...

  8. Ben-To - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Ben-To
    • Plot
    • Characters
    • Media
    • Reception
    • External Links

    While innocently reaching for some half-priced bento, Yō Satō finds himself beaten up on the floor of a supermarket. He soon learns that getting half-priced bento is an all-out brawl between customers. Yō is invited to the Half-Priced Food Lovers Club by one of the top fighters, Sen Yarizui, in order to train to compete in these battles.

    Yō Satō(佐藤 洋, Satō Yō)

    1. Voiced by: Hiro Shimono (Japanese); Austin Tindle(English) 2. The protagonist, a high school freshman who finds himself dragged into the battle for half-priced bento. He enjoys playing retro video games, particularly Sega games. Though at first shown not able to even hold his ground in a bento brawl, he soon shows remarkable strength, enough to be recognized as an equal by Yū, the Wizard, and win a one-on-one fight against Ayame. Following a particularly embarrassing incident, he ends up s...

    Sen Yarizui(槍水 仙, Yarizui Sen)

    1. Voiced by: Mariya Ise (Japanese); Trina Nishimura(English) 2. A second year student who is the current president (and initially, the only remaining member) of the Half Priced Food Lovers Club. She is one of the strongest wolves of the west, leading her to be known as the Ice Witch(氷結の魔女, Hyōketsu no Majo). Her title comes from her accidentally almost buying a chūhai called Freezing(氷結, Hyōketsu)because she liked the design and assumed it was a normal drink, in addition to it being on sale....

    Ayame Shaga(著莪 あやめ, Shaga Ayame)

    1. Voiced by: Emiri Katō (Japanese); Morgan Garrett(English) 2. Yō's half-Italian cousin. Like Yō, she is an avid gamer, and enjoys flirting with him and occasionally Hana. She is also a wolf known as the Beauty by the Lake(湖の麗人, Mizuumi no Reijin), named so after eating a bento on a bench at a park called Lake Parkand ended up falling asleep there. She is well known for using chopsticks in battle. Her personality varies depending on her mood; normally, she is very out-going, and loves toying...

    Light novels

    Ben-To began as a light novel series written by Asaura(アサウラ), with illustrations by Kaito Shibano. Shueisha published 15 volumes between February 22, 2008 and February 25, 2014 under Shueisha's Super Dash Bunko imprint; 12 comprise the main story, while the other three are short story collections. Other short stories were published online on Super Dash Bunko's official website and in Super Dash Manga Program, a separate volume included with Shueisha's Jump Squaremanga magazine.

    Manga

    A manga adaptation, illustrated by Kaito Shibano and titled Ben-To Zero: Road to Witch, serialized five chapters between the first issue of Super Dash Manga Program, included with the combined May/June 2011 issue of Jump Square sold on April 21, 2011, and the issue included with the October 2011 issue of Jump Square. A single tankōbon volume was released on October 25, 2011. Another manga, also illustrated by Shibano and titled Ben-To Another: Ripper's Night, was serialized between the Decemb...

    Anime

    A 12-episode anime television series adaptation produced by David Production and directed by Shin Itagaki aired in Japan between October 9, 2011 and December 25, 2011 on TV Aichi. The main opening theme is "Live for Life: Ōkamitachi no Yoru"(LIVE for LIFE 〜狼たちの夜〜, LIVE for LIFE ~Night of the Wolves~) by Aimi, while the ending theme is "Egao no Hōsoku"(笑顔の法則, The Rules of Smiling) by Mariya Ise. The opening theme for episode four is "Treasure!" by Emiri Katō. The anime series is licensed and s...

    The Mainichi Shimbun reported that as of March 2011, over 550,000 copies of the light novels have been sold in Japan. The light novel series has ranked three times in Takarajimasha's light novel guide book Kono Light Novel ga Sugoi! published yearly: eighth in 2010, fifth in 2011,and third in 2012. Theron Martin of Anime News Network gave the series an overall A− rating. Despite finding some inconsistencies with the animation in places, Martin praised the series for its action scenes, soundtrack and humor, concluding that: "Watching Ben-To definitely will not strain your brain, and doesn't delve into themes any more complicated than the value of integrity, or fostering a passion for life. Regardless, it's a pretty fun little show." Aiden Foote, writing for THEM Anime Reviews, saw potential in the premise but found the fight scenes and humor lacking and gave way to characters ranging from obnoxious (Ume and the Kyo sisters) to pointless (Hana and Shaga), saying that: "Ultimately, my...

    Ben-To at Shueisha (in Japanese)
    Ben-To at Funimation
    Ben-To (anime) at Anime News Network's encyclopedia
  9. Transformer - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Transformer
    • Principles
    • Construction
    • Classification Parameters
    • Applications
    • History
    • Bibliography

    Ideal transformer

    An ideal transformer is a theoretical linear transformer that is lossless and perfectly coupled. Perfect coupling implies infinitely high core magnetic permeability and winding inductance and zero net magnetomotive force (i.e. ipnp - isns = 0).[c] A varying current in the transformer's primary winding attempts to create a varying magnetic flux in the transformer core, which is also encircled by the secondary winding. This varying flux at the secondary winding induces a varying electromotive f...

    Transformer EMF equation

    If the flux in the core is purely sinusoidal, the relationship for either winding between its rms voltage Erms of the winding, and the supply frequency f, number of turns N, core cross-sectional area a in m2 and peak magnetic flux density Bpeak in Wb/m2or T (tesla) is given by the universal EMF equation: 1. E rms = 2 π f N a B peak 2 ≈ 4.44 f N a B peak {\\displaystyle E_{\\text{rms}}={\\frac {2\\pi fNaB_{\\text{peak}}}{\\sqrt {2}}}\\approx 4.44fNaB_{\\text{peak}}}

    Polarity

    A dot convention is often used in transformer circuit diagrams, nameplates or terminal markings to define the relative polarity of transformer windings. Positively increasing instantaneous current entering the primary winding's ‘dot’ end induces positive polarity voltage exiting the secondary winding's ‘dot’ end. Three-phase transformers used in electric power systems will have a nameplate that indicate the phase relationships between their terminals. This may be in the form of a phasordiagra...

    Cores

    Core form = core type; shell form = shell type Closed-core transformers are constructed in 'core form' or 'shell form'. When windings surround the core, the transformer is core form; when windings are surrounded by the core, the transformer is shell form. Shell form design may be more prevalent than core form design for distribution transformer applications due to the relative ease in stacking the core around winding coils. Core form design tends to, as a general rule, be more economical, and...

    Windings

    The electrical conductor used for the windings depends upon the application, but in all cases the individual turns must be electrically insulated from each other to ensure that the current travels throughout every turn. For small transformers, in which currents are low and the potential difference between adjacent turns is small, the coils are often wound from enamelled magnet wire. Larger power transformers may be wound with copper rectangular strip conductors insulated by oil-impregnated pa...

    Cooling

    It is a rule of thumb that the life expectancy of electrical insulation is halved for about every 7 °C to 10 °C increase in operating temperature (an instance of the application of the Arrhenius equation). Small dry-type and liquid-immersed transformers are often self-cooled by natural convection and radiation heat dissipation. As power ratings increase, transformers are often cooled by forced-air cooling, forced-oil cooling, water-cooling, or combinations of these. Large transformers are fil...

    Transformers can be classified in many ways, such as the following: 1. Power rating: From a fraction of a volt-ampere (VA) to over a thousand MVA. 2. Duty of a transformer: Continuous, short-time, intermittent, periodic, varying. 3. Frequency range: Power-frequency, audio-frequency, or radio-frequency. 4. Voltage class: From a few volts to hundreds of kilovolts. 5. Cooling type: Dry or liquid-immersed; self-cooled, forced air-cooled;forced oil-cooled, water-cooled. 6. Application: power supply, impedance matching, output voltage and current stabilizer, pulse, circuit isolation, power distribution, rectifier, arc furnace, amplifier output, etc.. 7. Basic magnetic form: Core form, shell form, concentric, sandwich. 8. Constant-potential transformer descriptor: Step-up, step-down, isolation. 9. General winding configuration: By IEC vector group, two-winding combinations of the phase designations delta, wye or star, and zigzag; autotransformer, Scott-T 10. Rectifier phase-shift winding c...

    Various specific electrical application designs require a variety of transformer types. Although they all share the basic characteristic transformer principles, they are customized in construction or electrical properties for certain installation requirements or circuit conditions. In electric power transmission, transformers allow transmission of electric power at high voltages, which reduces the loss due to heating of the wires. This allows generating plants to be located economically at a distance from electrical consumers.All but a tiny fraction of the world's electrical power has passed through a series of transformers by the time it reaches the consumer. In many electronic devices, a transformer is used to convert voltage from the distribution wiring to convenient values for the circuit requirements, either directly at the power line frequency or through a switch mode power supply. Signal and audio transformers are used to couple stages of amplifiers and to match devices such...

    Discovery of induction

    Electromagnetic induction, the principle of the operation of the transformer, was discovered independently by Michael Faraday in 1831 and Joseph Henry in 1832. Only Faraday furthered his experiments to the point of working out the equation describing the relationship between EMF and magnetic flux now known as Faraday's law of induction: 1. | E | = | d Φ B d t | , {\\displaystyle |{\\mathcal {E}}|=\\left|{{\\mathrm {d} \\Phi _{\\text{B}}} \\over \\mathrm {d} t}\\right|,} where | E | {\\displaystyle |{\\m...

    Induction coils

    The first type of transformer to see wide use was the induction coil, invented by Rev. Nicholas Callan of Maynooth College, Ireland in 1836. He was one of the first researchers to realize the more turns the secondary winding has in relation to the primary winding, the larger the induced secondary EMF will be. Induction coils evolved from scientists' and inventors' efforts to get higher voltages from batteries. Since batteries produce direct current (DC) rather than AC, induction coils relied...

    First alternating current transformers

    By the 1870s, efficient generators producing alternating current (AC) were available, and it was found AC could power an induction coil directly, without an interrupter. In 1876, Russian engineer Pavel Yablochkov invented a lighting system based on a set of induction coils where the primary windings were connected to a source of AC. The secondary windings could be connected to several 'electric candles'(arc lamps) of his own design. The coils Yablochkov employed functioned essentially as tran...

    Beeman, Donald, ed. (1955). Industrial Power Systems Handbook. McGraw-Hill.
    Calvert, James (2001). "Inside Transformers". University of Denver. Archived from the original on May 9, 2007. Retrieved May 19, 2007.
    Coltman, J. W. (Jan 1988). "The Transformer". Scientific American. 258 (1): 86–95. Bibcode:1988SciAm.258a..86C. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0188-86. OSTI 6851152.
    Coltman, J.W. (Jan–Feb 2002). "The Transformer [Historical Overview]". IEEE Industry Applications Magazine. 8 (1): 8–15. doi:10.1109/2943.974352. S2CID 18160717.
  10. Changhua County - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Changhua_County
    • History
    • Geography
    • Administration
    • Electoral Politics
    • Culture
    • Economy
    • Education
    • Energy
    • Tourism
    • Transportation

    Early history

    There are 32 prehistoric burial sites in Changhua that date back 5000 years. The original name of the area was Poasoa (Chinese: 半線; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Pòaⁿ-sòaⁿ; lit. 'half line'), so-named by the local indigenous tribes. Poasoa used to be inhabited primarily by the Babuza people, who have since been mostly assimilated by the Han people.

    Qing dynasty

    Qing rule in Taiwan began in 1683, and in 1684, Taiwan Prefecture was established to administer Taiwan under Fujian Province. The prefecture consisted of three counties: Taiwan County[zh], Fongshan District (Formosa)[zh] and Zhuluo. Poasoa and modern-day Changhua County were under the jurisdiction of Zhuluo, but the Changhua area was spread over three counties. In 1723, after the Zhu Yigui rebellion, an inspector official in Taiwan requested to the Qing Emperor to designate Changhua to anothe...

    Japanese rule

    During early Japanese rule, the island was subdivided into three ken(県): Taihoku, Taiwan, and Tainan. Changhua was ruled under Taiwan Ken. In 1920, after several administrative changes, Taichū Prefecture was established, covering modern-day Changhua County, Nantou County and Taichung City. By 1930, the population in Changhua already exceeded one million.

    Changhua county is located on the west coast of Taiwan, bordering Taichung City on the north separated by Dadu River, so Changhua County and Taichung City are often referred to as the Taichung–Changhua metropolitan area. Changhua County is bordered by Yunlin County to the south by the Zhuoshui River. To the east, Changhua County is separated from Nantou County and southern Taichung City by Bagua Plateau. To the west, Changhua County faces the Taiwan Strait. The County's total area is 1,074 km2 (415 sq mi), being Taiwan's smallest county. It owns a 60 km (37 mi) of coastline. The landscape of Changhua can be roughly divided into two parts, one being the western flat land, and the other being the Changhua Plain. This two combines together measures up to 88% of Changhua county's total area. The highest elevation in Changhua is "Hen Shan", at 443 m (1,453 ft).

    Changhua County is divided into 2 cities, 6 urban townships and 18 rural townships. Changhua City is the seat of the county which houses the Changhua County Government and Changhua County Council. Changhua County has the highest number of urban townships of all counties in Taiwan. It also has the second highest number of rural townships after Pingtung County. The current Magistrate of Changhua County is Wang Huei-mei of the Kuomintang.

    Changhua County, an electoral bellwether, is seen as a political battleground between the Kuomintang (KMT) and the Democratic Progressive Party(DPP). While it has historically favored the KMT, recent elections have swung in the direction of the DPP.

    Changhua County in films

    1. You Are the Apple of My Eye

    Lukang used to be the economic hub of central Taiwan in its early years where it was a commercially prosperous area. It was an important trading port during the Qing Dynasty.

    Changhua County is home to Taiwan's two gas-fired power plants, Hsingyuan Power Plant and Hsingneng Power Plant, with a capacity of 490 MW each. Both power plants are located in Lukang Township. In August 2016, the Changhua County Government signed an agreement with Canada's Northland Power and Singapore's Yushan Energy to develop "Hai Long", a 1,200 MW-capacity offshore wind generation project spread over 2,300 km2(890 sq mi) off the coast of the county. With an installed capacity of 188.5 MW from 83 onshore wind turbine, Changhua County has the largest wind energy capacity of any county, municipality or city in Taiwan. As of 2015, there were 21 offshore wind farms located in the water offshore of the county.

    Changhua was one of the cultural centers of Taiwan, with a lot of ancient monuments and structures left from the Qing Dynasty, including the Confucian Temple, Tian Ho Gung, built in Lukangin 1647. There are currently 6 National Certified Historical Monuments, 42 County Certified Historical Monuments, 67 Historical Infrastructures, and 1 Cultural Center in Changhua County.

    Rail

    There are 8 stations in Changhua County of the Taiwan Railways Administration (TRA), with the largest being Changhua Station located in Changhua City. The rest are: Huatan Station, Dacun Station, Yuanlin Station, Yongjing Station, Shetou Station, Tianzhong Station and Ershui Station. Taiwan High Speed Rail has also one station in the county, which is Changhua Station.

    Road

    National Highway 1 and National Highway 3 both pass through Changhua County. In addition, there are plenty of provincial highways as well. The Xiluo Bridge, with a span over 1,900 meters and opened in 1953, links Changhua County with neighboring Yunlin County.

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