The Taiwan Cooperative Bank (TCB; Chinese: 合作金庫銀行; pinyin: Hézuò Jīnkù Yínháng; Pe h-ōe-jī: Ha p-chok Kim-khò Gîn-hâng) is a publicly listed bank headquartered in Taipei, Taiwan.Originally formed by the Japanese during Japanese rule in ...
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Before IBAN, differing national standards for bank account identification (i.e. bank, branch, routing codes, and account number) were confusing for some users. This often led to necessary routing information being missing from payments. Routing information as specified by ISO 9362(also known as Business Identifier Codes (BIC code), SWIFT ID or SWIFT code, and SWIFT-BIC) does not require a specific format for the transaction so the identification of accounts and transaction types is left to agreements of the transaction partners. It also does not contain check digits, so errors of transcription were not detectable and it was not possible for a sending bank to validate the routing information prior to submitting the payment. Routing errors caused delayed payments and incurred extra costs to the sending and receiving banks and often to intermediate routing banks. In 1997, to overcome these difficulties, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) published ISO 13616:1997....
The IBAN consists of up to 34 alphanumeric characters, as follows: 1. country code using ISO 3166-1 alpha-2– two letters, 2. check digits– two digits, and 3. Basic Bank Account Number (BBAN) – up to 30 alphanumeric characters that are country-specific. The check digits represent the checksumof the bank account number which is used by banking systems to confirm that the number contains no simple errors. IBAN is traditionally expressed in groups of four characters separated by spaces, the last group being of variable length as shown in the example below; when transmitted electronically, spaces are omitted. Permitted IBAN characters are the digits 0 to 9 and the 26 Latin alphabetic characters A to Z.This applies even in countries where these characters are not used in the national language (e.g., Thailand).
One of the design aims of the IBAN was to enable as much validation as possible to be done at the point of data entry.In particular, the computer program that accepts an IBAN will be able to validate: 1. Country code 2. Number of characters in the IBAN correspond to the number specified for the country code 3. BBAN format specified for the country code 4. Account number, bank code and country code combination is compatible with the check digits The check digits are calculated using MOD-97-10 as per ISO/IEC 7064:2003 (abbreviated to mod-97in this article), which specifies a set of check character systems capable of protecting strings against errors which occur when people copy or key data. In particular, the standard states that the following can be detected: 1. All single substitution errors (the substitution of a single character for another, for example 4234 for 1234) 2. All or nearly all single (local) transposition errors (the transposition of two single characters, either adjac...
International bank transactions use either an IBAN or the ISO 9362 Business Identifier Code system (BIC or SWIFTcode) in conjunction with the BBAN (Basic Bank Account Number).
There have been a number of complaints on social media that certain world-wide organisations such as PayPalwere unable to cope with the length of the IBAN when it became mandatory in parts of Europe. Bank details like IBAN can be used to make a payment without the owner permission if enough information is known about the owner. This issue happened to the journalist Jeremy Clarkson, when a direct debitto a charity was set up.
- Modern Practices
- Usage in The United States
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- Further Reading
Merchant banks were in fact the first modern banks. They emerged in the Middle Ages from the Italian grain and cloth merchants community and started to develop in the 11th century during the large European fair of St. Giles (England), then at the Champagne fairs (France). As the Lombardy merchants and bankers grew in stature based on the strength of the Lombard plains cereal crops, many displaced Jews fleeing Spanish persecution were attracted to the trade. The Florentine merchant banking community was exceptionally active and propagated new finance practices all over Europe. Both Jews and Florentine merchants perfected ancient practices used in the Middle East trade routes and the Far East silk routes. Originally intended for the finance of long trading journeys, these methods were applied to finance the medieval "commercial revolution". In France during the 17th and 18th century, a merchant banker or marchand-banquier was not just considered a trader but also received the status o...
Known as "accepting and issuing houses" in the UK and "investment banks" in the US, modern merchant banks offer a wide range of activities: issue management, portfolio management, credit syndication, acceptance credit, counsel on mergers and acquisitions, insurance, etc. Of the two classes of merchant banks, the US variant initiates loans and then sells them to investors. These investors can be private investment firms. Even though some of these companies call themselves "merchant banks", they have few, if any, of the characteristics of former merchant banks.
Today, according to the US Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), "the term merchant banking is generally understood to mean negotiated private equity investment by financial institutions in the unregistered securities of either privately or publicly held companies." Both commercial banks and investment banksmay engage in merchant banking activities.Ferris, Paul (1984). Gentlemen of Fortune: The World's Merchant and Investment Bankers. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-78380-7.Wechsberg, Joseph (1966). The Merchant Bankers. Boston: Little, Brown.O'Sullivan, M.D. (1962). Italian Merchant Bankers in Ireland in the Thirteenth Century: A Study in the Social and Economic History of Medieval Ireland. Dublin: A. Figgis.Rosenbaum, Eduard (1962). M.M.Warburg & CO, Merchant Bankers of Hamburg; A Survey of the First 140 years, 1798 to 1938. London.
Taiwan was joined to the Asian mainland in the Late Pleistocene, until sea levels rose about 10,000 years ago. Fragmentary human remains dated 20,000 to 30,000 years ago have been found on the island, as well as later artifacts of a paleolithic ...
- Corporate Affairs and Identity
- in Popular Culture
- Accidents and Incidents
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ANA's earliest ancestor was Japan Helicopter and Aeroplane Transports Company(日本ヘリコプター輸送, Nippon Herikoputā Yusō) (also known as Nippon Helicopter and Aeroplane), an airline company founded on 27 December 1952. Nippon Helicopter was the source of what would later be ANA's International Air Transport Association (IATA) airline code, NH. NH began helicopter services in February 1953. On 15 December 1953, it operated its first cargo flight between Osaka and Tokyo using a de Havilland Dove, JA500...
ANA grew through the 1960s, adding the Vickers Viscount to the fleet in 1960 and the Fokker F27 in 1961. October 1961 marked ANA's debut on the Tokyo Stock Exchange as well as the Osaka Securities Exchange. 1963 saw another merger, with Fujita Airlines, raising the company's capital to 4.65 billion yen. In 1965 ANA introduced jets with Boeing 727s on the Tokyo-Sapporo route. It also introduced Japan's first homegrown turboprop airliner, the NAMC YS-11 in 1965, replacing Convair 440s on local...
In 1986, ANA began to expand beyond Japan's key domestic carrier to become a competitive international carrier as well. On 3 March 1986, ANA started scheduled international flights with a passenger service from Tokyo to Guam. Flights to Los Angeles and Washington, D.C., followed by year's end, and ANA also entered a service agreement with American Airlines to feed the US carrier's new flights to Narita. ANA expanded its international services gradually: to Beijing, Dalian, Hong Kong and Sydne...
All Nippon Airways is headquartered at the Shiodome City Center in the Shiodome area in Minato, Tokyo, Japan. In the late 1960s ANA had its headquarters in the Hikokan Building in Shinbashi, Minato. From the 1970s through the late 1990s All Nippon Airways was headquartered in the Kasumigaseki Building in Chiyoda, Tokyo. Before moving into its current headquarters, ANA had its headquarters on the grounds of Tokyo International Airport in Ōta, Tokyo. In 2002 ANA announced that it was taking up...
ANA Group is a group of companies which are wholly or primarily owned by ANA. It comprises the following: Commercial aviation 1. Air Japan 2. ANA Wings 3. Air Do(major shareholder) 4. Peach(largest shareholder) 5. Philippine Airlines(9.5% shareholder) 6. Vietnam Airlines(8.8% shareholder) 7. IFTA(Flight Training Academy training pilots for ANA Group airlines and other worldwide airlines by contract) 8. Pan Am International Flight Academy General aviation 1. All Nippon Helicopter (dedicated fo...
As of May 2021, ANA operates a fleet of 6 freighter aircraft, Including 4 Boeing 767-300ER(BCF) and 2 Boeing 777F.ANA's freighters operate on 18 international routes and 6 domestic routes. ANA operates an overnight cargo hub at Naha Airport in Okinawa, which receives inbound freighter flights from key destinations in Japan, China and Southeast Asia between 1 and 4 a.m., followed by return flights between 4 and 6 a.m., allowing overnight service between these regional hubs as well as onward co...
ANA has an extensive domestic route network that covers the entirety of Japan, from Hokkaido in the north to Okinawa in the south. ANA's international route network extends through China, Korea, India, Southeast Asia, Canada, United States, Mexico, Australia, and Western Europe. Its key international hub is Narita International Airport, where it shares the South Wing of Terminal 1 with its Star Alliancepartners. ANA's international network currently focuses on business destinations; its only remaining "resort" routes are its routes from Haneda and Narita to Honolulu; past resort routes such as Narita-Guam, Kansai-Honolulu and Nagoya-Honolulu have been cancelled, although ANA plans to expand resort service in the future through its low-cost subsidiary Peach Aviation.
On 31 July 2014, ANA firmed up orders for 7 Airbus A320neos, 23 Airbus A321neos, 20 Boeing 777-9Xs, 14 Boeing 787-9s and 6 Boeing 777-300ERs, to be used for its short and long-haul fleet renewal. Boeing valued ANA's order at approximately $13 billion at list prices. On 2 February 2015, ANA placed orders with Airbus and Boeing worth $2.2bn for three Boeing 787-10s, five Boeing 737-800s and seven Airbus A321s. In late July 2015, ANA entered into a secret agreement with Airbus to make additional...
The ANA former "Mohican" livery consists of a blue and white colour scheme painted as strip sections on the fuselage, with a blue vertical stabilizer with the former ANA logo. All aircraft wearing this livery are either retired or repainted. In 2010, one Boeing 767-300 was repainted in this livery.
The current "Triton blue" livery has a white and grey fuselage, with a blue strip painted under the windows. The ANA logo and their slogan "Inspiration of Japan" is painted on top of the windows. The vertical stabilizer is painted blue with the word ANA painted sideways.
Many Aircraft in ANA operates in special liveriesthrough the years: 1. Six jets in Star Alliancelivery: two Boeing 777-200s, one Boeing 777-300ER, one Boeing 767-300ER, one Boeing 737-800 and one Boeing 787-9 2. Five Pokémon-themed jets: three Boeing 747-400s, one Boeing 767-300 and one Boeing 777-300 3. Four Star Wars-themed jets: one Boeing 787-9 in an R2-D2 livery; one Boeing 777-300ER in a BB-8 livery; one Boeing 767-300ER in a mixed R2-D2 and BB-8 livery; and one Boeing 777-200ER in a C-...
Introduced in 2009, the "Inspiration of Japan" cabin features included fully-lie-flat-bed business class seats, nearly enclosed first class suite seats, fixed shell back seats in both of its economy classes, a new AVOD in-flight entertainment system (based on Panasonic Avionics Corporation's eX2 IFE system with iPodconnectivity, in-seat shopping and meal ordering as well as cabin touchscreen consoles) as well as improvements to its in-flight service. ANA will also introduce a new lounge (whic...
ANA's inflight magazine is named Wingspan and is available both on board and as a freely downloadable application for Apple's iPad. The iPad version is named 'Virtual Airport' and includes content from Wingspan as well as links to airline booking and online check-in pages.
Bus shuttle services
Previously ANA had a dedicated shuttle bus from Düsseldorf to Frankfurt Airportso passengers may board ANA flights at that airport, but the bus service was discontinued after ANA began its dedicated Düsseldorf flights in 2014.ANA sponsored the film Happy Flight, which is about a co-pilot and flight attendant on an ANA flight to Hawaii.ANA was featured in Miss Pilot, a Japanese television drama about a female pilot.ANA sponsored the Japanese television drama Good Luck!!, which is about a group of airline crew members. The series starred Takuya Kimura, Shinichi Tsutsumi and Kou Shibasaki.The title for All Nippon Air Line, a Josei manga by Kei Azumaya that was inspired by All Nippon Airways.On 12 August 1958, Flight 025, a Douglas DC-3 (JA5045), crashed 17 km (11 mi) off Toshima, one hour after takeoff from Tokyo en route to Nagoya, killing all 33 on board.In 1958, dynamitewas planted in a Douglas DC-3 by Akira Emoto, a candy salesman, as part of a suicide plan. Emoto killed himself by leaping from the aircraft and the bombs failed to detonate.On 16 March 1960, Douglas DC-3 JA5018 was taxiing after landing at Nagoya-Komaki International Airport when North American F-86D Sabre 94-8137 of the Japan Air Self-Defense Force(JASDF) collided wi...On 12 June 1961, Vickers Viscount G-APKJ was written off when the starboard undercarriage collapsed following a heavy landing at Osaka Itami Airport.
- Legal Implications
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Escrow generally refers to money held by a third party on behalf of transacting parties. It is mostly used regarding the purchase of shares of a company. It is best known in the United States in the context of the real estate industry (specifically in mortgages where the mortgage company establishes an escrow account to pay property tax and insurance during the term of the mortgage).[unreliable source?]Escrow is an account separate from the mortgage account where deposit of funds occurs for payment of certain conditions that apply to the mortgage, usually property taxes and insurance. The escrow agent has the duty to properly account for the escrow funds and ensure that usage of funds is explicitly for the purpose intended. Since a mortgage lender is not willing to take the risk that a homeowner may not pay property tax, escrow is usually required under the mortgage terms. Escrow companies are also commonly used in the transfer of high value personal and business property, like webs...
Not all escrow agreements impose the duties of a legal trustee on the escrow agent, and in many such agreements, escrow agents are held to a mere gross negligence standard and benefit from indemnity and hold harmlessprovisions. If the escrow agent is licensed by governmental authority[where?], then much higher legal standards may apply."FAQs About Escrow Accounts for Consumers". U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. 2005-06-20. Archived from the original on 2007-04-03. Retrieved 2007-04-12."Escrow recommended for online and Bitcoin transactions". U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. 2013-06-20. Archived from the originalon 2006-06-30.
The ARM architectures used in smartphones, PDAs and other mobile devices range from ARMv5 to ARMv8-A. In 2009, some manufacturers introduced netbooks based on ARM architecture CPUs, in direct competition with netbooks based on Intel Atom. Arm ...
- Further Reading
- External Links
Microsoft Edge is the default web browser on Windows 10, Windows 10 Mobile, Windows 11, Xbox One, and Xbox Series X and Series S consoles, replacing Internet Explorer 11 and Internet Explorer Mobile. As its development and release is dependent on the model of Windows as a service, it is not included in Windows 10 Enterprise Long-Term Servicing Channel (LTSC) builds. Microsoft initially announced that Edge would support the legacy Trident(MSHTML) layout engine for backwards compatibility, but later said that, due to "strong feedback," Edge would use a new engine, while Internet Explorer would continue to provide the legacy engine. Favorites, reading list, browsing history and downloads are viewed at the Hub, a sidebarproviding functionality similar to Internet Explorer's Downloads manager and Favorites Center. Edge features a PDF reader and supports asm.js. Until January 2021, Edge also featured an integrated Adobe Flash Player (with an internal whitelist allowing Flash applets on Fa...
In December 2014, writing for ZDNet, technology writer Mary Jo Foley reported that Microsoft was developing a new web browser codenamed "Spartan" for Windows 10. She said that "Spartan" would be treated as a new product separate from Internet Explorer, with Internet Explorer 11 retained alongside it for compatibility. In early January 2015, The Verge obtained further details surrounding "Spartan" from sources close to Microsoft, including reports that it would replace Internet Explorer on bot...
On December 6, 2018, Microsoft announced its intent to base Edge on the Chromium source code, using the same rendering engine as Google Chrome but with enhancements developed by Microsoft. It was also announced that there will be versions of Edge available for Windows 7, Windows 8 and macOS, plus that all versions will be updated on a more frequent basis. According to Microsoft executive Joe Belfiore, the decision for the change came after CEO Satya Nadellatold the team in 2017 that the produ...
In an August 2015 review of Windows 10 by Dan Grabham of TechRadar, Microsoft Edge was praised for its performance, despite not being in a feature-complete state at launch. Andrew Cunningham of Ars Technica praised the browser for being "tremendously promising" and "a much better browser than Internet Explorer ever was" but criticized it for its lack of functionality on launch. Thom Holwerda of OSNewscriticized Edge in August 2015 for its hidden URL bar, lack of user friendliness, poor design and a tab system that is "so utterly broken it should never have shipped in a final release". He described the browser's implemented features as "some sort of cosmic joke", saying that "infuriating doesn't even begin to describe it". Data from August 2015, a few weeks after release, showed that user uptake of Edge was low, with only 2% of overall computer users using the new browser. Among Windows 10 users usage peaked at 20% and then dropped to 14% through August 2015. In October 2015, a secur...
Weber, Jason (January 22, 2015). "Project Spartan and the Windows 10 January Preview Build". IEBlog. Microsoft.Microsoft Edge Team (April 22, 2020). "Microsoft Edge and Chromium Open Source: Our Intent"."Microsoft Edge open source projects - demos, tools, data". GitHub.
- Internationalized URL
- protocol-relative URLs
- External Links
Uniform Resource Locators were defined in RFC 1738 in 1994 by Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the World Wide Web, and the URI working group of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), as an outcome of collaboration started at the IETF Living Documents birds of a feathersession in 1992. The format combines the pre-existing system of domain names (created in 1985) with file path syntax, where slashes are used to separate directory and filenames. Conventions already existed where server names could be prefixed to complete file paths, preceded by a double slash (//). Berners-Lee later expressed regret at the use of dots to separate the parts of the domain name within URIs, wishing he had used slashes throughout,and also said that, given the colon following the first component of a URI, the two slashes before the domain name were unnecessary. An early (1993) draft of the HTML Specification referred to "Universal" Resource Locators. This was dropped some time between June 1994 (RFC 16...
Every HTTP URL conforms to the syntax of a generic URI. The URI generic syntax consists of a hierarchical sequence of five components: where the authority component divides into three subcomponents: This is represented in a syntax diagramas: The URI comprises: 1. A non-empty scheme component followed by a colon (:), consisting of a sequence of characters beginning with a letter and followed by any combination of letters, digits, plus (+), period (.), or hyphen (-). Although schemes are case-insensitive, the canonical form is lowercase and documents that specify schemes must do so with lowercase letters. Examples of popular schemes include http, https, ftp, mailto, file, data, and irc. URI schemes should be registered with the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), although non-registered schemes are used in practice.[b] 2. An optional authority component preceded by two slashes (//), comprising: 2.1. An optional userinfo subcomponent that may consist of a user name and an optio...
Internet users are distributed throughout the world using a wide variety of languages and alphabets and expect to be able to create URLs in their own local alphabets. An Internationalized Resource Identifier (IRI) is a form of URL that includes Unicode characters. All modern browsers support IRIs. The parts of the URL requiring special treatment for different alphabets are the domain name and path. The domain name in the IRI is known as an Internationalized Domain Name (IDN). Web and Internet software automatically convert the domain name into punycode usable by the Domain Name System; for example, the Chinese URL http://例子.卷筒纸 becomes http://xn--fsqu00a.xn--3lr804guic/. The xn--indicates that the character was not originally ASCII. The URL path name can also be specified by the user in the local writing system. If not already encoded, it is converted to UTF-8, and any characters not part of the basic URL character set are escaped as hexadecimal using percent-encoding; for example,...
Protocol-relative links (PRL), also known as protocol-relative URLs (PRURL), are URLs that have no protocol specified. For example, //example.comwill use the protocol of the current page, typically HTTP or HTTPS.URL specification at WHATWGThe Components of a URL from IBM
- Types of Members
- Pension Handbook
- Monthly Contributions
- Payment Difficulties
- Recovery of Past Exempted Contributions
- Pension Benefits Offered by The National Pension System
- Lump-Sum Withdrawal Payments
- Social Security Agreements
- Financial Status
In 1942 the Workers Pension Insurance Act was enacted, and in 1944 the name was changed to Employees' Pension Insurance Act. It was amended substantially in 1954, and in 1961 the National Pension Act created universal pension coverage for residents of Japan.
(This is also described under Social Welfare in Japan) 1. Category 1 – All registered residents of Japan who are aged between 20 and 60 years old, but do not fit into either category 2 or 3 (i.e. typically the unemployed, self-employed, or employees of very small companies). People in this category should go to the National Pension counter at their local municipal office. (People in this category are enrolled in the national health insurancescheme). 2. Category 2 – Workers who are enrolled by their employer in Employees Pension schemes (such as the Kigyō Nenkin Rengōkai(企業年金連合会) Pension Fund Association, successor to Kōsei Nenkin(厚生年金)), or Mutual Aid association (such as the Shigaku Kyōsai(私学共済) Private School Mutual Aid Association). These pension contributions include the basic national pension. Pension contributions are deducted from the workers' salary by the employer. (People in this category are enrolled in an employee health insurancescheme). 3. Category 3– People aged betwe...
Once a person has enrolled in the national pension they will receive a pension handbook with a social security number, which serves as proof of identity. If the pension handbook is lost, Category 1 members can apply at the local municipal office for it to be reissued. Category 2 members can ask their employer or the local Japan Pension Service office. Category 3 members must ask through the employer of the Category 2 member on whom they are financially dependent.
The monthly contribution amount for the national pension from April 2019 to March 2020 is ¥16,410. Contribution for each month must be paid by the end of the following month. Contributions can be paid at banks, post offices, or convenience stores, as well as by bank transfer or online.
If members have trouble paying due to low income or other reasons they should apply for exemption from contribution payments at their local municipal office. The pension office will examine their previous year's income and other factors and may give a total or partial exemption from payments. Failure to make partial payments after an arrangement has been made will be regarded as non-payment rather than partial exemption. Periods of non-payment may not be included in calculating the old-age basic pension that the member will receive in the future. In addition, non-paying members will not be entitled to the disability basic pension and survivors basic pension in the case of unexpected circumstances. People in their 20s can use the contribution postponement system for low-income youth. Students can use the special payment system for students. Generally speaking, students at Japanese schools overseas are not eligible for the special payment system for students.
Payments making up for payments that the member was exempted from in the past can be made for up to 10 years afterwards. If they are brought fully up to date, the members old age basic pension will be calculated in the same manner as for full contribution payments.
Old age basic pension– Pension benefits are paid from age 65 to persons who satisfy certain conditions, such as having paid their national pension contributions for 10 years or more. The benefit am...
Foreign residents who have contributed to the national pension for 6 months or more (not including as category 2 or 3 members) and who have not contributed for 10 years, can claim a lump-sum withdrawal payment within two years of leaving Japan. However, even if a Japanese or foreign resident has not contributed for 10 years, if their country has a reciprocal social security agreement with Japan, some such agreements allow the number of years of contributions in both countries to be totalize in determining eligibility. Even if there is no such reciprocal agreement, they may be able to receive a pension based on kara kikan(カラ期間)(period spent outside Japan after age 20) if they become permanent residents before the age of 65. The amount of the lump-sum withdrawal depends on the number of months that contributions were paid for: The total contribution period paid period is calculated as follows:Total number of months paid + (number of months of one-quarter contribution paid × 0.25) + (n...
Some countries have concluded bilateral agreements with Japan to eliminate dual coverage in pension systems and allow enrollment periods in foreign pension system to be counted when calculating eligibility and benefits to be paid.Social Security (mandatory health insurance, employment insurance, and pension contribution) payments by employees are typically about ¥40,000 per month.
In fiscal year2011 the National Pension program recorded a surplus of ¥198 billion. This was the third consecutive year that it had been profitable.