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The Fagales are an order of flowering plants, including some of the best-known trees. The order name is derived from genus Fagus, beeches. They belong among the rosid group of dicotyledons. The anthophytes are a grouping of plant taxa bearing ...
They are trees, or sometimes shrubs, in the order Fagales. Members of this family are native to the Americas , Eurasia , and Southeast Asia . The nine or ten genera in the family have a total of around 50 species,  and include the ...
Where do the Fagales get their name from?
What are the members of the Faga family?
What kind of plant is a fabale plant?
What kind of order are the Fabales in?
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The name of the tree in Latin, fagus (from whence the generic epithet), is cognate with English "beech" and of Indo-European origin, and played an important role in early debates on the geographical origins of the Indo-European people, the beech argument. Greek φηγός is from the same root, but the word was transferred to the oak tree (e.g. Iliad 16.767) as a result of the absence of beech trees in Greece. The German word for beech is "Buche," leading to the Buchenwald concentration campreceiving its name from the beech forest that surrounded the camp.
Recent classification systems of the genus recognize 10 to 13 species in two distinct subgenera, Engleriana and Fagus. The Engleriana subgenus is found only in East Asia, and is notably distinct from the Fagus subgenus in that these beeches are low-branching trees, often made up of several major trunks with yellowish bark. Further differentiating characteristics include the whitish bloom on the underside of the leaves, the visible tertiary leaf veins, and a long, smooth cupule-peduncle. F. japonica, F. engleriana, and the species F. okamotoi, proposed by the botanist Chung-Fu Shen in 1992, comprise this subgenus. The better known Fagus subgenus beeches are high-branching with tall, stout trunks and smooth silver-grey bark. This group includes F. sylvatica, F. grandifolia, F. crenata, F. lucida, F. longipetiolata, and F. hayatae. The classification of the European beech, F. sylvatica, is complex, with a variety of different names proposed for different species and subspecies within t...
The European beech (Fagus sylvatica) is the most commonly cultivated, although few important differences are seen between species aside from detail elements such as leaf shape. The leaves of beech trees are entire or sparsely toothed, from 5–15 cm (2–6 in) long and 4–10 cm (2–4 in) broad. Beeches are monoecious, bearing both male and female flowers on the same plant. The small flowers are unisexual, the female flowers borne in pairs, the male flowers wind-pollinating catkins. They are produced in spring shortly after the new leaves appear. The bark is smooth and light grey. The fruit is a small, sharply three-angled nut 10–15 mm (3⁄8–5⁄8 in) long, borne singly or in pairs in soft-spined husks 1.5–2.5 cm (5⁄8–1 in) long, known as cupules. The husk can have a variety of spine- to scale-like appendages, the character of which is, in addition to leaf shape, one of the primary ways beeches are differentiated. The nuts are edible, with a bitter taste (though not nearly as bitter as acorns...
Britain and Ireland
Fagus sylvatica was a late entrant to Great Britain after the last glaciation, and may have been restricted to basic soils in the south of England. Some suggest that it was introduced by Neolithic tribes who planted the trees for their edible nuts. The beech is classified as a native in the south of England and as a non-native in the north where it is often removed from 'native' woods. Large areas of the Chilterns are covered with beech woods, which are habitat to the common bluebell and othe...
Fagus sylvatica is one of the most common hardwood trees in north central Europe, in France alone constituting about 15% of all nonconifers. Europe is also home to the lesser-known oriental beech (F. orientalis) and Crimean beech (F. taurica). As a naturally growing forest tree, beech marks the important border between the European deciduous forest zone and the northern pine forest zone. This border is important for wildlife and fauna. In Denmark and Scania at the southernmost peak of the Sca...
The American beech (Fagus grandifolia) occurs across much of the eastern United States and southeastern Canada, with a disjunct population in Mexico. It is the only Fagus species in the Western Hemisphere. Prior to the Pleistocene Ice Age, it is believed to have spanned the entire width of the continent from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific, but now is confined to east of the Great Plains. F. grandifoliatolerates hotter climates than European species, but is not planted much as an ornamental...
Beech grows on a wide range of soil types, acidic or basic, provided they are not waterlogged. The tree canopy casts dense shade, and carpets the ground thickly with leaf litter. In North America, they can form beech-maple climax forests by partnering with the sugar maple. The beech blight aphid (Grylloprociphilus imbricator) is a common pest of American beech trees. Beeches are also used as food plants by some species of Lepidoptera. Beech bark is extremely thin and scars easily. Since the beech tree has such delicate bark, carvings, such as lovers' initials and other forms of graffiti, remain because the tree is unable to heal itself.
Beech wood is an excellent firewood, easily split and burning for many hours with bright but calm flames. Slats of beech wood are washed in caustic soda to leach out any flavour or aroma characteristics and are spread around the bottom of fermentation tanks for Budweiser beer. This provides a complex surface on which the yeast can settle, so that it does not pile up, preventing yeast autolysis which would contribute off-flavours to the beer. Beech logs are burned to dry the malt used in German smoked beers. Beech is also used to smoke Westphalian ham, traditional andouille (an offal sausage) from Normandy,and some cheeses. Some drums are made from beech, which has a tone between those of maple and birch, the two most popular drum woods. The textile modal is a kind of rayon often made wholly from reconstituted celluloseof pulped beech wood. The European species Fagus sylvaticayields a utility timber that is tough but dimensionally unstable. It weighs about 720 kg per...Eichhorn, Markus (October 2010). "The Beech Tree". Test Tube. Brady Haran for the University of Nottingham.
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The Fagaceae are often divided into five or six subfamilies and are generally accepted to include 8 (to 10) genera (listed below). Monophyly of the Fagaceae is strongly supported by both morphological (especially fruit morphology) and moleculardata. The Southern Hemisphere genus Nothofagus, commonly the southern beeches, was historically placed in the Fagaceae sister to the genus Fagus, but recent molecular evidence suggests otherwise. While Nothofagus shares a number of common characteristics with the Fagaceae, such as cupule fruit structure, it differs significantly in a number of ways, including distinct stipule and pollen morphology, as well as having a different number of chromosomes. The currently accepted view by systematic botanists is to place Nothofagus in its own family, Nothofagaceae.Fagoideae K. KochQuercoideae Õrsted
The Fagaceae are widely distributed across the Northern Hemisphere. Genus-level diversity is concentrated in Southeast Asia, where most of the extant genera are thought to have evolved before migrating to Europe and North America (via the Bering Land Bridge). Members of the Fagaceae (such as Fagus grandifolia, Castanea dentata and Quercus alba in the Northeastern United States, or Fagus sylvatica, Quercus robur and Q. petraea in Europe) are often ecologically dominant in northern temperate forests.Flowering, 2018Acorns, 2018Family Fagaceae - diagnostic photos of many species at The Morton Arboretum
Odor Most parts of the tree including leaves, stems, and fruit huskshave a very characteristic pungent or spicy odor. This odor is lacking in the nut itself.Trunk Height 30–40 m (100–130 ft). Under forest competition, it develops a tall and straight trunk. When grown in an open area it has a short trunk and broad crown.Bark The barkis typically grey-black and deeply furrowed into thin ridges that gives the bark a diamond shaped pattern.Pith The pithof the twigs is chambered and light brown.
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Black walnut is primarily a pioneer species similar to red and silver maple and black cherry. Because of this, black walnut is a common weed tree found along roadsides, fields, and forest edges in the eastern US. It will grow in closed forests, but is classified as shade intolerant; this means it requires full sun for optimal growth and nut production. Black walnut's native range extends across much of the eastern US. It is absent from the coastal plain south of North Carolinaas well as the Mississippi Valley, and does not occur in the northern tier of the eastern US, where the frost-free season is too short for the nuts to develop. Its western range extends all the way to the eastern Great Plains, after which climate conditions become too dry for it. Black walnut is one of the most abundant trees in the eastern US, particularly the Northeast, and its numbers are increasing due to epidemics that have affected other tree species, including emerald ash borer, chestnut blight, butternu...
While its primary native region is the Midwest and east-central United States, the black walnut was introduced into Europe in 1629 and is also cultivated in Hawaii. It is cultivated there and in North America as a forest tree for its high-quality wood. Black walnut plantings can be made to produce timber, nuts, or both timber and nuts. Patented timber-type trees were selected and released from Purdue University in the early 1990s. These trees have been sporadically available from nurseries. V...
J. nigra is also grown as a specimen ornamental tree in parks and large gardens, growing to 30 m (100 ft) tall by 20 m (65 ft) broad. It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.
Black walnut nuts are edible and shelled commercially in the United States. About 65% of the annual wild harvest comes from the U.S. state of Missouri, and the largest processing plant is operated by Hammons Products in Stockton, Missouri. The nutmeats provide a robust, distinctive, natural flavor and crunch as a food ingredient. Popular uses include ice cream, bakery goods and confections. Consumers include black walnuts in traditional treats, such as cakes, cookies, fudge, and pies, during...
Black walnut drupes contain juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone), plumbagin (yellow quinone pigments), and tannin. These compounds cause walnuts to stain cars, sidewalks, porches, and patios, in addition to the hands of anyone attempting to shell them.The brownish-black dye was used by early American settlers to dye hair.[better source needed] According to Eastern Trees in the Petersen Guide series, black walnuts make a yellowish-brown dye, not brownish-black. The apparent confusion is easi...
Walnut shells are often used as an abrasive in sand blasting or other circumstances where a medium hardness grit is required. The hard black walnut shell is also used commercially in abrasive cleaning, a filtering agent in scrubbers in smoke stacks, cleaning jet engines, cosmetics, and oil well drilling and water filtration.
Maggots (larvae of Rhagoletis completa and Rhagoletis suavis) in the husk are common, though more a nuisance than a serious problem for amateurs, who may simply remove the affected husk as soon as infestation is noticed. The maggots develop entirely within the husk, thus the quality of the nutmeat is not affected. However, infestations of maggots are undesirable because they make the husk difficult to remove and are unsightly. Maggots can be serious for commercial walnut growers, who tend to use chemical treatments to prevent damage to the crop.Some non-chemical controls also exist, such as removing and disposing of infested nuts. The walnut weevil (Conotrachelus retentus) grows to 5 millimetres (3⁄16in) long as an adult. The adult sucks plant juices through a snout. The eggs are laid in fruits in the spring and summer. Many nuts are lost due to damage from the larvae, which burrow through the nut shell. Black walnut is affected by European canker (Neonectria galligena). The infecti...
Black walnut is allelopathic, as it excretes chemicals into its environment that harm competition. While many species of plants are allelopathic, walnuts are particularly famous for it, records of walnut toxicity to other plants have been observed as far back as the first century when Pliny the Elder wrote: "The shadow of walnut trees is poison to all plants within its compass." Walnuts have since been observed as being toxic to many plants including herbaceous and woody plants. Like other walnuts, the roots, inner bark, nut husks, and leaves contain a nontoxic chemical called hydrojuglone, when exposed to air or soil compounds it is oxidized into juglone that is biologically active and acts as a respiratory inhibitor to some plants. Juglone is poorly soluble in water and does not move far in the soil and will stay most concentrated in the soil directly beneath the tree. Even after a tree is removed the soil where the roots once were will still contain juglone for several years afte...
The US national champion black walnut is on a residential property on Sauvie Island, Oregon. It is 8 ft 7 in (2.62 m) diameter at breast heightand 112 ft (34 m) tall, with a crown spread of 144 feet (44 m). The tallest black walnut in Europe is located in the Woluwe Park in the city of Sint-Pieters-Woluwe, Brussels, Belgium. It has a circumference of 3.50 m (11 ft 6 in), height of exactly 33.60 m (110.2 ft) (measured by laser), and was planted around 1850 (± 10 years). The largest black walnut in Europe is located in the Castle Park in the city of Sereď, Slovakia. It has a circumference of 6.30 m (20 ft 8 in), height of 25 m (82 ft) and estimated age of 300 years.Hoadley, B. (1990). Identifying Wood: Accurate Results with Simple Tools. Taunton Press. p. 240 pages. ISBN 0-942391-04-7.Petrides, G. A. and Wehr, J. (1998). Eastern Trees. Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-395-90455-2Little, Elbert L. (1980) National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Trees: Eastern Edition. Borzoi Books. ISBN 0-394-50760-6