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  1. "World Hypotheses: A Study in Evidence, by Stephen C. Pepper (1942), presents four relatively adequate world hypotheses (or world views or conceptual systems) in terms of their root metaphors: formism (similarity), mechanism (machine), contextualism (historical act), and organicism (living system).

  2. The original ATCA -- Asymmetric Threats Contingency Alliance -- is a philanthropic expert initiative founded in 2001 to resolve complex global challenges through collective Socratic dialogue and joint executive action to build a wisdom based global economy.

  3. Incas. From the Wikipedia: "The term 'ayllu' refers to a grouping of indigenous people of South America and has been translated as clan. The term represents a group based on assumed blood-ties which operates as an economic and social unit. The Inca Empire was essentially a number of Andean ayllus controlled by a few Inca ayllus.

  4. Description. "A well-researched and fascinating profile of Bram Cohen, the writer of the most disruptive technology of the period, the BitTorrent code. The profile outlines his past, his Asperger syndrome, and why the Moving Picture Association is not after him, despite Bittorrent movie downloads costing them 4% of total revenue.

  5. 需要什么来推动该点对点模式的出现呢? 首要的要求是技术基础结构的存在,该技术基础结构在点对点的模式上运行,并允许“对‘固定’资本进行分布式访问”。 个人计算机,一种能够执行任何逻辑任务的通用机器,是分布式“固定资本”的一种形式。 对于许多生产者来说,这在较低成本下就可以获得。 因特网,作为一种点对点的网络,就是为在终端(电脑用户)进行参与而设计的,而不必使用必需的网络集线器。 尽管它并没有完全在其参与者的控制之下,但是它通过分布式管理进行控制,并且在特定私人或政府参与者的完整权力之外。 其分级原理(如叠层式IP协议,分散式域名系统等等)不会阻止用户的参与。 可以自我复制的通信装置,或网络,是因特网的逻辑扩展。

  6. Eric Chaisson defines Free Energy Rate Density – indicated with the symbol Φm – as the amount of energy per second that flows through a certain mass (free energy is energy able to perform useful tasks; this means an energy differential exists that can be tapped).

  7. Pastry nodes form a decentralized, self-organizing and fault-tolerant overlay network within the Internet. Pastry provides efficient request routing, deterministic object location, and load balancing in an application-independent manner.