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  1. Virtual private network - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_private_network
    • Types
    • Security Mechanisms
    • Routing
    • User-Visible PPVPN Services
    • Trusted Delivery Networks
    • VPNs in Mobile Environments
    • Networking Limitations
    • See Also
    • Further Reading

    Virtual private networks may be classified by several categories: Remote access 1. A host-to-network configuration is analogous to connecting a computer to a local area network. This type provides access to an enterprise network, such as an intranet. This may be employed for telecommutingworkers who need access to private resources, or to enable a mobile worker to access important tools without exposing them to the public Internet. Site-to-site 1. A site-to-site configuration connects two networks. This configuration expands a network across geographically disparate offices, or a group of offices to a data center installation. The interconnecting link may run over a dissimilar intermediate network, such as two IPv6 networks connected over an IPv4network. Extranet-based site-to-site 1. In the context of site-to-site configurations, the terms intranet and extranet are used to describe two different use cases. An intranet site-to-site VPN describes a configuration where the sites conne...

    VPNs cannot make online connections completely anonymous, but they can usually increase privacy and security. To prevent disclosure of private information, VPNs typically allow only authenticated remote access using tunneling protocols and encryptiontechniques. The VPN security model provides: 1. confidentiality such that even if the network traffic is sniffed at the packet level (see network sniffer and deep packet inspection), an attacker would see only encrypted data 2. sender authenticationto prevent unauthorized users from accessing the VPN 3. message integrityto detect any instances of tampering with transmitted messages. Secure VPN protocols include the following: 1. Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) was initially developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) for IPv6, which was required in all standards-compliant implementations of IPv6 before RFC 6434 made it only a recommendation. This standards-based security protocol is also widely used with IPv4 and the Layer...

    Tunneling protocols can operate in a point-to-point network topology that would theoretically not be considered a VPN because a VPN by definition is expected to support arbitrary and changing sets of network nodes. But since most routerimplementations support a software-defined tunnel interface, customer-provisioned VPNs often are simply defined tunnels running conventional routing protocols.

    OSI Layer 2 services

    Virtual LAN Virtual LAN (VLAN) is a Layer 2 technique that allows for the coexistence of multiple local area network (LAN) broadcast domains interconnected via trunks using the IEEE 802.1Qtrunking protocol. Other trunking protocols have been used but have become obsolete, including Inter-Switch Link (ISL), IEEE 802.10 (originally a security protocol but a subset was introduced for trunking), and ATM LAN Emulation (LANE). Virtual private LAN service (VPLS) Developed by Institute of Electrical...

    OSI Layer 3 PPVPN architectures

    This section discusses the main architectures for PPVPNs, one where the PE disambiguates duplicate addresses in a single routing instance, and the other, virtual router, in which the PE contains a virtual router instance per VPN. The former approach, and its variants, have gained the most attention. One of the challenges of PPVPNs involves different customers using the same address space, especially the IPv4 private address space.The provider must be able to disambiguate overlapping addresses...

    Unencrypted tunnels

    Some virtual networks use tunneling protocols without encryption for protecting the privacy of data. While VPNs often do provide security, an unencrypted overlay network does not neatly fit within the secure or trusted categorization. For example, a tunnel set up between two hosts with Generic Routing Encapsulation(GRE) is a virtual private network but is neither secure nor trusted. Native plaintext tunneling protocols include Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) when it is set up without IPsec...

    Trusted VPNs do not use cryptographic tunneling; instead they rely on the security of a single provider's network to protect the traffic. 1. Multi-Protocol Label Switching(MPLS) often overlays VPNs, often with quality-of-service control over a trusted delivery network. 2. L2TP which is a standards-based replacement, and a compromise taking the good features from each, for two proprietary VPN protocols: Cisco's Layer 2 Forwarding (L2F) (obsolete as of 2009[update]) and Microsoft's Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP). From the security standpoint, VPNs either trust the underlying delivery network or must enforce security with mechanisms in the VPN itself. Unless the trusted delivery network runs among physically secure sites only, both trusted and secure models need an authentication mechanism for users to gain access to the VPN.

    Mobile virtual private networks are used in settings where an endpoint of the VPN is not fixed to a single IP address, but instead roams across various networks such as data networks from cellular carriers or between multiple Wi-Fi access points without dropping the secure VPN session or losing application sessions. Mobile VPNs are widely used in public safety where they give law-enforcement officers access to applications such as computer-assisted dispatch and criminal databases, and in other organizations with similar requirements such as field service management and healthcare.[need quotation to verify].

    A limitation of traditional VPNs is that they are point-to-point connections and do not tend to support broadcast domains; therefore, communication, software, and networking, which are based on layer 2 and broadcast packets, such as NetBIOS used in Windows networking, may not be fully supported as on a local area network. Variants on VPN such as Virtual Private LAN Service(VPLS) and layer 2 tunneling protocols are designed to overcome this limitation.

    Kelly, Sean (August 2001). "Necessity is the mother of VPN invention". Communication News: 26–28. ISSN 0010-3632. Archived from the originalon 17 December 2001.

  2. Hotspot Shield - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hotspot_Shield
    • Overview
    • International Use
    • Critical Reception

    Hotspot Shield is developed and operated by Pango (former AnchorFree Inc.), a company in Silicon Valley with offices in the Ukraine and Russia. The first Hotspot Shield client app was released in April 2008 for Windows and macOS operating systems. It was expanded to include support for iOS and Androidin 2011 and 2012, respectively. The Hotspot Shield client establishes an encrypted VPN connection with one of its supported public VPN servers, through which the user can connect to the Internet. The connection protects the traffic between the user and the server from eavesdropping, and the IP address of the client is not exposed. While the service cannot make users completely anonymous on the Internet, it can greatly increase privacy and security. Users can bypass censorship using Hotspot Shield by connecting to a VPN server located outside their country. Both the client software and the service are freemium: the main features of the client app, as well as a number of public servers ar...

    Hotspot Shield has been used to bypass Internet censorship in countries with strict Internet censorship programs. During the Arab Spring protests in 2010, protesters used Hotspot Shield to access social networking tools to communicate and upload videos. Hotspot Shield was also widely used during the Egyptian protests and revolution in 2011, when the Mubarak regime cracked down heavily on access to social media sites. In 2013, usage of Hotspot Shield increased in Turkey, in response to the suspected efforts of the Turkish government to censor social media and citizen access to international websites. In 2014, usage of Hotspot Shield increased in Hong Kong after the outbreak of the 2014 Hong Kong protests. In 2012, Hotspot Shield usage increased among Mac users in the United States and Europe, as 500,000 Mac users were infected by the Flashback virus. Hotspot Shield was used as a protection against the virus.

    Hotspot Shield has generally received positive reviews by industry publications and websites. PC Magazinerated the software "excellent" and praised its status indicator, traffic encryption, connection speed at times and payment flexibility, but criticized the software's ad platform, website code injection, slowdown of overall response time and browser setting modifications. In August 2017, the Center for Democracy and Technology issued an open complaint to the Federal Trade Commission which they state "concerns undisclosed and unclear data sharing and traffic redirection occurring in Hotspot Shield Free VPN that should be considered unfair and deceptive trade practices under Section 5 of the FTC Act."CDT "partnered with researchers at Carnegie Mellon University to analyze the app and the service and found 'undisclosed data sharing practices' with advertising networks." In February 2018, a security researcher discovered an information disclosure bug in the app that results in a leak...

  3. AnyDesk - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AnyDesk
    • Company
    • Software
    • Security
    • Abuses
    • See Also

    AnyDesk Software GmbH was founded in 2014 in Stuttgart, Germany and has gone worldwide, with subsidiaries in the US and China. In May 2018, AnyDesk secured 6.5 million Euros of funding in a Series A round led by EQT Ventures.Another round of investment in January 2020 brings AnyDesk to over 20 million Dollars of combined funding.

    AnyDesk uses a proprietary video codec "DeskRT" that is designed to allow users to experience higher-quality video and sound transmission while reducing the transmitted amount of data to the minimum. With its three megabytetotal program size, AnyDesk is noted as an especially lightweight application.

    AnyDesk uses TLS-1.2 with authenticated encryption. Every connection between AnyDesk-Clients is secured with AES-256. When a direct network connection can be established, the session is endpoint encrypted and its data is not routed through AnyDesk servers. Additionally, whitelistingof incoming connections is possible.

    AnyDesk can be optionally installed on computers and smartphones with full administrative permissions, if the user chooses to do so.It therefore should, like all remote desktop applications, be used with caution as it may result in a remote full access to the device via the internet.

  4. Opera (web browser) - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opera_(web_browser)
    • History
    • Features
    • Other Versions
    • Development Stages
    • Market Adoption
    • Reception
    • See Also

    In 1994, Jon Stephenson von Tetzchner and Geir Ivarsoy started developing the Opera web browser while working at Telenor, a Norwegiantelecommunications company. In 1995, they founded Opera Software AS. Opera was initially released in April 1995 and was first publicly released in 1996 with version 2.10, which ran on Microsoft Windows 95.Opera began development of its first browser for mobile device platforms in 1998. Opera 4.0, released in 2000, included a new cross-platform core that facilitated the creation of editions of Opera for multiple operating systemsand platforms. Up to this point, Opera was trialware and had to be purchased after the trial period ended. Version 5.0 (released in 2000) saw the end of this requirement. Instead, Opera became ad-sponsored, displaying advertisements to users who had not paid for it. Later versions of Opera gave the user the choice of seeing banner ads or targeted text advertisements from Google. With version 8.5 (released in 2005) the advertisem...

    Opera has originated features later adopted by other web browsers, including: Speed Dial, pop-up blocking, re-opening recently closed pages, private browsing, and tabbed browsing. Additional features include a built-in screenshot tool called Snapshot which also includes an image-markup tool,built-in ad blockers and tracking blockers.

    Opera GX

    Opera GX is a gaming-oriented counterpart of Opera. The browser was announced and released in early access for Windows on June 11, 2019, during E3 2019. The macOS version was released in December of the same year. Opera GX adds features geared towards gamers on top of the regular Opera browser. The browser allows users to limit network, CPU, and memory usage to preserve system resources. It also adds integrations with other apps such as Twitch, Discord, and Instagram. The browser also has a b...

    Opera Software uses a release cycle consisting of three "streams", corresponding to phases of development, that can be downloaded and installed independently of each other: "developer", "beta" and "stable". New features are first introduced in the developer build, then, depending on user feedback, may progress to the beta version and eventually be released. The developer stream allows early testing of new features, mainly targeting developers, extension creators, and early adopters. Opera developer is not intended for everyday browsing as it is unstable and is prone to failure or crashing, but it enables advanced users to try out new features that are still under development, without affecting their normal installation of the browser. New versions of the browser are released frequently, generally a few times a week. The beta stream, formerly known as "Opera Next", is a feature completepackage, allowing stability and quality to mature before the final release. A new version is releas...

    Integrations

    In 2005, Adobe Systems integrated Opera's rendering engine, Presto, into its Adobe Creative Suite applications. Opera technology was employed in Adobe GoLive, Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Dreamweaver, and other components of the Adobe Creative Suite. Opera's layout engine is also found in Virtual Mechanics SiteSpinner Pro. The Internet Channel is a version of the Opera 9 web browser for use on the Nintendo Wii created by Opera Software and Nintendo. Opera Software is also implemented in the Nintend...

    The Opera browser has been listed as a “tried and tested direct alternative to Chrome”.It scores close to Chrome on the HTML5test, which scores browsers’ compatibility with different web standards. Versions with the Presto layout engine have been positively reviewed, although they have been criticized for website compatibility issues.Because of this issue, Opera 8.01 and higher had included workarounds to help certain popular but problematic web sites display properly. Versions with the Blink layout engine have been criticized by some users for missing features such as UI customization, and for abandoning Opera Software's own Presto layout engine.Despite that, versions with the Blink layout engine have been noted for being fast and stable, for handling the latest web standards and for having a better website compatibility and a modern-style user interface.

    Opera browser platform variants: 1. Opera Mini: a browser for tablets and telephones 2. Opera Mobile: a browser for tablets and telephones Related other browsers: 1. Otter Browser: an open-source browser that recreates some aspects of the classic Opera 2. Vivaldi: a freeware browser created by former Opera Software employees Related topics: 1. Comparison of browser synchronizers 2. History of the web browser 3. List of pop-up blocking software 4. List of web browsers 5. Timeline of web browsers

  5. Firefox - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Firefox

    Firefox Browser, also known as Mozilla Firefox or simply Firefox, is a free and open-source [22] web browser developed by the Mozilla Foundation and its subsidiary, the Mozilla Corporation.Firefox uses the Gecko rendering engine to display web ...

  6. Taiwan - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiwan

    Taiwan was joined to the Asian mainland in the Late Pleistocene, until sea levels rose about 10,000 years ago. Fragmentary human remains dated 20,000 to 30,000 years ago have been found on the island, as well as later artifacts of a paleolithic ...

  7. TikTok - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tiktok

    The social media platform is used to make a variety of short-form videos, from genres like dance, comedy, and education, that have a duration from fifteen seconds to three minutes. TikTok is an international version of Douyin, which was ...

  8. PDF - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PDF
    • History
    • Technical Foundations
    • File Format
    • Imaging Model
    • Additional Features
    • Licensing
    • Security
    • Software
    • Alternatives
    • See Also

    Adobe Systems made the PDF specification available free of charge in 1993. In the early years PDF was popular mainly in desktop publishing workflows, and competed with a variety of formats such as DjVu, Envoy, Common Ground Digital Paper, Farallon Replica and even Adobe's own PostScriptformat. PDF was a proprietary format controlled by Adobe until it was released as an open standard on July 1, 2008, and published by the International Organization for Standardization as ISO 32000-1:2008, at which time control of the specification passed to an ISO Committee of volunteer industry experts. In 2008, Adobe published a Public Patent License to ISO 32000-1 granting royalty-freerights for all patents owned by Adobe that are necessary to make, use, sell, and distribute PDF-compliant implementations. PDF 1.7, the sixth edition of the PDF specification that became ISO 32000-1, includes some proprietary technologies defined only by Adobe, such as Adobe XML Forms Architecture (XFA) and JavaScript...

    A PDF file is often a combination of vector graphics, text, and bitmap graphics. The basic types of content in a PDF are: 1. Text stored as content streams (i.e., not encoded in plain text); 2. Vector graphics for illustrations and designs that consist of shapes and lines; 3. Raster graphics for photographs and other types of images 4. Multimedia objects in the document. In later PDF revisions, a PDF document can also support links (inside document or web page), forms, JavaScript (initially available as a plugin for Acrobat 3.0), or any other types of embedded contents that can be handled using plug-ins. PDF combines three technologies: 1. A subset of the PostScriptpage description programming language, for generating the layout and graphics. 2. A font-embedding/replacement system to allow fonts to travel with the documents. 3. A structured storage system to bundle these elements and any associated content into a single file, with data compressionwhere appropriate. PostScript is a p...

    A PDF file contains 7-bit ASCII characters, except for certain elements that may have binary content.The file starts with a header containing a magic number (as a readable string) and the version of the format, for example %PDF-1.7. The format is a subset of a COS ("Carousel" Object Structure) format. A COS tree file consists primarily of objects, of which there are nine types: 1. Boolean values, representing true or false 2. Real numbers 3. Integers 4. Strings, enclosed within parentheses ((...)). Strings may contain 8-bit characters. 5. Names, starting with a forward slash (/) 6. Arrays, ordered collections of objects enclosed within square brackets ([...]) 7. Dictionaries, collections of objects indexed by names enclosed within double angle brackets (<<...>>) 8. Streams, usually containing large amounts of optionally compressed binary data, preceded by a dictionary and enclosed between the stream and endstreamkeywords. 9. The nullobject Furthermore, there may be comments, introdu...

    The basic design of how graphics are represented in PDF is very similar to that of PostScript, except for the use of transparency, which was added in PDF 1.4. PDF graphics use a device-independent Cartesian coordinate system to describe the surface of a page. A PDF page description can use a matrix to scale, rotate, or skew graphical elements. A key concept in PDF is that of the graphics state, which is a collection of graphical parameters that may be changed, saved, and restored by a page description. PDF has (as of version 2.0) 25 graphics state properties, of which some of the most important are: 1. The current transformation matrix(CTM), which determines the coordinate system 2. The clipping path 3. The color space 4. The alpha constant, which is a key component of transparency 5. Black point compensationcontrol (introduced in PDF 2.0)

    Logical structure and accessibility

    A "tagged" PDF (see clause 14.8 in ISO 32000) includes document structure and semantics information to enable reliable text extraction and accessibility. Technically speaking, tagged PDF is a stylized use of the format that builds on the logical structure framework introduced in PDF 1.3. Tagged PDF defines a set of standard structure types and attributes that allow page content (text, graphics, and images) to be extracted and reused for other purposes. Tagged PDF is not required in situations...

    Optional Content Groups

    With the introduction of PDF version, 1.5 (2003) came the concept of Layers. Layers, or as they are more formally known Optional Content Groups (OCGs), refer to sections of content in a PDF document that can be selectively viewed or hidden by document authors or consumers. This capability is useful in CAD drawings, layered artwork, maps, multi-language documents, etc. Basically, it consists of an Optional Content Properties Dictionary added to the document root. This dictionary contains an ar...

    Encryption and signatures

    A PDF file may be encrypted, for security, in which case a password is needed to view or edit the contents. PDF 2.0 defines 256-bit AES encryption as standard for PDF 2.0 files. The PDF Reference also defines ways that third parties can define their own encryption systems for PDF. PDF files may be digitally signed, to provide secure authentication; complete details on implementing digital signatures in PDF is provided in ISO 32000-2. PDF files may also contain embedded DRMrestrictions that pr...

    Anyone may create applications that can read and write PDF files without having to pay royalties to Adobe Systems; Adobe holds patents to PDF, but licenses them for royalty-freeuse in developing software complying with its PDF specification.

    In November 2019, researchers from Ruhr University Bochum and Hackmanit GmbH published attacks on digitally signed PDFs . They showed how to change the visible content in a signed PDF without invalidating the signature in 21 of 22 desktop PDF viewers and 6 of 8 online validation services by abusing implementation flaws.On the same conference, they additionally showed how to exfiltrate the plaintext of encrypted content in PDFs. In 2021, they showed new so-called shadow attacks on PDFs that abuse the flexibility of features provided in the specification. An overview of security issues in PDFs regarding denial of service, information disclosure, data manipulation, and Arbitrary code executionattacks was presented by Jens Müller. PDF attachments carrying viruses were first discovered in 2001. The virus, named OUTLOOK.PDFWorm or Peachy, uses Microsoft Outlookto send itself as an attached Adobe PDF file. It was activated with Adobe Acrobat, but not with Acrobat Reader. From time to time,...

    Viewers and editors

    PDF viewers are generally provided free of charge, and many versions are available from a variety of sources. There are many software options for creating PDFs, including the PDF printing capabilities built into macOS, iOS, and most Linux distributions, LibreOffice, Microsoft Office 2007 (if updated to SP2) and later, WordPerfect 9, Scribus, numerous PDF print drivers for Microsoft Windows, the pdfTeX typesetting system, the DocBook PDF tools, applications developed around Ghostscript and Ado...

    Printing

    Raster image processors (RIPs) are used to convert PDF files into a raster format suitable for imaging onto paper and other media in printers, digital production presses and prepress in a process known as rasterisation. RIPs capable of processing PDF directly include the Adobe PDF Print Engine from Adobe Systems and Jaws and the Harlequin RIP from Global Graphics. In 1993 the Jaws raster image processor from Global Graphicsbecame the first shipping prepress RIP that interpreted PDF natively w...

    Native display model

    PDF was selected as the "native" metafile format for Mac OS X, replacing the PICT format of the earlier classic Mac OS. The imaging model of the Quartz graphics layer is based on the model common to Display PostScript and PDF, leading to the nickname Display PDF. The Preview application can display PDF files, as can version 2.0 and later of the Safari web browser. System-level support for PDF allows Mac OS X applications to create PDF documents automatically, provided they support the OS-stan...

    The Open XML Paper Specification is a competing format used both as a page description language and as the native print spooler format for Microsoft Windows since Windows Vista.

  9. Taichung - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taichung
    • History
    • Geography
    • Demographics
    • Politics
    • Administrative Divisions
    • Economy
    • Transportation
    • Romanization
    • Culture and Recreation
    • Sports

    Early history

    The Atayal Taiwanese aborigines as well as several Taiwanese Plains Aboriginal tribes (including the Taokas, Papora, Pazeh, Hoanya and Babuza people) populated the plains that make up modern Taichung. They were originally hunter gatherers who later lived by cultivating millet and taro. In the 17th century, the Papora, Babuza, Pazeh, and Hoanya established the Kingdom of Middag, occupying the western part of present-day Taichung.[citation needed]

    Qing Dynasty

    In 1682, the Qing dynasty wrested control of western Taiwan from the Cheng family (Kingdom of Tungning). In 1684, Zhuluo County was established, encompassing the underdeveloped northern two-thirds of Taiwan. Modern-day Taichung traces its beginnings to a settlement named Toatun (Chinese: 大墩; pinyin: Dàdūn; Wade–Giles: Ta4-tun1; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Toā-tun; lit. 'large mound') in 1705. To strengthen Qing control, a garrison was established in 1721 near the site of present-day Taichung Parkby Lan Ting-...

    Empire of Japan

    After the Qing dynasty lost the Sino-Japanese War in 1895, Taiwan was ceded to Japan by the Treaty of Shimonoseki, and the name of the city was changed to Taichū(Japanese: 臺中). The Japanese sought to develop the city to make it the first "modern" area of Taiwan and invested in roads, dams, and levees. In 1901, Taichū Chō(臺中廳)was established as one of twenty local administrative districts on the island. In 1904, the town of Taichū had a population of 6,423, and Taichū District had more than 20...

    Taichung City is located in the Taichung Basin along the main western coastal plain that stretches along the west coast from northern Taiwan almost to the southern tip. The city borders Changhua County, Nantou County, Hualien County, Yilan County, Hsinchu County and Miaoli County. The Central Mountain Range lies just to the east of the city. Rolling hills run to the north leading to Miaoli County, while flat coastal plains dominate the landscape to the south leading to Changhua County and the Taiwan Straitto the west.

    Taichung's population was estimated to be 2,816,667 in March 2020. There are slightly more females in the city (50.97%) than males. 24.32% of residents are children, while 16.63% are young people, 52.68% are middle-age, and 6.73% are elderly. According to Ministry of Interiorstatistics, the fertility rate in Taichung City in 2007 was 1.165 for each woman. The city surpassed Kaohsiung to become the second largest city in Taiwan in July 2017, growing at the 2nd fastest rate in Taiwan from 2012 to 2017. Recent population increases have been attributed to natural population growth, more people moving to the city, and subsidized housing.

    Local politics

    Unlike Taipei in the north, which is solidly in the Pan-Blue political camp, and the southern cities of Kaohsiung and Tainan that are solidly Pan-Green, Taichung is more balanced, with the urban city center area leaning Blue and the suburban and rural areas leaning Green. In fact, both major political parties have won a mayoral election among the last four with at least 49 percent of the vote (Democratic Progressive Party in 1997 and 2014 and the Kuomintang in 2001 and 2005). Similarly, the K...

    Government

    Taichung City's executive branch is headed by mayor Lu Shiow-yen of the Kuomintang.Taichung's legislative branch is a unicameral 46-member City Council. Each member is elected from one of six member districts where each voter has only one vote.

    Taichung consists of 29 districts, 28 districtsand 1 mountain indigenous district. Inner Taichung refers to the eight former districts of Taichung City before the merger with Taichung County on December 25, 2010. Colors indicate statutory language status of Hakka language in the respective subdivisions. Note that Heping District is also an indigenous area of the Atayal people.

    Taichung is home to many industries. Taichung's Industrial Zone, located in Xitun District, is home to many factories, while nearby World Trade Center Taichung hosts many industrial conventions every year. Taichung is also home to the Central Taiwan Science Park, known for the many semiconductor factories located there, most notably TSMC. Taichung is also known for its bicycle manufacturing. Notable business located in Taichung include Giant Bicycles, SRAM, and TRP Brakes. Merida Bicycles is also located in nearby Dacun, Changhua. Taichung is most famous for its suncakes. Taichung's Chun Shui Tang teahouse (春水堂) is where bubble teawas invented. The recent surge in population resulted in the growth of the retail sector,[citation needed]with the opening of large department stores in Xitun District.

    Rail

    Two railways run parallel to each other in Taichung: the Taichung Line, which passes through the urban areas in the interior, and the West Coast Line, which passes through rural areas closer to the coastal shore. Taichung railway station is located in the heart of the city in Central District and numerous bus companies provide connections to other towns by bus. The THSR Taichung Station is located in Wuriand is served both by local trains as well as free shuttle buses into the city.

    Seaport

    Taichung Port, located on the coast in Taichung City, is the second largest cargo facility on the island capable of handling container shipping. Despite being the second largest port on the island of Taiwan, there are no passenger ferry services available and the port is closed to unauthorized personnel.

    Roads

    Taichung City generally follows a radial road layout, with its center at Taichung railway station. Major roads start in Central District and run outwards, including Taiwan Boulevard, Xiangshang Road, Zhongqing Road, and Zhongshan Road. Freeway 1 runs along the Fazi River on the outskirts of the city, while Freeway 3 runs along the Dadu River to the coastal plains on the west, where it then runs parallel to the coastline. Freeway 4 begins in Qingshui District and terminates in Fengyuan Distric...

    Taichung City is in the process of implementing Hanyu Pinyin on road signs throughout the city. However, there are still signs displaying spellings from previously used romanization systems, as well as Tongyong Pinyin and systems that do not conform to any standard system. Unlike Taipei, which uses a capital letter at the beginning of every syllable, Taichung City uses the standard form of Hanyu Pinyin on street signs erected in recent years. However, the municipal website uses the Taipei system. Most major intersections have at least one sign containing some form of romanization. Nearly every intersection in the downtown area has signs in Hanyu Pinyin. However, outside of the downtown area, while coverage by Hanyu Pinyin signs is improving, many intersections have signs in other romanization systems (especially Wade–Giles and MPS2) or no Romanized signs at all.

    Museums and cultural centers

    1. The National Taiwan Museum of Fine Artshouses the world's largest collection of Taiwanese art. 2. National Museum of Natural Science together with National Palace Museum in Taipei and the National Science and Technology Museum in Kaohsiung are called "the Museums of Taiwan". Across 22 acres (89,000 m2), the Museum is a six-venue complex housing the Space IMAX Theater, Science Center, Life Science Hall, Chinese Science Hall, Global Environment Hall and the Botanical Garden, excluding the Ea...

    Temples

    Taichung has a large number of temples, many of which hold historic and cultural value. According to a 2018 survey by the city government, Taichung is home to 1,012 registered temples, of which 774 are Taoist and 208 are Buddhist. The sea goddess Mazu is a commonly-worshipped deity. Jenn Lann Temple is the starting point of the annual Dajia Mazu Pilgrimage, one of two largest such pilgrimages in Taiwan (along with the Baishatun Mazu Pilgrimage). Each year, worshippers carry a litter containin...

    Night markets

    Taichung has several open-air night marketsthat feature local food and diversions: 1. Fengjia Night Market - located adjacent to Feng Chia University. It has been considered as the best night market in Taiwan. 2. Yizhong Street - located at North District, close to Taichung Park. One of the most popular night market in Taichung. 3. Zhonghua Night Market - located in the heart of Central District, along ZhongHua Road. 4. Zhongxiao Night Market - located south of the Taichung Railroad Station a...

    Professional sports

    The Sinon Bulls were a professional baseball team playing in the four-team Chinese Professional Baseball League. While they were identified with Taichung City, many of their “home games” were played outside of the city due to the inadequacies of the old Taichung Baseball Field. The team was expected to move into the newly completed Taichung Intercontinental Baseball Stadium in 2008, but never did. At the end of the 2012 season, Sinon Corporation announced its intention to sell the team. By la...

    Other sporting activities

    Taichung hosts two road races annually. The ING Marathon preparation 10K race is held every September in the Metropolitan Park. The Supau Cup Marathon is held on the city's streets every autumn, either in October or November.

  10. Visual effects - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visual_effects
    • History of Effects
    • Techniques Used
    • Production Pipeline
    • VFX Industry
    • List of Visual Effects Companies
    • See Also
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    Early Developments

    In 1857, Oscar Rejlander created the world's first "special effects" image by combining different sections of 32 negatives into a single image, making a montaged combination print. In 1895, Alfred Clark created what is commonly accepted as the first-ever motion picture special effect. While filming a reenactment of the beheading of Mary, Queen of Scots, Clark instructed an actor to step up to the block in Mary's costume. As the executioner brought the axe above his head, Clark stopped the cam...

    Modern Age

    VFX today is heavily used in almost all movies produced. The highest-grossing film of all time, Avengers: Endgame(2019), used VFX extensively. Around ninety percent of the film utilised VFX and CGI. Other than films, television series and web series are also known to utilise VFX.

    Special Effects: Special effects (often abbreviated as SFX, SPFX, F/X or simply FX) are illusions or visual tricks used in the theatre, film, television, video game and simulator industries to simu...

    Visual effects are often integral to a movie's story and appeal. Although most visual effects work is completed during post-production, it usually must be carefully planned and choreographed in pre-production and production. While special effects such as explosions and car chases are made on set, visual effects are primarily executed in post-production with the use of multiple tools and technologies such as graphic design, modeling, animation and similar software. A visual effects supervisor is usually involved with the production from an early stage to work closely with production and the film's directordesign, guide and lead the teams required to achieve the desired effects. Many studios are specialized in the field of visual effects areas, among which: Digital Domain, DreamWorks Animation, Framestore, Weta Digital, Industrial Light & Magic, Pixomondo and Moving Picture Company.

    The VFX and Animation studios are scattered all over the world; studios are located in California, Vancouver, London, Paris, New Zealand, Mumbai, Bangalore, Sydney, Tokyo, Hyderabad and Shanghai.

    The VES Handbook of Visual Effects: Industry Standard VFX Practices and Procedures, Jeffrey A. Okun & Susan Zwerman, Publisher: Focal Press 2010.
    T. Porter and T. Duff, "Compositing Digital Images", Proceedings of SIGGRAPH '84, 18 (1984).
    The Art and Science of Digital Compositing (ISBN 0-12-133960-2)
    McClean, Shilo T. (2007). Digital Storytelling: The Narrative Power of Visual Effects in Film. The MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-13465-1.

    Take Five Minutes to Watch 100 Years of Visual Effectsby Rosa Golijan – Gizmodo.com – August 27, 2009

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