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  1. Israel - Wikipedia

    Israel (/ ˈ ɪ z r i ə l, ˈ ɪ z r eɪ ə l /; Hebrew: י ש ר א ל , romanized: Yisra'el; Arabic: إ س ر ائ يل , romanized: ʾIsrāʾīl), officially known as the State of Israel (Hebrew: מ ד ינ ת י ש ר א ל , Medinat Yisra'el), is a country in ...

  2. Israel (name) - Wikipedia

    Israel Pronunciation / ˈ ɪ z r eɪ əl,-r i əl / Hebrew: [jisʁaˈʔel]Hebrew: [jiɬraˈʔei l]Gender Male Origin Word/name Hebrew Meaning 'God Contended', [1] 'Wrestles with God', [2] 'Triumphant with God' [3] Israel is a ...

    • Male
    • Hebrew
  3. History of ancient Israel and Judah - Wikipedia
    • Periods
    • Late Bronze Age Background
    • Iron Age II
    • Babylonian Period
    • Persian Period
    • Hellenistic Period
    • Religion
    • See Also
    • References
    • Further Reading
    Iron Age II: 950–586 BCE
    Neo-Babylonian: 586–539 BCE
    Persian: 539–332 BCE

    The eastern Mediterranean seaboard – the Levant – stretches 400 miles north to south from the Taurus Mountains to the Sinai Peninsula, and 70 to 100 miles east to west between the sea and the Arabian Desert. The coastal plain of the southern Levant, broad in the south and narrowing to the north, is backed in its southernmost portion by a zone of foothills, the Shfela; like the plain this narrows as it goes northwards, ending in the promontory of Mount Carmel. East of the plain and the Shfela is a mountainous ridge, the "hill country of Judah" in the south, the "hill country of Ephraim" north of that, then Galilee and Mount Lebanon. To the east again lie the steep-sided valley occupied by the Jordan River, the Dead Sea, and the wadi of the Arabah, which continues down to the eastern arm of the Red Sea. Beyond the plateau is the Syrian desert, separating the Levant from Mesopotamia. To the southwest is Egypt, to the northeast Mesopotamia. The location and geographical characteristics...

    Unusually favourable climatic conditions in the first two centuries of Iron Age II brought about an expansion of population, settlements and trade throughout the region. In the central highlands this resulted in unification in a kingdom with the city of Samaria as its capital, possibly by the second half of the 10th century BCE when an inscription of the Egyptian pharaoh Shoshenq I, the biblical Shishak, records a series of campaigns directed at the area. Israel had clearly emerged in the first half of the 9th century BCE, this is attested when the Assyrian king Shalmaneser III names "Ahab the Israelite" among his enemies at the battle of Qarqar (853 BCE). At this time Israel was apparently engaged in a three-way contest with Damascus and Tyre for control of the Jezreel Valley and Galilee in the north, and with Moab, Ammon and Aram Damascus in the east for control of Gilead; the Mesha Stele (c. 830 BCE), left by a king of Moab, celebrates his success in throwing off the oppression o...

    Babylonian Judah suffered a steep decline in both economy and population and lost the Negev, the Shephelah, and part of the Judean hill country, including Hebron, to encroachments from Edom and other neighbours. Jerusalem, while probably not totally abandoned, was much smaller than previously, and the town of Mizpah in Benjamin in the relatively unscathed northern section of the kingdom became the capital of the new Babylonian province of Yehud Medinata. (This was standard Babylonian practice: when the Philistine city of Ashkalon was conquered in 604, the political, religious and economic elite [but not the bulk of the population] was banished and the administrative centre shifted to a new location). There is also a strong probability that for most or all of the period the temple at Bethelin Benjamin replaced that at Jerusalem, boosting the prestige of Bethel's priests (the Aaronites) against those of Jerusalem (the Zadokites), now in exile in Babylon. The Babylonian conquest entail...

    When Babylon fell to the Persian Cyrus the Great in 539 BCE, Judah (or Yehud medinata, the "province of Yehud") became an administrative division within the Persian empire. Cyrus was succeeded as king by Cambyses, who added Egypt to the empire, incidentally transforming Yehud and the Philistine plain into an important frontier zone. His death in 522 was followed by a period of turmoil until Darius the Great seized the throne in about 521. Darius introduced a reform of the administrative arrangements of the empire including the collection, codification and administration of local law codes, and it is reasonable to suppose that this policy lay behind the redaction of the Jewish Torah. After 404 the Persians lost control of Egypt, which became Persia's main rival outside Europe, causing the Persian authorities to tighten their administrative control over Yehud and the rest of the Levant. Egypt was eventually reconquered, but soon afterward Persia fell to Alexander the Great, ushering i...

    The beginning of the Hellenistic Period is marked by the conquest of Alexander the Great (333 BCE). When Alexander died in 323, he had no heirs that were able to take his place as ruler of his empire, so his generals divided the empire among themselves. Ptolemy I asserted himself as the ruler of Egypt in 322 and seized Yehud Medinata in 320, but his successors lost it in 198 to the Seleucids of Syria. At first, relations between Seleucids and Jews were cordial, but the attempt of Antiochus IV Epiphanes (174–163) to impose Hellenic cults on Judea sparked the Maccabean Revolt that ended in the expulsion of the Seleucids and the establishment of an independent Jewish kingdom under the Hasmonean dynasty. Some modern commentators see this period also as a civil war between orthodox and hellenized Jews. Hasmonean kings attempted to revive the Judah described in the Bible: a Jewish monarchy ruled from Jerusalem and including all territories once ruled by David and Solomon. In order to carr...


    Henotheism is defined in the dictionary as adherence to one god out of several. Many scholars believe that before monotheism in ancient Israel came a transitional period in between polytheism and monotheism. In this transitional period many followers of the Israelite religion worshiped the god Yahweh but did not deny the existence of other deities accepted throughout the region. Some scholars attribute this henotheistic period to influences from Mesopotamia. There are strong arguments that Me...

    Iron Age Yahwism

    The religion of the Israelites of Iron Age I, like the Ancient Canaanite religion from which it evolved and other religions of the ancient Near East, was based on a cult of ancestors and worship of family gods (the "gods of the fathers"). With the emergence of the monarchy at the beginning of Iron Age II the kings promoted their family god, Yahweh, as the god of the kingdom, but beyond the royal court, religion continued to be both polytheistic and family-centered. The major deities were not...

    The Babylonian exile and Second Temple Judaism

    According to the Deuteronomists, as scholars call these Judean nationalists, the treaty with Yahweh would enable Israel's god to preserve both the city and the king in return for the people's worship and obedience. The destruction of Jerusalem, its Temple, and the Davidic dynasty by Babylon in 587/586 BCE was deeply traumatic and led to revisions of the national mythos during the Babylonian exile. This revision was expressed in the Deuteronomistic history, the books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel...


    1. Dever, William (2017). Beyond the Texts: An Archaeological Portrait of Ancient Israel and Judah. SBL Press. ISBN 9780884142171. 2. Albertz, Rainer (1994) [Vanderhoek & Ruprecht 1992]. A History of Israelite Religion, Volume I: From the Beginnings to the End of the Monarchy. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9780664227197. 3. Albertz, Rainer (1994) [Vanderhoek & Ruprecht 1992]. A History of Israelite Religion, Volume II: From the Exile to the Maccabees. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978...

  4. COVID-19 pandemic in Israel - Wikipedia

    The COVID-19 pandemic in Israel (Hebrew: מגפת הקורונה בישראל ) is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).The first case in Israel was confirmed ...

  5. Education in Israel - Wikipedia
    • Educational Tracks
    • Israeli Pupils’ Rights Law
    • Matriculation
    • Higher Education
    • Comparisons and Rankings
    • Arab Sector
    • Gender Statistics
    • Status of Teachers
    • Textbooks
    • Strikes

    Israeli schools are divided into four different tracks: state-secular (Mamlachti), state-religious (Mamlachti dati), independent religious (חרדי Haredi or חינוך עצמאי Ḥinuch Atzmai), and Arab. There are also private schools which reflect the philosophies of specific groups of parents (Democratic Schools), or that are based on the curriculum of a foreign country (e.g., The American International School in Israel). The majority of Israeli children attend state schools. State-religious schools, catering to youngsters from the Orthodox sector (mainly Religious Zionist/Modern Orthodox), offer intensive Jewish studies programs, and emphasize tradition and observance. The Chinuch Atzmai schools focus almost entirely on Torah study and offer very little in terms of secular subjects. Schools in the Arab sector teach in Arabic, and offer a curriculum that emphasizes Arab history, religion, and culture.[citation needed] The proportions of pupils attending schools in the Haredi and Arab sectors...

    The Israeli Pupils’ Rights Law of 2000 prohibits discrimination of students for sectarian reasons in admission to or expulsion from an educational institution, in establishment of separate educational curricula or holding of separate classes in the same educational institution, and addresses rights and obligations of pupils. The law was fully supported by the Israeli Student and Youth CouncilHowever, discrimination still exists: in 2005, the municipality of Lod refused to allow a three-year-old Arab child to register in a Jewish kindergarten.

    High schools in Israel prepare students for the Israeli matriculation exams (bagrut). These are exams covering various academic disciplines, which are studied in units (yehidot limud) of one to five on an ascending scale of difficulty. Students with a passing mark on the mandatory matriculation subjects (Hebrew language, English language, mathematics, scripture, history, state studies and literature), who have been tested on at least 21 units, and passed at least one 5-unit exam, receive a full matriculation certificate. In 2006/7, 74.4% of Israeli 12th graders took the bagrut exams while only 46.3% were eligible for a matriculation certificate. In the Arab and Druze sectors, the figures were 35.6% and 43.7% respectively. A Bagrut certificate and Bagrut scores often determine acceptance into elite military units, admission to academic institutions, and job prospects. Below is a table illustrating the percentage of matriculation certificate recipients in Israel's largest cities, acco...

    After secondary education, students are generally conscripted into the Israel Defense Forces (IDF), but may request a postponement of the conscription date to study at a pre-service Mechina, undertake a voluntary service year, or study in a college or university. Those who study in a university at this stage generally do so under a program called atuda, where part of the tuition for their bachelor's degreeis paid for by the army. They are however obliged to sign a contract with the army extending their service by 2–3 years. Universities generally require a certain amount of bagrut matriculation units (as well as a certain grade average) and a good grade in the Psychometric Entrance Test, which is similar in many respects to the American SAT. The Open University of Israelaccepts all applicants regardless of their academic history, though it still maintains high academic standards. All of Israel's nine public universities, and some of its colleges, are subsidized by the government, an...

    According to the Webometrics ranking, six of Israel's universities place in the top 100 schools of Asia. Four universities place in the top 150 in the world according to the Shanghai Jiao Tong University Academic Ranking of World Universities, and three are in the Times Higher Education-QS World University Rankings (i.e. amongst the "Top 200 World Universities"). Of note, the prestigious NYU, which enrolls the largest number of Jewish students of any public or private university in the United States, and is ranked in the top 34 globally in all major publications of university rankings, has a campus in Tel Aviv. In addition, Israeli universities are among 100 of the top world universities in science and engineering-related subjects, according to the QS World University Rankings: mathematics (TAU, Hebrew University and Technion); physics (TAU, Hebrew University and Weizmann Institute of Science); chemistry (TAU, Hebrew University and Technion); computer science (TAU, Hebrew University...

    Israel is a signatory of the Convention against Discrimination in Education, and ratified it in 1961. The convention has the status of law in Israeli courts. Israel operates an Arab education system for the Israeli-Arabminority, teaching Arab students, in Arabic, about their history and culture. However, there have been claims that the Jewish education system gets more resources. According to the Follow-Up Committee for Arab Education, the Israeli government spends an average of $192 per year on each Arab student, and $1,100 per Jewish student. It also notes that drop-out rate for Israeli Arab citizens is twice as high as that of their Jewish counterparts (12 percent versus 6 percent). The same group also noted that in 2005, there was a 5,000-classroom shortage in the Arab sector. In 1999, in attempt to close the gap between Arab and Jewish education sectors, the Israeli education minister, Yossi Sarid, announced an affirmative actionpolicy, promising that Arabs would be granted 25%...

    The dropout rate in grades 8–12 is higher for males than females. In 2011, the dropout rate declined, but was still higher among males, with 4.5% of male and 1.7% of female students dropping out of school. In addition, the passing rate of high school matriculation exams stood at 62% for females and 51% for males. The rate of women studying in universities and colleges is also higher; in 2011–2012, 56.7% of students at academic institutions were female. In 2012, women were also 59.3% of candidates for Master's degree programs and 52.4% for doctorate programs.[citation needed] However, 81% of Israeli professors are men. In addition, fields such as engineering, electricity, physics, mathematics, computer science, and natural sciences are overwhelmingly male-dominated, though there are a large number of women in certain fields of engineering, such as biomedical, industrial, and environmental engineering. Women tend to study more in human and social sciences, such as education and occupa...

    Over the years, government budget cuts have taken their toll. Israel was amongst the top-ranked nations in international rankings for science and mathematics performance in the 1960s, but dropped to 33 out of 41 nations in the 2002 survey. Wages for Israeli teachers are low compared to other industrialized countries, especially due to the small amount of frontal teaching hours with respect to other developed countries (the salary per hour is similar to that of the OECD standards), according to a survey of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. The government-appointed Dovrat Commission, led by Shlomo Dovrat, concluded in 2004, that the key to improving Israeli education is not more money but better-quality teaching. The recommendations included a reform giving school principals the right to fire teachers of poor quality, and reward better ones with higher pay. These moves have been blocked by Israel's teachers' unions, which have paralyzed schools with a series...

    According to a paper by Nurit Peled-Elhanan, a professor of language and education at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, textbooks in Israel promote a negative image of Arabs. The Center for Monitoring the Impact of Peace, a schoolbook monitoring organization, disputed this finding, calling her claim heavily politicized and distorted. In a report published in 2000, the Center for Monitoring the Impact of Peace stated that in textbooks of both the general state-run network and the religious state-run network, there was a genuine effort to remove stereotypes and to build a foundation for coexistence and mutual respect. According to a 2011 report by the Arab Cultural Association, Arabic textbooks provided to third to ninth grade students in Israeli schools were found to contain many mistakes. The report was based on a study of textbooks in all subjects. Dr. George Mansour, who examined the history textbooks, said they ignored the presence of Arab-Palestinians in Israel and minimized A...

    Israeli schools and universities have been subject to repeated strikes over the years by faculty, and, occasionally, by students. The 2007 Israeli student strike started in April 2007 in protest at the government decision to increase tuition fees and the failure to implement the 2001 Winograd Committee recommendation that they be reduced by 25%. After three weeks, the universities threatened that all students who failed to return to their studies would have to retake the semester. Student leaders rejected a compromise which would have exempted students from the fee rises. Some students started a hunger strike.The strike ended on May 14 after student leaders accepted the implementation of the Shochat reforms. Middle and secondary school teachers were on strike for a month and a half. Their demands included an 8.5% pay raise, reducing class sizes to a maximum of 30 students, and increasing the length of the school day.The school year was extended until July 10, 2008 for all schools th...

    • State & Private
    • Yoav Galant
  6. Haifa - Wikipedia

    Haifa (Hebrew: ח יפ ה Ḥefa; Arabic: حيفا Ḥayfa) is the third-largest city in Israel—after Jerusalem and Tel Aviv—with a population of 285,316 in 2019. The city of Haifa forms part of the Haifa metropolitan area, the third-most populous ...

    • Israel
    • Haifa
    • 1st century CE
    • 145/246 PAL
  7. Bahrain–Israel normalization agreement - Wikipedia–Israel_normalization_agreement
    • Background
    • Agreement
    • Reactions
    • See Also
    • External Links

    In 2005, Bahrain abandoned its boycott of Israel, in exchange for a free trade agreement with the United States. On May 20–21, 2017, in the Saudi capital of Riyadh, a summit of 55 Muslim countries and the U.S. discussed ways of rooting out global terrorism. King Salman of Saudi Arabia and the leaders of the Sunnicountries, including Bahrain, discussed Iran's growing influence and activities in the Middle East. Israel was not invited to the summit. In September 2017, the King of Bahrain, Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, denounced the Arab League boycott of Israel, saying that the kingdom's citizens were entitled to visit Israel, even though the two countries had no diplomatic relations, in a speech to Rabbi Marvin Hier, the president of the Simon Wiesenthal Centerin Los Angeles. On May 8, 2018, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain publicly welcomed and supported the U.S. withdrawal from the Iranian nuclear deal, citing Iran's destabilizing activities in the Middle East. Israel...

    The two states agreed to establish diplomatic relations, which is the first step for Bahrain to fully normalize its ties with Israel, and although signifying a circumspect Bahraini acceptance of the legitimacy of Israel, HM King Hamad stressed "the need to reach a just and comprehensive peace as a strategic option, in accordance with the two-state solution and relevant resolutions of international legitimacy." Trump said that the two states will exchange ambassadors and open embassies in each country and begin work on cooperation in technology, health, and agriculture, among other areas. The agreement also allows for the establishment of flights between Tel Aviv and Manama. A signing ceremony for the agreement was held in the White House on September 15, 2020.The declaration recognizes each state's sovereignty and states that the two countries have agreed to seek agreements in the future regarding embassies and other topics.

    Australia: Australian foreign minister Marise Paynesaid Australia welcomes the normalization of relations between the two states and called it a courageous step forward peace and security in the Mi...
    Bahrain: Bahraini King Hamad bin Salman al-Khalifa'ssenior advisor stated that the normalization deal "sends a positive and encouraging message to the people of Israel, that a just and comprehensiv...
    Canada: Canadian foreign Minister François-Philippe Champagnesays Canada welcomes the normalization between Israel and Bahrain saying that it is a positive and important step toward enhancing Middl...
  8. Israel Jacobson - Wikipedia
    • Origins
    • Accomplishments
    • References

    The only son of wealthy businessman and philanthropist Israel Jacob (philanthropist), Jacobson's parents lived modestly yet contributed considerably to reducing the community debt. Owing to the very low level of efficiency of the Halberstadt public schools, Israel attended mainly the Jewish religious school, in his leisure hours studying German literature and the works of Gotthold Ephraim Lessing and Moses Mendelssohn on his own account. His level of understanding of rabbinic literature and Hebrew led professors at the University of Helmstedt, where he was eventually granted a degree, to declare that Jacobson was a Hebrew scholar. At the age of eighteen, after having accumulated a small fortune, he married Mink Samson, the daughter of respected financier Herz Samson and granddaughter of Philip Samson, founder of the Samson-Schule at Wolfenbüttel, at which Leopold Zunz and Isaak Markus Jost were educated. Through the Samson family, Jacobson became friends with Charles William Ferdina...

    Jacobson very soon perceived the necessity of imbuing the young as early as possible with proper religious impressions. In 1810 he built a beautiful temple within the school grounds and showed his sympathies for reforming ritual by adding Hymns in German that were sung by a choir of boys, and prayers in German were added to those in Hebrew and Aramaic. He also had a pipe organ installed. Though not unheard of in synagogues before, its subsequent association with the new movement would later anathemize the organ in the eyes of the Orthodox in Central Europe (albeit it was introduced, without controversy, in France and Italy). The progressive nature of his views was further shown by his strong advocacy of the introduction of confirmation. In the Seesen temple it was Jacobson himself who confirmed the first five Jewish boys. When, under Napoleon's rule, the Kingdom of Westphalia was created, and the emperor's brother Jérôme Bonaparte was placed at its head, Jacobson, who had removed to...

    Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, xiii. 619;
    This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Isidore Singer and H. Baar (1901–1906). "Jacobson, Israel". In Singer, Isidore; et al. (eds.). The Jewish Encyclopedia. N...
    Marcus, Jacob Rader (1972) Israel Jacobson: The Founder of the Reform Movement in Judaism. Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College Press. ISBN 0-87820-000-2.
  9. Israel Houghton - Wikipedia
    • Musical Career
    • Israel & New Breed
    • Discography
    • Personal Life
    • Awards and Nominations
    • References
    • External Links

    Houghton produced an album by Michael Gungor, Bigger Than My Imagination, which was described as "one of the year's best worship albums" in a 2003 Christianity Todayreview.

    New Breed is the backing band of Israel Houghton. Many of Israel's album releases are credited to Israel & New Breed.

    Other recordings

    1. 2002: "Champions for Christ" – Hi5 (worship leader) 2. 2004: "Where Are the Fathers?" from He-Motions(EMI Gospel) 3. 2003: "Send Me to the Nations" from A Wing & A Prayer(EMI Gospel) 4. 2002: We Speak to Nations(Lakewood Live; Integrity) 5. 2003: Cover the Earth(Lakewood Live; Integrity) 6. 2006: The Gift: A Christmas Presentation(Lakewood Live) 7. 2007: Free to Worship(Lakewood Live) 8. 2007: Moving Forward(Free Chapel Live) 9. 2008: Hope For Today Worship(Lakewood Live) 10. 2009: Free Ch...

    Houghton was married to Meleasa Houghton from 1994 until they separated in 2015, with the divorce being finalized on February 22, 2016. While married, the musician also fathered two sons with mistress DeVawn Moreno. On November 11, 2016, Houghton married singer and TV personality Adrienne Bailonin Paris, after several months of dating.

    Among the awards that Houghton has won includes six Grammy Awards; three for Best Pop/Contemporary Gospel Album and one for Best Traditional Gospel Album for Alive In South Africa.

    Powell, Mark Allan (2002). Encyclopedia of Contemporary Christian Music (First printing ed.). Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers. p. 438. ISBN 1-56563-679-1.
  10. Technion – Israel Institute of Technology - Wikipedia–_Israel_Institute_of...
    • History
    • Campuses
    • Faculty
    • Multidisciplinary Centers
    • Technology Transfer
    • Technion International
    • Outreach Programs
    • Technion in The Israeli Society
    • Rankings
    • Research Highlights

    The Technikum was conceived in the early 1900s by the German-Jewish fund Ezrah as a school of engineering and sciences. It was to be the only institution of higher learning in the then Ottoman Palestine, other than the Bezalel Academy of Art and Design in Jerusalem (founded in 1907). In October 1913, the board of trustees selected German as the language of instruction, provoking a major controversy known as the War of the Languages. After opposition from American and Russian Jews to the use of German, the board of trustees reversed itself in February 1914 and selected Hebrew as the language of instruction. The German name Technikum was also replaced by the Hebrew name Technion. Technion's cornerstone was laid in 1912, and studies began 12 years later in 1924. In 1923 Albert Einstein visited and planted the now-famous first palm tree, as an initiative of Nobel tradition. The first palm tree still stands today in front of the old Technion building, which is now the MadaTech museum, in...


    Technion City generally refers to the 1.2-square-kilometer site located on the pine-covered north-eastern slopes of Mount Carmel. The campus comprises 100 buildings, occupied by thousands of people every day. The Technion has two additional campuses. Its original building in midtown Haifa, in use by the Technion until the mid-1980s, now houses the Israel National Museum of Science, Technology and Space. The Rappaport Faculty of Medicine is located in the neighborhood of Bat Galim, adjacent to...

    Tel Aviv

    Technion's Division of Continuing Education and External Studies has been operating in the Tel Aviv area since 1958. In July 2013, the Technion moved to a new campus in Sarona. The Technion satellite campus in Sarona includes three buildings in a 1,800 sq. meter area, with a total of 16 modern classrooms. Among the programs that study at Sarona are the Technion's International MBA program, which includes students from around the world and guest lecturers from universities such as London Busin...

    Cornell Tech

    On 19 December 2011, a bid by a consortium of Cornell University and Technion won a competition to establish a new high-tier applied science and engineering institution in New York City. The competition was established by New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg in order to increase entrepreneurship and job growth in the city's technology sector. The winning bid consisted of a 2,100,000 square feet (200,000 m2) state-of-the-art tech campus being built on Roosevelt Island, which will have its fir...

    Aerospace Engineering

    Founded in 1954, the Faculty of Aerospace Engineeringconducts research and education in a wide range of aerospace disciplines. The Aerospace Research Center also consists of the Aerodynamics (wind tunnels) Laboratory, the Aerospace Structures Laboratory, the Combustion and Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, the Turbo and Jet Engine Laboratory, the Flight Control Laboratory and the Design for Manufacturing Laboratory.

    Architecture and Town Planning

    The Technion Faculty of Architecture awards BArch degrees awarded after five years of study.Its graduate program in architecture accepts about 15 students each year, and it accepts about 4–5 doctoral students, focusing on subjects such as architectural theory and philosophy, bio-climate and energy conscious design, morphology, computer application, person-environment relations, housing, architectural history, and urban design.


    The Faculty of Biologywas established in 1971. Advanced research is carried out in 23 research groups, focusing on a variety of aspects of cellular, molecular and developmental biology. The faculty has extensive collaborations with the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. The Faculty has around 350 undergraduate students and over 100 graduate students.

    Nanotechnology and science

    The Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute(RBNI) was established in January 2005 as a joint endeavour of the Russell Berrie Foundation, the government of Israel, and the Technion. It is one of the largest academic programs in Israel, and is among the largest nanotechnology centers in Europe and the US. RBNI has over 110 faculty members, and approximately 300 graduate students and postdoctoral fellows under its auspices at Technion. Its multidisciplinary activities span 14 different faculties.

    Energy research

    The GTEP Nancy and Stephen Grand Technion Energy Program is a multidisciplinary center of excellence bringing together Technion's top researchers in energy science and technology from over nine different faculties.Founded in 2007, GTEP's 4-point strategy targets research and development of alternative fuels; renewable energy sources; energy storage and conversion; and energy conservation. The GTEP is presently the only center in Israel offering graduate studies in energy science and technology.

    Space research

    The Norman and Helen Asher Space Research Institute (ASRI) is a specialized institute dedicated to multidisciplinary scientific research. Established in 1984, its members come from five Technion faculties, and it has a technical staff of Technion scientists in a variety of space-related fields: (Physics, Aerospace Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Autonomous Systems,and Computer Sciences).

    Technion has an impressive record in technology transfer. Its dedicated office to bridge the transition of scientific and technological discovery to successfully commercialized innovation has been active since 2007 as T3 – Technion Technology Transfer. As of 2011, 424 patents were granted to Technion innovations, with 845 patents pending. T3's partners include incubators, entrepreneurs, private investors, VCs and angel groups. It has strategic partnerships with Microsoft, IBM, Intel, Philips, Johnson & Johnson, Coca-Cola, among others.

    The Technion International(TI) is a department in the Technion, offering courses taught entirely in English. The TI began its first year in 2009, and now offers a full BSc in Civil Engineering, BSc in Mechanical Engineering as well as various study abroad options, all taught in English. Student come from all over the globe – Asia, Africa, North and South America, Europe and Israel. They live on campus and enjoy trips around Israel and activities throughout the year.

    Technion offers after-school and summer enrichment courses for young people on subjects ranging from introductory electronics and computer programming to aerospace, architecture, biology, chemistry and physics. Two examples are Scitechand the Math Summer Camp, devoted to number theory. Technion recently set up and orchestrated the Israeli chapter of Engineers Without Borders, which among other projects, installed a network of biogas systems in rural Nepalproviding sustainable energy and improved sanitation.

    The Technion takes an active role in empowering students from unrepresented groups in the Israeli society, such as ultra orthodox Jew and Arabs, by giving dedicated scholarships, social programs, and additional financial support. Moreover, the Technion is one of the main sponsors for the Israeli league of FIRST robotics competition which became a formal project of the Technion since 2013.[circular reference]

    In 2019, the Shanghai Academic Ranking rated the Technion as 85th in its list of the top 100 universities in the world. In 2012, the magazine Business Insiderranked Technion among the top 25 engineering schools in the world. In 2012, the Center for World University Rankings ranked Technion 51st in the world and third in Israel in its CWUR World University Rankings. For national rankings in 2011, Technion was ranked the No. 2 of universities in Israel by ARWU. In global rankings for that year, Technion was ranked #102–150 by ARWU, No. 220 by QS. It was ranked #401–500 by Times Higher Education World University Rankingsin 2020. In 2013, the Technion was the only school outside of the United States to make it into the top 10 on a new Bloomberg Rankings list of schools whose graduates are CEOs of top U.S. tech companies.

    In 1982, Dan Shechtman discovered a Quasicrystal structure. This is a structure with a Symmetry in the order of 5 – a phenomenon considered impossible until then by the then-current prevailing theo...
    In 2004, two Technion professors, Avram Hershko and Aaron Ciechanover, won the Nobel Prize for the discovery of the biological system responsible for disassembling protein in the cell.
    Shulamit Levenberg, 37, was chosen by Scientific Americanmagazine as one of the leading scientists in 2006 for the discovery of a method to transplant skin in a way the body does not reject.
    Moussa B.H. Youdim developed Rasagiline, a drug marketed by Teva Pharmaceuticals as Azilect (TM) for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease, especially Parkinson's disease.
    • 11 April 1912
    • US$1.6 billion
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