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  1. › Main_PageP2P Foundation

    The P2P Foundation is an international organization focused on studying, researching, documenting and promoting peer to peer practices in a very broad sense. This wiki is our knowledge commons. Our motto is " Together we know everything, together we have everything ", i.e. pooling our resources through commons, creates prosperity for all.

  2. Introduction This is the space to publish your articles about Peer to Peer developments. The section entitled Other Foundational Essays, is reserved for major essays who have set the terms of the debate in this field. Everything else can be published here in 'Articles'.

  3. "The International Inequalities Institute (@LSEInequalities) at LSE brings together experts from many LSE departments and centres to lead cutting-edge research focused on understanding why inequalities are escalating in numerous arenas across the world, and

  4. University of Tampere, School of Language, Translation and Literary Studies, English Philology, April 2014 Access to Knowledge in a Network Society A Master's Thesis on the WIPO development agenda, critiquing it from an open/free point of view and proposing a A2K Treaty.

    • P2P Context
    • Definition
    • Description
    • Discussion
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    Michel Bauwens: Capitalist industry works through 'economies of scale', ie. mass production allows to lower the price per unit; protocol cooperatives refer to shared infrastructural commons, i.e. common protocols that can be applied (and adapted to), different places and contexts; thus, any unit in a distributed system can learn from all the other ...

    According to the Wikipedia: "Economies of scope make product diversification efficient if they are based on the common and recurrent use of .. an indivisible physical asset."( "Whereas economies of scale for a firm involve reductions in the average cost (cost per unit) arising from increasing the scal...

    1. "An economy of scope exists between the production of two goods when two goods which share a CommonCost are produced together such that the CommonCost is reduced. The affect of an economy of scope is to increase the efficiency of production as a result of increasing the number of different but related products offered. This may happen when the s...


    Tom Atlee: "ECONOMIES OF SCALE (ground economics in "growth" - i.e., efficiently produced and monetized mass commodities which leave people hungry for more and more as they produce and consume more and more). This involves making lots of stuff at a cheap per-piece rate and getting everyone to buy it all so you make a good profit (partly to pay back the infrastructure investment required to make lots of stuff cheaply and massively). Externalize costs wherever possible, so you can continually p...

    Michel Bauwens

    "“And what are economies of scope? As a teaser, for now, this short definition: “An economy of scope exists between the production of two goods when two goods which share a common cost are produced together such that the common cost is reduced.” In other words, something that brings down the common cost of a factor of production, not by producing more of a unit but through shared infrastructure costs. […] Indeed, economies of scale work well in periods of energy ‘ascent’, when more and more e...

    The heart of change today: less scale, more scope, lower cost

    David de Ugarte: “This common pattern is an across-the-board reduction in the scale of productive units and the growing centrality of economies of scope. What are economies of scope? The disproportionate improvement of productivity obtained from two things: 1. The capacity obtained through the intensive use of multi-purpose machines and systems–3D printers in prototyping, “recyclable” production chains in manufacturing, systems integrated into logistics–of multiplying the diversity of low-cos...

    Local Motors

    John D. "Rogers' first big idea was building up localized and digitized made-to-order manufacturing, powered by 3-D printing, to unleash the so-called economy of scope, an antithesis to the economy of scale. "High volume, low pricing power, low cost, low margin — that's what Toyota or Hyundai have done very well with the automotive industry," Rogers says. His sights are on low volume, high price, low production cost, high margin: "My economy comes from being able to drive up my price because...

  5. The long waves or 'long cycles' terminology is most often used for the Kondratieff Cycles, economic cycles that take about 50 years in their ascending and descending (or stagnation) phases. In contrast, there are Very Long Cycles‎ such as the Hegemonic Cycle‎‎, the latter being a political cycle related to great power dynamics.

  6. However, things didn't work out for Mr. Peel, as Marx concludes: "Unhappy Mr. Peel who provided for everything except the export of English modes of production to Swan River!" Once in Swan River, the 300 people simply went off and settled on the vast amounts of free land available, and "Mr. Peel was left without a servant to make his bed or fetch him water from the river."

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