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  1. Bagua - Wikipedia
    • Relation to Other Principles
    • Fu Xi "Earlier Heaven"
    • Yellow River Map
    • Nine Halls Diagram
    • Bagua Used in Feng Shui
    • in Culture
    • Other Adoptions
    • See Also

    There are two possible sources of bagua. The first is from traditional Yin and Yang philosophy. This is explained by Fuxiin the following way: Another possible source of bagua is the following, attributed to King Wen of Zhou Dynasty: "When the world began, there was heaven and earth. Heaven mated with the earth and gave birth to everything in the world. Heaven is Qian-gua, and the Earth is Kun-gua. The remaining six guas are their sons and daughters". The trigrams are related to the five elements of Wu Xing, used by Feng Shui practitioners and in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Those five elements are Water, Wood, Fire, Earth and Metal. The Water (Kan) and Fire (Li) trigrams correspond directly with the Water and Fire elements. The element of Earth corresponds with both the trigrams of Earth (Kun) and Mountain (Gen). The element of Wood corresponds with the trigrams of Wind (Xun) (as a gentle but inexorable force that can erode and penetrate stone) and Thunder (Zhen). The element of M...

    This is also known as the "binary sequence" or Shao Yong sequence. A binary interpretation of each hexagram is made by interpreting yin as "0" and yang as "1", and reading the leading "digit" from the inside of the diagram, so the hexagram kūn is interpreted as 0, and gèn as 1. The hexagrams are in binary order when read up from the bottom around on the right, then up again on the left to the top.[clarification needed][citation needed]

    Cycles of elements in this chart: 生 (Generative/Counter-clockwise), 剋(Destructive/Clockwise) 火生水, 水生木, 木生金, 金生火 火剋金, 金剋木, 木剋水, 水剋火 Fire brings water, water feeds wood, wood brings metal, metal brings fire Fire melts metal, metal chops wood, wood drains water, water quenches fire Earth is now consted in Yellow River Map.

    Cycles of elements in this chart: 生(Generative/Counter-clockwise),剋(Destructive/Clockwise) 水生木,木生金,金生火,火生水 水剋火,火剋金,金剋木,木剋水 Water feeds wood, wood brings metal, metal brings fire, fire brings water Water quenches fire, fire melts metal, metal chops wood, wood drains water Earth is now contest in element. Wood, Fire, Metal and Water is contest.

    The Bagua is an essential tool in the majority of Feng Shui schools. The Bagua used in Feng shui can appear in two different versions: the Earlier Heaven Bagua, used for burial sites, and the Later Heaven Bagua, used for the residences.

    In Peking Opera, a role that has Taoist technique or military strategy wears a costume decorated with Taijiand Bagua. Baguazhang and Taijiquanare two Chinese martial arts based on principles derived from bagua.

    Flag of South Korea: a flag that has four trigrams surrounding the taegeuk.
    Tekes County and Zhuge Village: both these communities has a layout based on bagua.
    • 八卦
    • Eight symbols
    • 八卦
    • Bát quái
  2. Dadeng Subdistrict - Wikipedia
    • History
    • Geography
    • Administrative Divisions
    • See Also

    From the Song Dynasty to the early Republican China period, the area was part of Xiangfeng Li (翔風里).:99 In 1914, the present-day Dadeng Subdistrict area became part of Xiamen's Siming County.:99 In 1915, the present-day Dadeng Subdistrict area became part of Kinmen County (Quemoy).:99 Japan occupied Kinmen County (Quemoy) during the Second Sino-Japanese Warfrom 1937 to 1945. During this period, the county government was moved to Dadeng. The islands have been under PRC control since October 9 or October 15, 1949 initially as part of Nan'an County.:99 On the day of Qingming Festivalin 2005, a monument to the more than 300 PLA soldiers who died during the struggle was erected on Dadeng Island. In the lead-up to the Battle of Kuningtou in late October 1949, the PLA gathered forces in Aotou (澳頭) (in Xindian, Xiamen), Dadeng (Tateng) and Lianhe (Lienho) (蓮河) (then part of Nan'an County, now also in Xindian). Dadeng District (大嶝區) was established in 1949. On September 3, 1954, fourteen 120...

    Dadeng Subdistrict is made up of offshore islands and islets including: 1. Dadeng (Tateng, Twalin) (大嶝岛) 2. Xiaodeng (Hsiaoteng, Town I., Siao Deng) (小嶝岛) 3. Jiaoyu/Jiao Yu (Chiao I., Reef I. 角屿) 4. Baihajiao (白蛤礁/白哈礁) Dadeng (大嶝/大嶝島), Xiaodeng (小嶝/小嶝島) and Jiaoyu (角嶼) were part of Kinmen County in Republican China and are claimed by modern Kinmen County, Republic of China (Taiwan). The islands have been under PRC control since October 9or October 15, 1949. At low tide, the coast near Mashan (馬山) in northern Jinsha Township, Kinmen County (Quemoy), ROC (Taiwan) is 1.8 kilometres (1.1 mi) from Jiaoyu. Rock-filled waters make passage between the two areas difficult.

    Dadeng Subdistrict administers nine residential communities::94 1. Tianqian (T'ien-ch'ien; 田墘社区), Shantou (山头社区), Xunku (𫊻窟社区; traditional characters: 蟳窟社區), Dengqi (嶝崎社区), Shuanghu (Shuang-hu; 双沪社区), Yangtang (Yang-t'ang; 阳塘社区), Beimen (北门社区), Dongcheng (东埕社区), Xiaodeng (Hsiao-teng; 小嶝社区)

    • 13.2 km² (5.1 sq mi)
    • Xiang'an
  3. National Treasure (North Korea) - Wikipedia

    This article includes a list of general references, but it remains largely unverified because it lacks sufficient corresponding inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. A National Treasure (국 ...

  4. Chinese herbology - Wikipedia

    Chinese herbology (simplified Chinese: 中药学; traditional Chinese: 中藥學; pinyin: zhōngyào xué) is the theory of traditional Chinese herbal therapy, which accounts for the majority of treatments in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). A Nature ...

  5. Four tones (Middle Chinese) - Wikipedia

    The tonal aspect of Chinese dialects that is so important today is believed by some linguists to have been absent from Old Chinese, but rather came about in Early Middle Chinese after the loss of various finals. ( However, another popular view ...

  6. List of sites in Jinan - Wikipedia

    The following is a list of sites in Jinan.It contains sites of natural, cultural, economic, political, or historical significance in the City of Jinan, Shandong, China.The geographical area covered by this list includes not only the urban area ...

  7. Folktales from Japan - Wikipedia

    Hometown Rebuilding: Folktales from Japan (ふるさと 再生 (さいせい) 日本 (にっぽん) の 昔 (むかし) ばなし, Furusato Saisei: Nippon no Mukashi Banashi) is a 258-episode long Japanese anime television series that adapts various traditional stories ...

  8. Joël Bellassen - Wikipedia'Initiation_a_la_Langue_et_a...
    • Biography
    • Bellassen Approach
    • Bibliography
    • External Links

    A graduate in Philosophy and Chinese at the Université Paris VIII - Vincennes, he departed for China in 1973, where he studied Philosophy and Chinese at the Beijing Languages Institute and Peking University from 1973 to 1975. Upon his return to France, he set about building the discipline of the teaching of Chinese language. He is particularly known for his pedagogical innovation of the 1980s when he conceived methods to teach Chinese language in primary education which included colour-coding Chinese characters to assist memorising of the four tones in Standard Mandarin(first tone: blue; second tone: yellow; third tone: black; fourth tone: red). Bellassen taught at the École alsacienne in Paris, following by teaching posts at Université Paris VII and then at INALCO. In 2003, Bellassen received the Chinese Language and Culture prize from the Chinese Ministry of Education. In 2006 he was made the first Inspector General in the field of Chinese Language Teaching at the French Ministry...

    Méthode d'Initiation broke the mould for Chinese textbooks by diving straight into the use of single Han characters (zh:字 zì) and only afterwards providing Chinese multi-characters words (zh:詞cí). The general aim is to immerse the student in the language and culture, with the characters being seen as a primordial element of this. One of the main aims of the textbook (which uses Simplified Chinese characters and Standard Chinesepronunciation) is to teach the student 400 essential characters that represent two-thirds of the vocabulary found in modern Chinese texts. Bellassen and Zhang later went on to publish book 2 of the course: Perfectionnement à la Langue et à l'Écriture chinoises (1991, ISBN 2-9504135-2-8; and a double edition including book 1: ISBN 2-9504135-0-1). This sequel is even more centred on the characters, with even less grammatical explanation. It aims to teach a further 500 characters and consolidate the absorption of the first 400; these 900 essential characters toge...

    Le Chinois pour tous (et A. Arslangul), Bescherelle-Hatier, 2010, ISBN 978-2-218-93312-7
    Méthode d'Initiation à la langue et à l'écriture chinoises (nouvelle édition avec DVD), La Compagnie, 2008, ISBN 978-2-9504135-6-7
    Gunxueqiu xue hanyu - Snowballing Chinese - Le chinois par boules de neige - (et Liu Chia-ling), Sinolingua 2008, Pékin, ISBN 978-7-80200-643-0
    Zaijian le, Zhongguo. Wo de 70 yinji, Dongfang chubanshe 2007, Pékin, ISBN 978-7-5060-2801-1
  9. Talk:Fusang - Wikipedia
    • Fusang Is Not Japan
    • Was Hui-Sheng Really Chinese?
    • Fusang as Part of North America?
    • li ( Chinese Mile ) Values
    • Huiseng
    • Hui Shen Was A Fusang Native Instead of A Chinese
    • External Links Modified

    Though the term Fusang refers to Japan in modern days, ancient Chinese literature such as Book of Liang (《梁書•五十四•列傳四十八》) described Wa(倭 Japan) and Fusang (扶桑) in the same chapter. That indicates Fusang is not Japan. (exerpt from the Book of Liang on Wa) (exerpt from the Book of Liang on Fusang) It is interesting that the last paragraph above describe a tribe of women, further east from Fusang. Could it be the Amazon tribe in Brazil? 1. Er, um, that's a really bad interpretation. WHICH tribe in the Amazon were you thinking of? Or is it because of the name Amazon you're presuming there was a tribe of women?Skookum121:39, 23 June 2006 (UTC) 1. 1.1. ... I think he(she) meant the Amazon tribe in Greek mythology. Lol. --Sumple (Talk) 05:19, 24 June 2006 (UTC) Regarding the above proposition "Fusang is not Japan"... the only thing that can be said in respect with the sources is that "Fusang is not Wa", Wa being described as a statelet in Western Japan centered in Kyushu. Fusang is said to...

    Doubtless he was Buddhist, of course, but assuming he was Chinese Buddhist just because his budget was covered by the Son of Heaven is a stretch. As I recall from other write-ups, and missing here, is that he was from Jilin (sp?), the Chinese name for Kabul. He could have been Pashtun, Dari, Sassanid, Tokharian, even Greek; unless there's a bio which says he was born in China, and travelled to Jilin to become a monk, then came back to China inspired to travel to the west etc. then it's not really proven, although too often assumed, that he was Chinese. Much in the same way that it is forgotten by some that Columbus was Italian and not Castilian and Juan de Fuca was Greek and not Portuguese. One of the reasons I'm interested in the story, other than the side-issue of Hui-sheng's origins, is because of the traces of contact with Asia (not necessarily China) and various apocryphal legends in western North America; in the valley I'm from ( and shalalth.h...

    There seems to be evidence that Fusang was part of North America. Based on both interpretations of geographic distances and of observations. Two links follow: I have no way of knowing the "right" answer, but it seems there is enough of a case for the main article to acknowledge the possibility. Failing that, to acknowledge the claims. the article is wrong, there were horses in N.America way before Columbus time — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 03:23, 25 October 2013 (UTC) 1. Sure, but long before there was a China. Dougweller (talk) 05:11, 25 October 2013 (UTC)

    The suggestions that the li appears to have been used as 77 meter in Liang times are removed. There is no reason to change the li to a standard that is 5-7 times less than normally, based on one or a few obscure passages. Really compelling evidence is needed for such a drastic, absurd change. There are enough passages in the Liang book and contemporary works to show that the li had the more regular values. About the passage (which was unsourced)where a sea was crossed and was used to give the li that new standard of 77 meters : It can be erroneous or a copyist error but more important, the given distances in journeys are rather travel distances. The sea /strait might be 100-150 km wide between certain points but that does not mean that it was crossed from these points and nobody said that crossing a sea needs to happen in a straight line. Its very easy to travel 300 km or more on the water to cross the sea between Korea and Japan. A. Post-Muller (talk) 12:11, 3 December 2008 (UTC) 1...

    Long before Huiseng, fusang was mentioned in Chinese book such as Huainanzi(日出于旸谷,浴于咸池,拂于扶桑,是谓晨明), Shanhaijing(汤谷上有扶桑,十日所浴). And in Tang have a fusang county in Lingnan(扶桑县, 属岭南道禺州)KJ, And fusang also is the chinese name of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis.(talk) 09:17, 17 March 2009 (UTC)

    I edited the page on Aug 21,2009 correcting the sentence "described by the Chinese Buddhist missionary Hui Shen".According to the original text from Book of Liang,the country of Fusang was described by "a Shramana from there called Hui Shen" who "came to Jingzhou"(“其國有沙門慧深来至荆州”,literal translation:"A Shramana from the country called Hui Shen came to Jingzhou",meaning Hui Shen is a Fusang Native instead of a Chinese. —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 13:58, 21 August 2009 (UTC) (talk) 14:01, 21 August 2009 (UTC)Lin Jingqiu

    Hello fellow Wikipedians, I have just modified one external link on Fusang. Please take a moment to review my edit. If you have any questions, or need the bot to ignore the links, or the page altogether, please visit this simple FaQfor additional information. I made the following changes: 1. Added archive to When you have finished reviewing my changes, you may follow the instructions on the template below to fix any issues with the URLs. As of February 2018, "External links modified" talk page sections are no longer generated or monitored by InternetArchiveBot. No special action is required regarding these talk page notices, other than regular verification using the archive tool instructions below. Editors have permission to delete these "External links modified" talk page sections if they want to de-clutter talk pages, but...

  10. Talk:Four tones (Middle Chinese) - Wikipedia
    • Tone Name Talk Page
    • Cleanup / Expansion
    • Modern Tones Are More Notable Subject
    • Min Nan (Hokkien)上聲 + Voiced Obstruent
    • Circled Numbers System
    • ꜂꜄꜀꜆꜁꜃꜇
    • Numbers and Accents
    • Couple of Comments
    • Needs Verbal Description of Pitch Changes
    • History of Tone Classification by Native Chinese Philologists

    I moved a lot of content from Tone name. One might want to see Talk:Tone name. Asoer (talk) 04:09, 23 June 2010 (UTC) 1. You should have mentioned it in the edits and made a note of the move in the discussions page. It looked like vandalism until I found this page. Dylanwhs (talk) 14:36, 25 January 2011 (UTC)

    Expanding, caught some errors. Not sure about Dungan; I can't make sense of the tables in the Dungan language article. Tianshui has the same tone pattern (1-3-5-1) as we have here for Dungan, however. — kwami (talk) 10:09, 11 December 2010 (UTC) 1. Since when is the 'level' and 'departing' tones now called the 'even' and 'going' tones? Dylanwhs (talk) 14:37, 25 January 2011 (UTC) 1. 1.1. Alternative translations. Both are common, and both old. — kwami (talk) 20:33, 1 December 2011 (UTC)

    I appreciate the coverage of historical and dialect tones, but the subject name primarily refers to the four tones of the present standard language, which should be mentioned more prominently. --JWB (talk) 19:23, 1 December 2011 (UTC) 1. Ref? ASAIK, "four tones" always refers to the 四声, unless dab'd by context ("the four tones of MSC", etc). Also, I don't see how that would deserve anything more than a hatnote dab to MSC phonology. — kwami (talk) 20:33, 1 December 2011 (UTC) 1. 1.1. Just google "four tones" - apart from this article, all results I see for at least the first three pages are for the current Mandarin tones. This is common usage. --JWB (talk) 20:40, 29 January 2012 (UTC) 1. 1.1. 1.1.1. Apart from things like "there are four tones in language X" (such as Mambila), I'm getting mixed returns. When by "Chinese" they mean Mandarin, then the four tones are the four tones of Mandarin. However, when by "Chinese" they mean Chinese, the four tones are the four tones of Chinese, a...

    I think Hokkien Min Nan has a split where historical Middle Chinese 上聲 has become modern 上聲 when the Middle Chinese initial is voiceless and when it is a voiced sonorant, but it has merged into modern 陽去聲 when the Middle Chinese initial is a voiced obstruent. This is like the case with Mandarin. So characters like 婦, 厚, 市, 似, 巳, 畤, 士 (though this one moved to 陽去聲 in Cantonese as well), 俟, 陫, 佇, 拒 are all 去聲 in both Taiwanese Hokkien Min Nan and Standard Beijing Mandarin, and all began with voiced obstruent initials (at least in the 廣韻, although there were of course some that didn't fit). Of course, this is all original research... at the moment. Michael Ly (talk) 02:49, 23 January 2012 (UTC) 1. Yeah, I don't think that's what our refs have. If we got it wrong, it def. needs to be fixed. — kwami (talk) 04:03, 23 January 2012 (UTC) 1. 1.1. Did some digging: apparently it's a fairly well-attested phenomenon. This paper about a certain Cantonese particle in 陽上聲 stated that quite a few a...

    They're not attributed to a reference, so they're apparently arbitrary by a Wikipedia editor, not sourced information that has to be quoted unchanged.
    They're coded, with the low order bit indicating yin or unsplit vs. yang (why not distinguish yin and unsplit?) and the top two bits indicating which of the four tones it corresponds to (except the...
    The first column has almost all number 1, and so on. This indicates redundant information that a good information design could factor out, making the exceptions or changes more visible.
    They partially correspond to the tone numbering used for particular dialects, especially for the lowest numbers, but not completely, at least in the two cases I know most about, Mandarin and Canton...

    I'm looking for dictionaries where these diacritics are used, as I haven't seen any yet. --JWB (talk) 19:40, 31 January 2012 (UTC) 1. I've seen them plenty of times, but don't have access to anything right now. 2. My Japanese kanji dictionary does something very similar: they put a box around the rhyme, and fill in the corresponding corner. Same convention, different format. 3. And the other day I saw a photo online, where s.o. had drawn them on their fingers, using the orientation of the table at right. Now I can't find it. [here's a similar one] — kwami (talk) 22:48, 31 January 2012 (UTC) 3.1. Karlgren's Analytic Dictionary uses them, except for ru-sheng (already marked by the stop). Kanguole 02:12, 1 February 2012 (UTC) 3.1.1. You're talking about use with romanization. (Pulleyblank's MC reconstructions quoted in this article use them as well, and Williams quoted below used them for Cantonese.) I think JWB was asking about use with Chinese script. — kwami (talk) 04:12, 1 February...

    It would be very helpful to match the numbers of the tones to the diacritical marks used in romanization (even used in the article). I can guess that "level" is ã and "rising" is á, but I can't guess whether "leaving" is à or ǎ. (Is part of the problem that this computer doesn't render the marks in the corners used in Chinese?) Also, the material on how four tones split into eight probably doesn't need to appear twice. Finally, I have some idea of what the tones are, but I think it would help many people to have a simple explanation at the beginning instead of sending them to Tone_(linguistics). For instance, there could be an example of how words that differ only in tone have unrelated meanings. —JerryFriedman (Talk)20:55, 20 January 2013 (UTC) Ah, I see that the numbers and accents are at Standard_Chinese_phonology#Tones. —JerryFriedman (Talk)20:59, 20 January 2013 (UTC)

    From the article: 1. They derive from the four phonemic tones of Middle Chinese, and are named even AKA level (平 píng), rising (上 shǎng), going AKA departing (去 qù), and entering AKA checked (入 rù) 1. Use of "AKA" is a bit weird. [NOTE: I have changed this now] 1. "level" and "rising" are obvious, but at this point a very brief or simple explanation of "going" and "entering" is needed. 1. I thought that the diacritic marks basically showed tone changes visually, so í would be rising, for example. However, they don't match. For example, píngis "level". This is confusing. (talk) 17:49, 19 May 2014 (UTC)

    I speak no variety of Chinese and thus have no experience with the pitch changes to which the terminology refers. For the benefit of non-speakers like me, this article needs a verbal description of what happens to the speaker's vocal pitch over the course of a vowel's articulation with a given tone. Does "high" mean "high in the speaker's vocal register"? Does "rising" mean "rising in pitch as the vowel's articulation progresses"? Does "falling" mean "falling in pitch as the vowel's articulation progresses"? Is tone 3's symbol (what looks like an upside-down circumflex accent) a graphical depiction of the pitch change, and if so, is the beginning of the vowel's articulation high or middle, is the halfway point middle or low, and is the final part high or middle? If tone 3's symbol is not a physical depiction of the pitch change, what is a good verbal description of the pitch change? What on earth do "departing" and "entering" mean? Does "checked" mean "stopped midway," as in "checke...

    Under Checked tone#History, we find, among other things: 1. The first Chinese philologists began to describe the phonology of Chinese during the Early Middle Chinese period (specifically, during the Northern and Southern Dynasties, between 400 to 600 AD), under the influence of Buddhism and the Sanskrit language that arrived along with it. There were several unsuccessful attempts to classify the tones of Chinese before the establishment of the traditional four-tone description between 483 and 493. It is based on the Vedic theory of three intonations (聲明論). The middle intonation, udātta, maps to the "level tone" (平聲); the upwards intonation, svarita, to the "rising tone" (上聲); the downward intonation, anudātta, to the "departing tone" (去聲). The distinctive sound of syllables ending with a stop did not fit the three intonations and was categorised as the "entering tone" (入聲). The use of four-tone system flourished in the Sui and Tang dynasties (7th–10th centuries). An important rime d...