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  1. Communication - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communication
    • Non-Verbal Communication
    • Verbal Communication
    • Written Communication and Its Historical Development
    • Business/Corporate
    • Political
    • Family
    • Interpersonal
    • Barriers to Effectiveness
    • Nonhuman
    • Models

    Nonverbal communication explains the processes of conveying a type of information in a form of non-linguistic representations. Examples of nonverbal communication include haptic communication, chronemic communication, gestures, body language, facial expressions, eye contact etc. Nonverbal communication also relates to the intent of a message. Examples of intent are voluntary, intentional movements like shaking a hand or winking, as well as involuntary, such as sweating. Speech also contains nonverbal elements known as paralanguage, e.g. rhythm, intonation, tempo, and stress. It affects communication most at the subconscious level and establishes trust. Likewise, written texts include nonverbal elements such as handwriting style, the spatial arrangement of words and the use of emoticonsto convey emotion. Nonverbal communication demonstrates one of Paul Watzlawick's laws: you cannot not communicate. Once proximity has formed awareness, living creatures begin interpreting any signals r...

    Verbal communication is the spoken or written conveyance of a message. Human language can be defined as a system of symbols (sometimes known as lexemes) and the grammars (rules) by which the symbols are manipulated. The word "language" also refers to common properties of languages. Language learning normally occurs most intensively during human childhood. Most of the large number of human languages use patterns of sound or gesture for symbols which enable communication with others around them. Languages tend to share certain properties, although there are exceptions. Constructed languages such as Esperanto, programming languages, and various mathematical formalisms are not necessarily restricted to the properties shared by human languages. As previously mentioned, language can be characterized as symbolic. Charles Ogden and I.A Richards developed The Triangle of Meaning model to explain the symbol (the relationship between a word), the referent (the thing it describes), and the mean...

    Over time the forms of and ideas about communication have evolved through the continuing progression of technology. Advances include communications psychology and media psychology, an emerging field of study. The progression of written communication can be divided into three "information communication revolutions": 1. Written communication first emerged through the use of pictographs. The pictogramswere made in stone, hence written communication was not yet mobile. Pictograms began to develop standardized and simplified forms. 2. The next step occurred when writing began to appear on paper, papyrus, clay, wax, and other media with commonly shared writing systems, leading to adaptable alphabets. Communication became mobile. 3. The final stage is characterized by the transfer of information through controlled waves of electromagnetic radiation (i.e., radio, microwave, infrared) and other electronic signals. Communication is thus a process by which meaning is assigned and conveyed in a...

    Business communication is used for a wide variety of activities including, but not limited to: strategic communications planning, media relations, internal communications, public relations (which can include social media, broadcast and written communications, and more), brand management, reputation management, speech-writing, customer-client relations, and internal/employee communications. Companies with limited resources may choose to engage in only a few of these activities, while larger organizations may employ a full spectrum of communications. Since it is relatively difficult to develop such a broad range of skills, communications professionals often specialize in one or two of these areas but usually have at least a working knowledge of most of them. By far, the most important qualifications communications professionals must possess are excellent writing ability, good 'people' skills, and the capacity to think critically and strategically. Business communication could also ref...

    Communication is one of the most relevant tools in political strategies, including persuasion and propaganda. In mass mediaresearch and online media research, the effort of the strategist is that of getting a precise decoding, avoiding "message reactance", that is, message refusal. The reaction to a message is referred also in terms of approach to a message, as follows: 1. In "radical reading" the audience rejects the meanings, values, and viewpoints built into the text by its makers. Effect: message refusal. 2. In "dominant reading", the audience accepts the meanings, values, and viewpoints built into the text by its makers. Effect: message acceptance. 3. In "subordinate reading" the audience accepts, by and large, the meanings, values, and worldview built into the text by its makers. Effect: obey to the message. Holistic approaches are used by communication campaign leaders and communication strategists in order to examine all the options, "actors" and channels that can generate c...

    Family communication is the study of the communication perspective in a broadly defined family, with intimacy and trusting relationship.The main goal of family communication is to understand the interactions of family and the pattern of behaviors of family members in different circumstances. Open and honest communication creates an atmosphere that allows family members to express their differences as well as love and admiration for one another. It also helps to understand the feelings of one another. Family communication study looks at topics such as family rules, family roles or family dialectics and how those factors could affect the communication between family members. Researchers develop theories to understand communication behaviors. Family communication study also digs deep into certain time periods of family life such as marriage, parenthood or divorce and how communication stands in those situations. It is important for family members to understand communication as a truste...

    In simple terms, interpersonal communication is the communication between one person and another (or others). It is often referred to as face-to-face communication between two (or more) people. Both verbal and nonverbal communication, or body language, play a part in how one person understands another, and attribute to one's own soft skills. In verbal interpersonal communication there are two types of messages being sent: a content message and a relational message. Content messages are messages about the topic at hand and relational messages are messages about the relationship itself. This means that relational messages come across in howone says something and it demonstrates a person's feelings, whether positive or negative, towards the individual they are talking to, indicating not only how they feel about the topic at hand, but also how they feel about their relationship with the other individual. There are many different aspects of interpersonal communicationincluding: 1. Audiov...

    Barriers to effective communication can retard or distort the message or intention of the message being conveyed. This may result in failure of the communication process or cause an effect that is undesirable. These include filtering, selective perception, information overload, emotions, language, silence, communication apprehension, gender differences and political correctness. This also includes a lack of expressing "knowledge-appropriate" communication, which occurs when a person uses ambiguous or complex legal words, medical jargon, or descriptions of a situation or environment that is not understood by the recipient. 1. Physical barriers– Physical barriers are often due to the nature of the environment. An example of this is the natural barrier which exists when workers are located in different buildings or on different sites. Likewise, poor or outdated equipment, particularly the failure of management to introduce new technology, may also cause problems. Staff shortages are an...

    Every information exchange between living organisms — i.e. transmission of signals that involve a living sender and receiver can be considered a form of communication; and even primitive creatures such as corals are competent to communicate. Nonhuman communication also include cell signaling, cellular communication, and chemical transmissions between primitive organisms like bacteria and within the plant and fungalkingdoms.

    The first major model for communication was introduced by Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver for Bell Laboratories in 1949 The original model was designed to mirror the functioning of radio and telephone technologies. Their initial model consisted of three primary parts: sender, channel, and receiver. The sender was the part of a telephone a person spoke into, the channel was the telephone itself, and the receiver was the part of the phone where one could hear the other person. Shannon and Weaver also recognized that often there is static that interferes with one listening to a telephone conversation, which they deemed noise. In a simple model, often referred to as the transmission model or standard view of communication, information or content (e.g. a message in natural language) is sent in some form (as spoken language) from an emitter (emisorin the picture)/sender/encoder to a destination/receiver/decoder. This common conception of communication simply views communication as a mean...

  2. Spider-Man and His Amazing Friends - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spider-Man_and_his_Amazing_Friends
    • Broadcast Schedule
    • Storyline
    • Original Characters
    • Cast
    • Crew
    • Marvel Mash-Up
    • Home Release
    • Instant Streaming
    • Reception
    • Comics

    Originally broadcast on NBC as a Saturday morning cartoon, the series ran first-run original episodes for three seasons, from 1981 to 1983, then aired repeats for an additional two years (from 1984 to 1986). Alongside the 1981 Spider-Man animated series, Amazing Friends was later re-aired in the late 1980s as part of the 90 minute Marvel Action Universe (not to be confused with 1977's The Marvel Action Universe), a syndicated series that was used as a platform for old and new Marvel-produced animated fare (the newer programming featured RoboCop: The Animated Series, Dino-Riders and on occasion "X-Men: Pryde of the X-Men", which was intended to serve as a pilot for a potential X-Men animated series). Toei Animation, and Daewon Mediacontributed some of the animation for this series.

    Peter Parker (Spider-Man), Bobby Drake (Iceman), and Angelica Jones (Firestar) are all college students at Empire State University. After working together to defeat the Beetle and recovering the "Power Booster" he stole from Tony Stark (a.k.a. Iron Man) the trio decide to team-up permanently as the "Spider-Friends". They live together in Peter's aunt's home with her and a pet dog, Ms. Lion (adopted from Firestar), a Lhasa Apso. Together, the superheroes battle various supervillains. Some stories featured team-ups with other characters from the Marvel Universe, including Captain America, Thor, Iron Man, Sunfire, and the mid-1970's X-Men.

    A number of characters in the series were original characters that did not appear in the comics prior to the premiere of the series:

    Credited cast

    1. Hans Conried - Chameleon 2. Jerry Dexter - Sunfire 3. George DiCenzo - Captain America, Lance Macho, Kraven the Hunter (in "The Crime of All Centuries"), Cyclops(in "The X-Men Adventure") 4. Alan Dinehart- Boris, Sam Blockbuster, Helicopter Pilot (in "Triumph of the Green Goblin"), Norman Osborn's Pilot (in "Triumph of the Green Goblin"), Police Officer #2 (in "Triumph of the Green Goblin"), Thief #1 (in "Triumph of the Green Goblin"), Security Guard #1 (in "The Crime of All Centuries") 5....

    Notable guest stars

    1. Michael Ansara- Hiawatha Smith (in "The Quest of the Red Skull") 2. Marlene Aragon - Lightwave 3. Michael Bell - Ariel and Bartow's father (in "Spidey Meets the Girl of Tomorrow"), Doctor Octopus(in "Spidey Meets the Girl of Tomorrow") 4. Bob Bergen- Bartow (in "Spidey Meets the Girl of Tomorrow") 5. Susan Blu- Louise (in "The Education of a Superhero"), Monica (in "Attack of the Arachnoid") 6. William Callaway - Angel (in "A Fire-Star is Born"), Wolverine(in "A Firestar is Born") 7. Cathy...

    Scenes from Spider-Man and His Amazing Friends was re-cut, edited, and re-dubbed into comical shorts as part of Disney XD's Marvel Mash-Up shorts for their "Marvel Universe on Disney XD" block of programming that includes Ultimate Spider-Man and The Avengers: Earth's Mightiest Heroes.

    The Complete Seasons 1–3 box set has been released in the UK. This release did not include any of the Stan Lee narrations from the first or second season. Only some of the Stan Lee narrations were in the third season. The first lot of releases by Liberation Entertainment have gone out of print, due to Liberation Films going into bankruptcy. However Clear Vision released all 3 seasons on DVD in 2010. This new edition have improved image qualityand include German dubbing, while removing the 5.1 audio track and English subtitles. This release has also gone out of print, since Clear Vision ceased operations in 2016.The discs are in Region 2, PAL format. No Region 1 or other NTSC release is planned at this time.

    The series was available for instant streaming via Netflix from 2011 to August 2015. The series became available on the Disney+streaming service, as a part of U.S. launch on November 12, 2019, however, the episode "The Quest of the Red Skull" is excluded.

    In January 2009, IGN named Spider-Man and His Amazing Friendsas the 59th best in the Top 100 Animated Series.

    Adaptation

    The first comic book that directly referenced the Amazing Friends show was Spider-Man and His Amazing Friends #1 (December 1981), a one-shot that adapted the pilot episode, "The Triumph of the Green Goblin". Though the comic version altered the story to bring it in line with established Marvel Universe continuity (such as making the Green Goblin identity a costume as in the comics, rather than a physical transformation as in the episode), it was not considered part of said continuity. It is n...

    Firestar

    After her aforementioned initial appearance, the Marvel Comics version of Firestar debuted in the pages of Uncanny X-Men #193 as part of Emma Frost's Hellions team. Firestar was given an origin story in a self-titled mini-series (March – June 1986). The character went on to be a founding member of the New Warriors, and later a member of the Avengers. One change to Firestar from the TV show to the comic books was her powers. In the cartoon, they were fire based. However, Marvel had a number of...

    Amazing Friends 2006

    To commemorate the 25th anniversary of the show, Marvel released Spider-Man Family: Amazing Friends #1 on August 9, 2006. The comic starts with an all-new story, "Opposites Attack", which is officially set before Web of Spider-Man #75. After that is a Mini Marvel tale, "Spider-Man And His Amazing Friends Co-Workers" (note that the strikethrough of "Friends" was a deliberate inclusion in the title). Both stories were written by Sean McKeever. The remainder of the one-shot is composed of reprin...

  3. Limbic system - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Limbic_system
    • Structure
    • Function
    • Evolution
    • History
    • See Also
    • External Links

    The limbic system was originally defined by Paul D. MacLean as a series of cortical structures surrounding the boundary between the cerebral hemispheres and the brainstem. The name "limbic" comes from the Latin word for the border, limbus, and these structures were known together as the limbic lobe. Further studies began to associate these areas with emotional and motivational processes and linked them to subcorticalcomponents that were then grouped into the limbic system. Currently, it is not considered an isolated entity responsible for the neurological regulation of emotion, but rather one of the many parts of the brain that regulate visceral autonomic processes.Therefore, the set of anatomical structures considered part of the limbic system is controversial. The following structures are, or have been considered, part of the limbic system: 1. Cortical areas: 1.1. Limbic lobe 1.2. Orbitofrontal cortex: a region in the frontal lobe involved in the process of decision-making 1.3. Pi...

    The structures and interacting areas of the limbic system are involved in motivation, emotion, learning, and memory. The limbic system is where the subcortical structures meet the cerebral cortex. The limbic system operates by influencing the endocrine system and the autonomic nervous system. It is highly interconnected with the nucleus accumbens, which plays a role in sexual arousal and the "high" derived from certain recreational drugs. These responses are heavily modulated by dopaminergic projections from the limbic system. In 1954, Olds and Milner found that rats with metal electrodes implanted into their nucleus accumbens, as well as their septal nuclei, repeatedly pressed a lever activating this region. The limbic system also interacts with the basal ganglia. The basal ganglia are a set of subcortical structures that direct intentional movements. The basal ganglia are located near the thalamus and hypothalamus. They receive input from the cerebral cortex, which sends outputs t...

    Paul D. MacLean, as part of his triune brain theory, hypothesized that the limbic system is older than other parts of the forebrain, and that it developed to manage circuitry attributed to the fight or flight first identified by Hans Selyein his report of the General Adaptation Syndrome in 1936. It may be considered a part of survival adaptation in reptiles as well as mammals (including humans). MacLean postulated that the human brain has evolved three components, that evolved successively, with more recent components developing at the top/front. These components are, respectively: 1. The archipallium or primitive ("reptilian") brain, comprising the structures of the brain stem – medulla, pons, cerebellum, mesencephalon, the oldest basal nuclei – the globus pallidus and the olfactory bulbs. 2. The paleopallium or intermediate ("old mammalian") brain, comprising the structures of the limbic system. 3. The neopallium, also known as the superior or rational ("new mammalian") brain, com...

    Etymology and history

    The term limbic comes from the Latin limbus, for "border" or "edge", or, particularly in medical terminology, a border of an anatomical component. Paul Brocacoined the term based on its physical location in the brain, sandwiched between two functionally different components. The limbic system is a term that was introduced in 1949 by the American physician and neuroscientist, Paul D. MacLean. The French physician Paul Broca first called this part of the brain le grand lobe limbique in 1878. He...

    Academic dispute

    There is controversy over the use of the term limbic system, with scientists such as LeDoux arguing that the term be considered obsolete and abandoned. Originally, the limbic system was believed to be the emotional center of the brain, with cognition being the business of the neocortex. However, cognition depends on acquisition and retention of memories, in which the hippocampus, a primary limbic interacting structure, is involved: hippocampus damage causes severe cognitive (memory) deficits....

  4. Lawrence Lessig - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lawrence_Lessig
    • Academic Career
    • Political Background
    • Internet and Computer Activism
    • Money in Politics Activism
    • 2016 Presidential Candidacy
    • Electoral College Reform
    • Awards and Honors
    • Personal Life
    • Notable Cases
    • Bibliography

    Lessig earned a B.A. degree in economics and a B.S. degree in management (Wharton School) from the University of Pennsylvania, an M.A. degree in philosophy from the University of Cambridge (Trinity) in England, and a J.D. degree from Yale Law School in 1989. After graduating from law school, he clerked for a year for Judge Richard Posner, at the 7th Circuit Court of Appeals in Chicago, Illinois, and another year for Justice Antonin Scalia at the Supreme Court. Lessig started his academic career at the University of Chicago Law School, where he was professor from 1991 to 1997. As co-director of the Center for the Study of Constitutionalism in Eastern Europe there, he helped the newly independent Republic of Georgia draft a constitution. From 1997 to 2000, he was at Harvard Law School, holding for a year the chair of Berkman Professor of Law, affiliated with the Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society. He subsequently joined Stanford Law School, where he established the school's C...

    Lessig has been politically liberal since studying philosophy at Cambridge in the mid-1980s. By the late 1980s, two influential conservative judges, Judge Richard Posner and Justice Antonin Scalia, selected him to serve as a law clerk, choosing him because they considered him brilliant rather than for his ideology and effectively making him the "token liberal" on their staffs.Posner would later call him "the most distinguished law professor of his generation." Lessig has emphasized in interviews that his philosophy experience at Cambridge radically changed his values and career path. Previously, he had held strong conservative or libertarian political views, desired a career in business, was a highly active member of Teenage Republicans, served as the youth governor for Pennsylvania through the YMCA Youth and Government program in 1978, and almost pursued a Republicanpolitical career. What was intended to be a year abroad at Cambridge convinced him instead to stay another two years...

    "Code is law"

    In computer science, "code" typically refers to the text of a computer program (the source code). In law, "code" can refer to the texts that constitute statutory law. In his 1999 book Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace, Lessig explores the ways in which code in both senses can be instruments for social control, leading to his dictum that "Code is law." Lessig later updated his work in order to keep up with the prevailing views of the time and released the book as Code: Version 2.0in December 2...

    Remix culture

    Lessig has been a proponent of the remix culture since the early 2000s. In his 2008 book Remixhe presents this as a desirable cultural practice distinct from piracy. Lessig further articulates remix culture as intrinsic to technology and the Internet. Remix culture is therefore an amalgam of practice, creativity, "read/write" culture and the hybrid economy. According to Lessig, the problem with the remix comes when it is at odds with stringent US copyright law. He has compared this to the fai...

    Free culture

    On March 28, 2004 Lessig was elected to the FSF's board of directors. He proposed the concept of "free culture". He also supports free and open-source software and open spectrum. At his free culture keynote at the O'Reilly Open Source Convention 2002, a few minutes of his speech was about software patents, which he views as a rising threat to free software, open source softwareand innovation. In March 2006, Lessig joined the board of advisors of the Digital Universe project. A few months late...

    At the iCommons iSummit 07, Lessig announced that he would stop focusing his attention on copyright and related matters and work on political corruption instead, as the result of a transformative conversation with Aaron Swartz, a young internet prodigy whom Lessig met through his work with Creative Commons. This new work was partially facilitated through his wiki, Lessig Wiki, which he has encouraged the public to use to document cases of corruption. Lessig criticized the revolving door phenomenon in which legislators and staffers leave office to become lobbyistsand have become beholden to special interests. In February 2008, a Facebook group formed by law professor John Palfrey encouraged him to run for Congress from California's 12th congressional district, the seat vacated by the death of Representative Tom Lantos.Later that month, after forming an "exploratory project", he decided not to run for the vacant seat.

    Lessig announced the launch of his long shot presidential campaign on September 6, 2015.On August 11, 2015, Lessig announced that he had launched an exploratory campaign for the purpose of exploring his prospects of winning the Democratic Party's nomination for president of the United States in the 2016 election. Lessig pledged to seek the nomination if he raised $1 million by Labor Day 2015. The announcement was widely reported in national media outlets, and was timed to coincide with a media blitz by the Lessig 2016 Campaign. Lessig was interviewed in The New York Times and Bloomberg. Campaign messages and Lessig's electoral finance reform positions were circulated widely on social media. His campaign was focused on a single issue: The Citizen Equality Act, a proposal that couples campaign finance reform with other laws aimed at curbing gerrymandering and ensuring voting access.As an expression of his commitment to the proposal, Lessig initially promised to resign once the Citizen...

    In 2017, Lessig announced a movement to challenge the winner-take-all Electoral College vote allocation in the various states, called Equal Votes. Lessig was also a counsel for electors in the Supreme Court case Chiafalo v. Washingtonwhere the court decided states could force electors to follow the state's popular vote.

    In 2002, Lessig received the Award for the Advancement of Free Software from the Free Software Foundation (FSF). He also received the Scientific American 50 Award for having "argued against interpretations of copyright that could stifle innovation and discourse online." Then, in 2006, Lessig was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. In 2011, Lessig was named to the Fastcase 50, "honoring the law's smartest, most courageous innovators, techies, visionaries, and leaders." Lessig was awarded honorary doctorates by the Faculty of Social Sciences at Lund University, Sweden in 2013 and by the Université catholique de Louvain in 2014. Lessig received the 2014 Webby Lifetime Achievement award for co-founding Creative Commons and defending net neutrality and the free and open softwaremovement.

    Lessig was born in Rapid City, South Dakota, the son of Patricia (West), who sold real estate, and Lester L. "Jack" Lessig, an engineer. He grew up in Williamsport, Pennsylvania. In May 2005, it was revealed that Lessig had experienced sexual abuse by the director at the American Boychoir School, which he had attended as an adolescent. Lessig reached a settlement with the school in the past, under confidential terms. He revealed his experiences in the course of representing another student victim, John Hardwicke, in court. In August 2006, he succeeded in persuading the New Jersey Supreme Courtto restrict the scope of immunity radically, which had protected nonprofits that failed to prevent sexual abuse from legal liability. Lessig is married to Bettina Neuefeind, a German-born Harvard University colleague. The two married in 1999.He and Neuefeind have three children: Willem, Lani, and Tess.

    Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace (Basic Books, 1999) ISBN 978-0-465-03913-5
    The Future of Ideas (Vintage Books, 2001) ISBN 978-0-375-50578-2
    Free Culture (Penguin, 2004) ISBN 978-1-59420-006-9
    Code: Version 2.0 (Basic Books, 2006) ISBN 978-0-465-03914-2
  5. Old Chinese - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Chinese
    • Classification
    • History
    • Script
    • Phonology
    • Grammar
    • Vocabulary
    • External Links

    Middle Chinese and its southern neighbours Kra–Dai, Hmong–Mien and the Vietic branch of Austroasiatic have similar tone systems, syllable structure, grammatical features and lack of inflection, but these are believed to be areal features spread by diffusion rather than indicating common descent.The most widely accepted hypothesis is that Chinese belongs to the Sino-Tibetan language family, together with Burmese, Tibetan and many other languages spoken in the Himalayas and the Southeast Asian Massif.The evidence consists of some hundreds of proposed cognate words,including such basic vocabulary as the following: Although the relationship was first proposed in the early 19th century and is now broadly accepted, reconstruction of Sino-Tibetan is much less developed than that of families such as Indo-European or Austronesian.Although Old Chinese is by far the earliest attested member of the family, its logographic script does not clearly indicate the pronunciation of words.Other difficu...

    The earliest known written records of the Chinese language were found at the Yinxu site near modern Anyang identified as the last capital of the Shang dynasty, and date from about 1250 BC. These are the oracle bones, short inscriptions carved on tortoise plastrons and ox scapulae for divinatory purposes, as well as a few brief bronze inscriptions. The language written is undoubtedly an early form of Chinese, but is difficult to interpret due to the limited subject matter and high proportion of proper names. Only half of the 4,000 characters used have been identified with certainty. Little is known about the grammar of this language, but it seems much less reliant on grammatical particlesthan Classical Chinese. From early in the Western Zhou period, around 1000 BC, the most important recovered texts are bronze inscriptions, many of considerable length. Even longer pre-Classical texts on a wide range of subjects have also been transmitted through the literary tradition. The oldest sec...

    Each character of the script represented a single Old Chinese word. Most scholars believe that these words were monosyllabic, though some have recently suggested that a minority of them had minor presyllables. The development of these characters follows the same three stages that characterized Egyptian hieroglyphs, Mesopotamian cuneiform script and the Maya script. Some words could be represented by pictures (later stylized) such as 日 rì 'sun', 人 rén 'person' and 木 mù 'tree, wood', by abstract symbols such as 三 sān 'three' and 上 shàng 'up', or by composite symbols such as 林 lín'forest' (two trees).About 1,000 of the oracle bone characters, nearly a quarter of the total, are of this type, though 300 of them have not yet been deciphered.Though the pictographic origins of these characters are apparent, they have already undergone extensive simplification and conventionalization.Evolved forms of most of these characters are still in common use today. Next, words that could not be repres...

    Old Chinese phonology has been reconstructed using a variety of evidence, including the phonetic components of Chinese characters, rhyming practice in the Classic of Poetry and Middle Chinese reading pronunciations described in such works as the Qieyun, a rhyme dictionary published in 601 AD.Although many details are still disputed, recent formulations are in substantial agreement on the core issues.For example, the Old Chinese initial consonants recognized by Li Fang-Kuei and William Baxterare given below, with Baxter's (mostly tentative) additions given in parentheses: Various initial clusters have been proposed, especially clusters of *s-with other consonants, but this area remains unsettled. Bernhard Karlgren and many later scholars posited the medials *-r-, *-j- and the combination *-rj- to explain the retroflex and palatal obstruents of Middle Chinese, as well as many of its vowel contrasts.*-r- is generally accepted. However, although the distinction denoted by *-j-is univers...

    Little is known of the grammar of the language of the Oracular and pre-Classical periods, as the texts are often of a ritual or formulaic nature, and much of their vocabulary has not been deciphered. In contrast, the rich literature of the Warring States period has been extensively analysed. Having no inflection, Old Chinese was heavily reliant on word order, grammatical particles, and inherent word classes.

    The improved understanding of Old Chinese phonology has enabled the study of the origins of Chinese words (rather than the characters with which they are written).Most researchers trace the core vocabulary to a Sino-Tibetan ancestor language, with much early borrowing from other neighbouring languages.The traditional view was that Old Chinese was an isolating language, lacking both inflection and derivation, but it has become clear that words could be formed by derivational affixation, reduplication and compounding.Most authors consider only monosyllabic roots, but Baxter and Laurent Sagart also propose disyllabic roots in which the first syllable is reduced, as in modern Khmer.

    Miyake, Marc (2001), "Laurent Sagart : The Roots of Old Chinese", Cahiers de Linguistique Asie Orientale, 30 (2): 257–268, doi:10.1163/19606028-90000092. (review of Sagart (1999))
    Miyake, Marc (2011). "Why are rhinos late?". Old Chinese articles.
    Miyake, Marc (2012). "A *slo-lution to the p-ro-blem". Old Chinese articles.
    Miyake, Marc (2013). "Pri-zu-ner". Old Chinese articles.
  6. Chinese particles - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_particles
    • Studies by Earlier Authors
    • Linguistic Sketch
    • Illustrations
    • Further Reading

    The first book devoted to the study of Chinese particles, 《語助》, was written by Lu Yi-Wei (盧以緯) in the period of the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368). Later important works include 《助字辨略》 (Some Notes on the Helping Words) by Liu Qi (劉淇) and 《經傳釋詞》 (Explanations of the Articles Found in the Classics) by Wang Yin-Zhi (王引之), both published during the Qing Dynasty (1644–1911). These works focus on particles in the Confucius classics. Particles used in the vernacular literature did not draw much attention. The first work covering the particles found in the vernacular literature, 《詩詞曲語辭彙釋》 (Compilation and Explanations of the Colloquial Terms Found in Classical Poetry and Operas) by Zhang Xiang (張相), appeared posthumously in 1953.

    Linguists often categorise Chinese particles into the following types: 1. Structural particle (结构助词; 結構助詞; jiégòu zhùcí): This class of particles concern syntactic relations. The particles can be distinguished only in written form because they are usually pronounced the same. 1.1. 地(dì/de) is used to mark adverbials (狀語). E.g.: 安靜地睡著了(ānjìng dì/de shuì zháo le) 'fell asleep quietly' 1.2. 得(dé/de) is used to mark verb complements (補語). E.g.: 學習得很認真(xuéxí dé/de hěn rènzhēn) 'study very hard' 1.3. 的(dè/de), according to traditional analysis, is used to mark attributive (定語). It is often analysed as a nominaliser. E.g.: 書的封面很漂亮(shū dè/de fēngmiàn hěn piàoliang) '(the) cover of the book (is) very beautiful' 1. Aspectual particle (动态助词; 動態助詞; dòngtài zhùcí): Commonly dubbed aspect markers (動貌標記 or 動貌標誌), the particles signal grammatical aspect. The most renowned ones are the perfective 了(le), durative 著(zhè), durative 在(zaì), and experiential 過(guò).: p. 185 1. Modal particle (语气助词; 語氣助詞;...

    In Classical Chinese

    The function of a Chinese particle depends on its position in the sentence and on context. In many cases, the character used for a particle is a phonetic loan; therefore, the same particle could be written with different characters that share the same sound. For example, qí/jī (其, which originally represented the word jī "winnowing basket", now represented by the character 箕), a common particle in classical Chinese, has, among others, various meaning as listed below. The following list provid...

    Dobson, W. A. C. H. (1974). A Dictionary of the Chinese Particles. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
    He Jiuying 何九盈 (1995). Zhongguo gudai yuyanxue shi(中囯古代语言学史 "A history of ancient Chinese linguistics"). Guangzhou: Guangdong jiaoyu chubanshe.
    Wang Li 王力 (ed.) (2000). Wang Li guhanyu zidian(王力古漢語字典 "A character dictionary of classical Chinese, chiefly edited by Wang Li"). Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company.
    Yip, Po-Ching & Don, Rimmington. (2004). Chinese: A Comprehensive Grammar. London; New York: Routledge.
  7. Arts and Crafts movement - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arts_and_Crafts_movement
    • Origins and Influences
    • Social and Design Principles
    • Development
    • The British Isles
    • Continental Europe
    • North America
    • Asia
    • Architecture
    • Garden Design
    • Art Education

    Design reform

    The Arts and Crafts movement emerged from the attempt to reform design and decoration in mid-19th century Britain. It was a reaction against a perceived decline in standards that the reformers associated with machinery and factory production. Their critique was sharpened by the items that they saw in the Great Exhibition of 1851, which they considered to be excessively ornate, artificial, and ignorant of the qualities of the materials used. Art historian Nikolaus Pevsner writes that the exhib...

    A. W. N. Pugin

    Some of the ideas of the movement were anticipated by A. W. N. Pugin (1812–1852), a leader in the Gothic revival in architecture. For example, he advocated truth to material, structure, and function, as did the Arts and Crafts artists. Pugin articulated the tendency of social critics to compare the faults of modern society with the Middle Ages, such as the sprawling growth of cities and the treatment of the poor—a tendency that became routine with Ruskin, Morris, and the Arts and Crafts movem...

    John Ruskin

    The Arts and Crafts philosophy was derived in large measure from John Ruskin's social criticism, which related the moral and social health of a nation to the qualities of its architecture and to the nature of its work. Ruskin considered the sort of mechanized production and division of labour that had been created in the industrial revolution to be "servile labour", and he thought that a healthy and moral society required independent workers who designed the things that they made. He believed...

    Critique of industry

    William Morris shared Ruskin's critique of industrial society and at one time or another attacked the modern factory, the use of machinery, the division of labour, capitalism and the loss of traditional craft methods. But his attitude to machinery was inconsistent. He said at one point that production by machinery was "altogether an evil", but at others times, he was willing to commission work from manufacturers who were able to meet his standards with the aid of machines. Morris said that in...

    Socialism

    Many of the Arts and Crafts movement designers were socialists, including Morris, T. J. Cobden Sanderson, Walter Crane, C.R.Ashbee, Philip Webb, Charles Faulkner, and A. H. Mackmurdo. In the early 1880s, Morris was spending more of his time on promoting socialism than on designing and making. Ashbee established a community of craftsmen called the Guild of Handicraft in east London, later moving to Chipping Campden. Those adherents who were not socialists, such as Alfred Hoare Powell, advocate...

    Association with other reform movements

    In Britain, the movement was associated with dress reform, ruralism, the garden city movement and the folk-song revival. All were linked, in some degree, by the ideal of "the Simple Life".In continental Europe the movement was associated with the preservation of national traditions in building, the applied arts, domestic design and costume.

    Morris's designs quickly became popular, attracting interest when his company's work was exhibited at the 1862 International Exhibition in London. Much of Morris & Co's early work was for churches and Morris won important interior design commissions at St James's Palace and the South Kensington Museum(now the Victoria and Albert Museum). Later his work became popular with the middle and upper classes, despite his wish to create a democratic art, and by the end of the 19th century, Arts and Crafts design in houses and domestic interiors was the dominant style in Britain, copied in products made by conventional industrial methods. The spread of Arts and Crafts ideas during the late 19th and early 20th centuries resulted in the establishment of many associations and craft communities, although Morris had little to do with them because of his preoccupation with socialism at the time. A hundred and thirty Arts and Crafts organisations were formed in Britain, most between 1895 and 1905. I...

    Scotland

    The beginnings of the Arts and Crafts movement in Scotland were in the stained glass revival of the 1850s, pioneered by James Ballantine (1808–1877). His major works included the great west window of Dunfermline Abbey and the scheme for St. Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh. In Glasgow it was pioneered by Daniel Cottier (1838–1891), who had probably studied with Ballantine, and was directly influenced by William Morris, Ford Madox Brown and John Ruskin. His key works included the Baptism of Christ i...

    Wales

    The situation in Wales was different than elsewhere in the UK. Insofar as craftsmanship was concerned, Arts and Crafts was a revivalist campaign. But in Wales, at least until World War I, a genuine craft tradition still existed. Local materials, stone or clay, continued to be used as a matter of course. Scotland become known in the Arts and Crafts movement for its stained glass; Wales would become known for its pottery. By the mid 19th century, the heavy, salt glazes used for generations by l...

    Ireland

    The movement spread to Ireland, representing an important time for the nation's cultural development, a visual counterpart to the literary revival of the same time and was a publication of Irish nationalism. The Arts and Crafts use of stained glass was popular in Ireland, with Harry Clarke the best-known artist and also with Evie Hone. The architecture of the style is represented by the Honan Chapel (1916) in Cork city in the grounds of University College Cork. Other architects practicing in...

    In continental Europe, the revival and preservation of national styles was an important motive of Arts and Crafts designers; for example, in Germany, after unification in 1871 under the encouragement of the Bund für Heimatschutz (1897) and the Vereinigte Werkstätten für Kunst im Handwerk founded in 1898 by Karl Schmidt; and in Hungary Károly Kós revived the vernacular style of Transylvanianbuilding. In central Europe, where several diverse nationalities lived under powerful empires (Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia), the discovery of the vernacular was associated with the assertion of national pride and the striving for independence, and, whereas for Arts and Crafts practitioners in Britain the ideal style was to be found in the medieval, in central Europe it was sought in remote peasant villages. Widely exhibited in Europe, the Arts and Crafts style's simplicity inspired designers like Henry van de Velde and styles such as Art Nouveau, the Dutch De Stijl group, Vienna Secession,...

    In the United States, the Arts and Crafts style initiated a variety of attempts to reinterpret European Arts and Crafts ideals for Americans. These included the "Craftsman"-style architecture, furniture, and other decorative arts such as designs promoted by Gustav Stickley in his magazine, The Craftsman and designs produced on the Roycroft campus as publicized in Elbert Hubbard's The Fra. Both men used their magazines as a vehicle to promote the goods produced with the Craftsman workshop in Eastwood, NY and Elbert Hubbard's Roycroft campus in East Aurora, NY. A host of imitators of Stickley's furniture (the designs of which are often mislabelled the "Mission Style") included three companies established by his brothers. The terms American Craftsman or Craftsman style are often used to denote the style of architecture, interior design, and decorative arts that prevailed between the dominant eras of Art Nouveau and Art Deco in the US, or approximately the period from 1910 to 1925. The...

    In Japan, Yanagi Sōetsu, creator of the Mingei movement which promoted folk art from the 1920s onwards, was influenced by the writings of Morris and Ruskin.Like the Arts and Crafts movement in Europe, Mingei sought to preserve traditional crafts in the face of modernising industry.

    Many of the leaders of the Arts and Crafts movement were trained as architects (e.g. William Morris, A. H. Mackmurdo, C. R. Ashbee, W. R. Lethaby) and it was on building that the movement had its most visible and lasting influence. Red House, in Bexleyheath, London, designed for Morris in 1859 by architect Philip Webb, exemplifies the early Arts and Crafts style, with its well-proportioned solid forms, wide porches, steep roof, pointed window arches, brick fireplaces and wooden fittings. Webb rejected classical and other revivals of historical styles based on grand buildings, and based his design on British vernacular architecture, expressing the texture of ordinary materials, such as stone and tiles, with an asymmetrical and picturesque building composition. The London suburb of Bedford Park, built mainly in the 1880s and 1890s, has about 360 Arts and Crafts style houses and was once famous for its Aesthetic residents. Several Almshouses were built in the Arts and Crafts style, for...

    Gertrude Jekyll applied Arts and Crafts principles to garden design. She worked with the English architect, Sir Edwin Lutyens, for whose projects she created numerous landscapes, and who designed her home Munstead Wood, near Godalming in Surrey. Jekyll created the gardens for Bishopsbarns, the home of York architect Walter Brierley, an exponent of the Arts and Crafts movement and known as the "Lutyens of the North". The garden for Brierley's final project, Goddards in York, was the work of George Dillistone, a gardener who worked with Lutyens and Jekyll at Castle Drogo. At Goddards the garden incorporated a number of features that reflected the arts and crafts style of the house, such as the use of hedges and herbaceous borders to divide the garden into a series of outdoor rooms. Another notable Arts and Crafts garden is Hidcote Manor Garden designed by Lawrence Johnston which is also laid out in a series of outdoor rooms and where, like Goddards, the landscaping becomes less formal...

    Morris's ideas were adopted by the New Education Movement in the late 1880s, which incorporated handicraft teaching in schools at Abbotsholme (1889) and Bedales (1892), and his influence has been noted in the social experiments of Dartington Hallduring the mid-20th century. Arts and Crafts practitioners in Britain were critical of the government system of art education based on design in the abstract with little teaching of practical craft. This lack of craft training also caused concern in industrial and official circles, and in 1884 a Royal Commission (accepting the advice of William Morris) recommended that art education should pay more attention to the suitability of design to the material in which it was to be executed. The first school to make this change was the Birmingham School of Arts and Crafts, which "led the way in introducing executed design to the teaching of art and design nationally (working in the material for which the design was intended rather than designing on...

  8. Plasmid - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plasmid
    • History
    • Properties and Characteristics
    • Classifications and Types
    • Vectors
    • Episomes
    • Plasmid Maintenance
    • Yeast Plasmids
    • Plasmid DNA Extraction
    • Conformations
    • Software For Bioinformatics and Design

    The term plasmid was introduced in 1952 by the American molecular biologist Joshua Lederberg to refer to "any extrachromosomal hereditary determinant." The term's early usage included any bacterial genetic material that exists extrachromosomally for at least part of its replication cycle, but because that description includes bacterial viruses, the notion of plasmid was refined over time to comprise genetic elements that reproduce autonomously.Later in 1968, it was decided that the term plasmid should be adopted as the term for extrachromosomal genetic element,and to distinguish it from viruses, the definition was narrowed to genetic elements that exist exclusively or predominantly outside of the chromosome and can replicate autonomously.

    In order for plasmids to replicate independently within a cell, they must possess a stretch of DNA that can act as an origin of replication. The self-replicating unit, in this case, the plasmid, is called a replicon. A typical bacterial replicon may consist of a number of elements, such as the gene for plasmid-specific replication initiation protein (Rep), repeating units called iterons, DnaA boxes, and an adjacent AT-rich region. Smaller plasmids make use of the host replicative enzymes to make copies of themselves, while larger plasmids may carry genes specific for the replication of those plasmids. A few types of plasmids can also insert into the host chromosome, and these integrative plasmids are sometimes referred to as episomesin prokaryotes. Plasmids almost always carry at least one gene. Many of the genes carried by a plasmid are beneficial for the host cells, for example: enabling the host cell to survive in an environment that would otherwise be lethal or restrictive for g...

    Plasmids may be classified in a number of ways. Plasmids can be broadly classified into conjugative plasmids and non-conjugative plasmids. Conjugative plasmids contain a set of transfer genes which promote sexual conjugation between different cells. In the complex process of conjugation, plasmids may be transferred from one bacterium to another via sex pili encoded by some of the transfer genes (see figure).Non-conjugative plasmids are incapable of initiating conjugation, hence they can be transferred only with the assistance of conjugative plasmids. An intermediate class of plasmids are mobilizable, and carry only a subset of the genes required for transfer. They can parasitize a conjugative plasmid, transferring at high frequency only in its presence. Plasmids can also be classified into incompatibility groups. A microbe can harbour different types of plasmids, but different plasmids can only exist in a single bacterial cell if they are compatible. If two plasmids are not compatib...

    Artificially constructed plasmids may be used as vectors in genetic engineering. These plasmids serve as important tools in genetics and biotechnology labs, where they are commonly used to clone and amplify (make many copies of) or express particular genes. A wide variety of plasmids are commercially available for such uses. The gene to be replicated is normally inserted into a plasmid that typically contains a number of features for their use. These include a gene that confers resistance to particular antibiotics (ampicillin is most frequently used for bacterial strains), an origin of replication to allow the bacterial cells to replicate the plasmid DNA, and a suitable site for cloning (referred to as a multiple cloning site). DNA structural instability can be defined as a series of spontaneous events that culminate in an unforeseen rearrangement, loss, or gain of genetic material. Such events are frequently triggered by the transposition of mobile elements or by the presence of un...

    The term episome was introduced by François Jacob and Élie Wollman in 1958 to refer to extra-chromosomal genetic material that may replicate autonomously or become integrated into the chromosome. Since the term was introduced, however, its use has changed, as plasmid has become the preferred term for autonomously replicating extrachromosomal DNA. At a 1968 symposium in London some participants suggested that the term episomebe abandoned, although others continued to use the term with a shift in meaning. Today, some authors use episome in the context of prokaryotes to refer to a plasmid that is capable of integrating into the chromosome. The integrative plasmids may be replicated and stably maintained in a cell through multiple generations, but at some stage, they will exist as an independent plasmid molecule. In the context of eukaryotes, the term episome is used to mean a non-integrated extrachromosomal closed circular DNA molecule that may be replicated in the nucleus. Viruses are...

    Some plasmids or microbial hosts include an addiction system or postsegregational killing system (PSK), such as the hok/sok (host killing/suppressor of killing) system of plasmid R1 in Escherichia coli. This variant produces both a long-lived poison and a short-lived antidote. Several types of plasmid addiction systems (toxin/ antitoxin, metabolism-based, ORT systems) were described in the literatureand used in biotechnical (fermentation) or biomedical (vaccine therapy) applications. Daughter cells that retain a copy of the plasmid survive, while a daughter cell that fails to inherit the plasmid dies or suffers a reduced growth-rate because of the lingering poison from the parent cell. Finally, the overall productivity could be enhanced. In contrast, plasmids used in biotechnology, such as pUC18, pBR322 and derived vectors, hardly ever contain toxin-antitoxin addiction systems, and therefore need to be kept under antibiotic pressure to avoid plasmid loss.

    Yeasts naturally harbour various plasmids. Notable among them are 2 μm plasmids—small circular plasmids often used for genetic engineering of yeast—and linear pGKL plasmids from Kluyveromyces lactis, that are responsible for killer phenotypes. Other types of plasmids are often related to yeast cloning vectors that include: 1. Yeast integrative plasmid (YIp), yeast vectors that rely on integration into the host chromosome for survival and replication, and are usually used when studying the functionality of a solo gene or when the gene is toxic. Also connected with the gene URA3, that codes an enzyme related to the biosynthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides (T, C); 2. Yeast Replicative Plasmid (YRp), which transport a sequence of chromosomal DNA that includes an origin of replication. These plasmids are less stable, as they can be lost during budding.

    Plasmids are often used to purify a specific sequence, since they can easily be purified away from the rest of the genome. For their use as vectors, and for molecular cloning, plasmids often need to be isolated. There are several methods to isolate plasmid DNA from bacteria, ranging from the miniprep to the maxiprep or bulkprep. The former can be used to quickly find out whether the plasmid is correct in any of several bacterial clones. The yield is a small amount of impure plasmid DNA, which is sufficient for analysis by restriction digestand for some cloning techniques. In the latter, much larger volumes of bacterial suspension are grown from which a maxi-prep can be performed. In essence, this is a scaled-up miniprep followed by additional purification. This results in relatively large amounts (several hundred micrograms) of very pure plasmid DNA. Many commercial kits have been created to perform plasmid extraction at various scales, purity, and levels of automation.

    Plasmid DNA may appear in one of five conformations, which (for a given size) run at different speeds in a gel during electrophoresis. The conformations are listed below in order of electrophoretic mobility (speed for a given applied voltage) from slowest to fastest: 1. Nicked open-circularDNA has one strand cut. 2. Relaxed circular DNA is fully intact with both strands uncut but has been enzymatically relaxed(supercoils removed). This can be modeled by letting a twisted extension cord unwind and relax and then plugging it into itself. 3. Linear DNA has free ends, either because both strands have been cut or because the DNA was linear in vivo. This can be modeled with an electrical extension cord that is not plugged into itself. 4. Supercoiled (or covalently closed-circular) DNA is fully intact with both strands uncut, and with an integral twist, resulting in a compact form. This can be modeled by twisting an extension cordand then plugging it into itself. 5. Supercoiled denatured D...

    The use of plasmids as a technique in molecular biology is supported by bioinformatics software. These programs record the DNA sequence of plasmid vectors, help to predict cut sites of restriction enzymes, and to plan manipulations. Examples of software packages that handle plasmid maps are ApE, Clone Manager, GeneConstructionKit, Geneious, Genome Compiler, LabGenius, Lasergene, MacVector, pDraw32, Serial Cloner, VectorFriends, Vector NTI, and WebDSV. These pieces of software help conduct entire experiments in silico before doing wet experiments.

  9. Differences between Shinjitai and Simplified characters - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Differences_in_Shinjitai_and...
    • List of Different Simplifications
    • Traditional Characters That May Cause Problems Displaying
    • Different Stroke Orders in Chinese and Japanese

    The old and new forms of the Kyōiku Kanji and their Hànzì equivalents are listed below. In the following lists, the characters are sorted by the radicals of the Japanese kanji. The two Kokuji 働 and 畑 in the Kyōiku-Kanji List, which have no Chinese equivalents, are not listed here. Note that 弁 is used to simplify three different Traditional characters (辨, 瓣, and 辯) in Japan. 1. No simplificationin either language (The following characters were simplified neither in Japanese nor in Chinese.) 1. 一 丁 下 三 不 天 五 民 正 平 可 再 百 否 武 夏 中 内 出 本 世 申 由 史 冊 央 向 曲 印 州 表 果 半 必 永 求 九 丸 千 久 少 夫 午 失 末 未 包 年 危 后 兵 我 束 卵 承 垂 刷 重 省 看 勉 七 乳 才 予 事 二 元 亡 六 主 市 交 忘 夜 育 京 卒 商 率 就 人 化 今 仁 付 代 仕 他 令 以 合 全 任 休 件 仲 作 何 位 住 余 低 似 命 使 念 例 供 信 保 便 値 修 借 候 倍 俳 俵 健 停 働 像 先 入 八 分 公 共 弟 並 典 前 益 善 尊 同 周 次 兆 冷 弱 刀 切 別 判 制 券 刻 副 割 力 加 助 努 勇 勤 句 北 疑 十 古 孝 直 南 真 裁 博 上 反 灰 厚 原 台 能 友 収 口 司 右 兄 吸 告 君 味 呼 品 唱 器 四 回 因 困 固 土 去 地 在 寺 均 志 坂 幸 型 城 基 域 喜 境 士 冬 各 夕 外 名 多 大 太 奏 女 好 始 妻 姉 妹 姿 子 存 安 字 守 宅 宇 完 定 官 宙 宗 室 客 宣 家 害 案 容 宮 寄 密 宿 寒...

    Some of the traditional Kanji are not included in the Japanese font of Windows XP/2000, and only rectangles are shown. Downloading the Meiryo font from the Microsoft website (VistaFont_JPN.EXE) and installing it will solve this problem. Note that within the Jōyō Kanji there are 62 characters the old forms of which may cause problems displaying: Kyōiku Kanji (26): Grade 2 (2 Kanji): 海 社 Grade 3 (8 Kanji): 勉 暑 漢 神 福 練 者 都 Grade 4 (6 Kanji): 器 殺 祝 節 梅 類 Grade 5 (1 Kanji): 祖 Grade 6 (9 Kanji): 勤 穀 視 署 層 著 諸 難 朗 Secondary-School Kanji (36): 欄 廊 虜 隆 塚 祥 侮 僧 免 卑 喝 嘆 塀 墨 悔 慨 憎 懲 敏 既 煮 碑 祉 祈 禍 突 繁 臭 褐 謁 謹 賓 贈 逸 響 頻 These characters are Unicode CJK Unified Ideographs for which the old form (kyūjitai) and the new form (shinjitai) have been unified under the Unicode standard. Although the old and new forms are distinguished under the JIS X 0213 standard, the old forms map to Unicode CJK Compatibility Ideographs which are considered by Unicode to be canonically equivalent to the new forms and ma...

    Some characters, whether simplified or not, look the same in Chinese and Japanese, but have different stroke orders. For example, in Japan, 必 is written with the top dot first, while the Traditional stroke order writes the 丿 first. In the characters 王 and 玉, the vertical stroke is the third stroke in Chinese, but the second stroke in Japanese.Taiwan and Hong Kong use Traditional characters, though with an altered stroke order.

  10. Boxing in Japan - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japan_Pro_Boxing_Association
    • History
    • Amateur Boxing
    • Professional Boxing
    • Boxing Fatalities
    • See Also
    • Bibliography
    • External Links

    The first exhibition match named Western Professional Sumo(西洋大相撲) was held in Tsukiji, Tokyo in 1887. The first boxing gym Meriken Training Institute(メリケン練習所) was established in Ishikawachō, Yokohama, Kanagawa by James Hōjō(ジェームス 北條) and Toranosuke Saitō(齋藤 虎之助) in 1896. After the first tutorial book Bōgeki Jizai Seiyō Kentōjutsu(防撃自在西洋拳闘術) was issued in 1900, followed shortly by International Jūken Club(国際柔拳倶楽部) was opened in Mikage, Kobe by Kenji Kanō(嘉納 健治)in 1909. After learning boxing in San Francisco, California since 1906, Yūjirō Watanabe(渡辺 勇次郎, aka Father of Japanese Boxing or Four-Round King) established Nippon Kentō Club(日本拳闘倶楽部) in Shimomeguro, Meguro, Tokyo, on December 25, 1921. Sadayuki Ogino(荻野 貞行, also aka father of Japanese Boxing) from Rikkyo University began boxing under Watanabe's management. Ogino in the junior featherweight and Kinzaburō Yokoyama(横山 金三郎) in the featherweightwere recognized as the first Japanese champions by Nippon Kentō Club in 1922. In the fi...

    Summer Olympics

    The Summer Olympicsmedalists are:

    World Championships

    The World Championshipsmedalists are:

    In Japan, every professional boxer must contract with a manager under the JBC rules, and is required to belong to a boxing gym which has exclusive management rights for boxers as a member of each regional subsidiary body of Japan Pro Boxing Association under the Japan's conventional gym system. Two professional boxers belonging to the same gym have not been allowed to fight against each other unless one of them transfers to other gym, because it might disrupt the gym system.However, it is often quite difficult for boxers to transfer between the gyms due to the matters on transfer fees, match fees and so on. The JBC set up the Japanese heavyweight title once in 1957, but that division did not last long because there were few heavyweight boxers in Japan at that time. Therefore, they have recognized the titles and ratings only in thirteen weight divisions from minimumweight to middleweight for over fifty years. They added four weight divisions i.e. super middleweight, light heavyweight...

    From 1950 through 2011, Tokyo was the city with the most boxing fatalities in the world. After the JBC's inception in April 1952, thirty-eight Japanese professional boxers died from the injury sustained in the fight. In 1973, one boxer among them died after an eighth-round knockout loss in a super featherweight ten-round bout in Agana, Guam.He is the only Japanese who died outside of his home country. There were six fatal accidents before that. First, an African American died of athlete's heart after an exhibition match in Yokohama in 1902. The first Japanese fatality was the former national lightweight champion, Nobuo Kobayashi. He never regained consciousness after a ninth-round technical knockout loss at the Koshien tennis court in Nishinomiya, Hyōgoin 1930. After the year 1952, five Japanese amateur boxers and two Thai professional boxers died due to a fight in Japan. In addition, one Japanese amateur boxer died of cerebral hemorrhage after the test for a professional boxer's li...

    Ashita no Joe, Rokudenashi Blues and Hajime no Ippo, popular manga titles about the sport

    Boxing Magazine editorial department (with Japan Boxing Commission, Japan Pro Boxing Association), ed. (April 30, 2005). "ボクシング百科全書 – リング禍". 日本ボクシング年鑑2005 (Japan Boxing Year Book 2005) (in Japanese...

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