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  1. Provinces of China - Wikipedia

    Although the Republic of China now only controls one province ( Taiwan ), and some islands of a second province ( Fujian ), it continues to formally claim all 35 provinces (including those that no longer form part of the area of the People's ...

  2. Stapleton Cotton, 1st Viscount Combermere - Wikipedia,_1st_Viscount...
    • Career
    • Slave Ownership
    • Family
    • Sources
    • External Links


    Cotton was born at Lleweni Hall in Denbighshire, the second surviving son of Sir Robert Salusbury Cotton, 5th Baronet and Frances Cotton (née Stapleton). When he was eight, Cotton was sent to board at the grammar school in Audlem some 8 miles (13 km) from the family's estate at Combermere Abbey, where he was tutored by the headmaster, the Reverend William Salmon, who was also chaplain of the private Cotton chapel outside the estate gates. A quick, lively boy, he was known by his family as 'Yo...

    Peninsular War

    Cotton was elected Member of Parliament for Newark in 1806. He was deployed to Portugal in April 1809 and commanded a cavalry brigade in Sir Arthur Wellesley's Army. Cotton was both courageous and also splendidly dressed in battle throughout the Peninsular War and was nicknamed the "Lion d' Or" ("Lion of Gold"). He took part in the Second Battle of Porto in May 1809 and the Battle of Talavera in July 1809 and, having succeeded to his father's baronetcy in August 1809, returned home to view hi...


    Cotton was not present at the Battle of Waterloo as the command of the cavalry had been given, at the insistence of the Prince Regent, to Lord Uxbridge, a more senior general.When Uxbridge was wounded Cotton took over his command and served with the Army of Occupation following the cessation of hostilities. Cotton became Governor of Barbados and commander of the West Indian forces in March 1817. In the West Indies, Cotton's aide-de-camp was Thomas Moody, Kt.. Cotton is mentioned in unverified...

    According to the Legacies of British Slave-Ownership at the University College London, Combermere was awarded a payment as a slave owner in the aftermath of the Slavery Abolition Act 1833 with the Slave Compensation Act 1837. The British Government took out a £15 million loan (worth £1.43 billion in 2021) with interest from Nathan Mayer Rothschild and Moses Montefiore which was subsequently paid off by the British taxpayers (ending in 2015). Combermere was associated with two different claims, he owned 420 slaves in Saint Kitts and Nevisand received a £7,195 payment at the time (worth £688 thousand in 2021).

    Combermere was married three times: 1. On 1 January 1801, Lady Anna Maria Clinton (d. 31 May 1807), daughter of Thomas Pelham-Clinton, 3rd Duke of Newcastle. They had three children: 1. 1.1. Robert Henry Stapleton Cotton (18 January 1802 – 1821) 1.2. a son who died young 1.3. another son who died young. 1. On 22 June 1814,Caroline Greville (d. 25 January 1837), daughter of Captain William Fulke Greville. They had three children: 1. 1.1. Wellington Henry Stapleton-Cotton, 2nd Viscount Combermere(1818–1891) 1.2. Hon. Caroline Stapleton-Cotton (b. 1815), who in 1837 married Arthur Hill, 4th Marquess of Downshire 1.3. Hon. Meliora Emily Anna Maria Cotton, who on 18 June 1853 married John Charles Frederick Hunter 1. In 1838, Mary Woolley (née Gibbings), by whom he had no issue.

    Barthorp, Michael (1990). Wellington's Generals. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-0-85045-299-0.
    Burke, Bernard (1869). A Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Peerage and Baronetage of the British Empire. London: Harrison.
    Heathcote, Tony (1999). The British Field Marshals, 1736–1997: A Biographical Dictionary. Barnsley: Leo Cooper. ISBN 0-85052-696-5.
    Murray, John (1878). Handbook for England and Wales: Alphabetically Arranged for the Use of Travellers ...J. Murray.
    Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Viscount Combermere
    "Archival material relating to Stapleton Cotton, 1st Viscount Combermere". UK National Archives.
    • 1790–1830
    • British
  3. Oxford English Dictionary - Wikipedia
    • Historical Nature
    • Entries and Relative Size
    • History
    • Formats
    • Relationship to Other Oxford Dictionaries
    • Spelling
    • Reception
    • See Also
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    As a historical dictionary, the Oxford English Dictionary features entries in which the earliest ascertainable recorded sense of a word, whether current or obsolete, is presented first, and each additional sense is presented in historical order according to the date of its earliest ascertainable recorded use.Following each definition are several brief illustrating quotations presented in chronological order from the earliest ascertainable use of the word in that sense to the last ascertainable use for an obsolete sense, to indicate both its life span and the time since its desuetude, or to a relatively recent use for current ones. The format of the OED's entries has influenced numerous other historical lexicography projects. The forerunners to the OED, such as the early volumes of the Deutsches Wörterbuch, had initially provided few quotations from a limited number of sources, whereas the OEDeditors preferred larger groups of quite short quotations from a wide selection of authors a...

    According to the publishers, it would take a single person 120 years to "key in" the 59 million words of the OED second edition, 60 years to proofread them, and 540 megabytes to store them electronically. As of 30 November 2005, the Oxford English Dictionary contained approximately 301,100 main entries. Supplementing the entry headwords, there are 157,000 bold-type combinations and derivatives; 169,000 italicized-bold phrases and combinations; 616,500 word-forms in total, including 137,000 pronunciations; 249,300 etymologies; 577,000 cross-references; and 2,412,400 usage quotations. The dictionary's latest, complete print edition (second edition, 1989) was printed in 20 volumes, comprising 291,500 entries in 21,730 pages. The longest entry in the OED2 was for the verb set, which required 60,000 words to describe some 430 senses. As entries began to be revised for the OED3 in sequence starting from M, the longest entry became make in 2000, then put in 2007, then runin 2011. Despite i...


    The dictionary began as a Philological Society project of a small group of intellectuals in London (and unconnected to Oxford University)::103–4,112 Richard Chenevix Trench, Herbert Coleridge, and Frederick Furnivall, who were dissatisfied with the existing English dictionaries. The society expressed interest in compiling a new dictionary as early as 1844, but it was not until June 1857 that they began by forming an "Unregistered Words Committee" to search for words that were unlisted or poor...

    Early editors

    Richard Chenevix Trench (1807–1886) played the key role in the project's first months, but his appointment as Dean of Westminster meant that he could not give the dictionary project the time that it required. He withdrew and Herbert Coleridge became the first editor.:8–9 On 12 May 1860, Coleridge's dictionary plan was published and research was started. His house was the first editorial office. He arrayed 100,000 quotation slips in a 54 pigeon-hole grid.:9 In April 1861, the group published t...

    Oxford editors

    During the 1870s, the Philological Society was concerned with the process of publishing a dictionary with such an immense scope. They had pages printed by publishers, but no publication agreement was reached; both the Cambridge University Press and the Oxford University Press were approached. The OUP finally agreed in 1879 (after two years of negotiating by Sweet, Furnivall, and Murray) to publish the dictionary and to pay Murray, who was both the editor and the Philological Society president...

    Compact editions

    In 1971, the 13-volume OED1 (1933) was reprinted as a two-volume Compact Edition, by photographically reducing each page to one-half its linear dimensions; each compact edition page held four OED1 pages in a four-up ("4-up") format. The two volume letters were A and P; the first supplement was at the second volume's end. The Compact Edition included, in a small slip-case drawer, a magnifying glass to help in reading reduced type. Many copies were inexpensively distributed through book clubs....

    Electronic versions

    Once the text of the dictionary was digitized and online, it was also available to be published on CD-ROM. The text of the first edition was made available in 1987. Afterward, three versions of the second edition were issued. Version 1 (1992) was identical in content to the printed second edition, and the CD itself was not copy-protected. Version 2 (1999) included the Oxford English Dictionary Additionsof 1993 and 1997. Version 3.0 was released in 2002 with additional words from the OED3 and...

    The OED's utility and renown as a historical dictionary have led to numerous offspring projects and other dictionaries bearing the Oxford name, though not all are directly related to the OEDitself. The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, originally started in 1902 and completed in 1933, is an abridgement of the full work that retains the historical focus, but does not include any words which were obsolete before 1700 except those used by Shakespeare, Milton, Spenser, and the King James Bible. A completely new edition was produced from the OED2 and published in 1993,with revisions in 2002 and 2007. The Concise Oxford Dictionary is a different work, which aims to cover current English only, without the historical focus. The original edition, mostly based on the OED1, was edited by Francis George Fowler and Henry Watson Fowler and published in 1911, before the main work was completed.Revised editions appeared throughout the twentieth century to keep it up to date with changes in English...

    The OED lists British headword spellings (e.g., labour, centre) with variants following (labor, center, etc.). For the suffix more commonly spelt -ise in British English, OUP policy dictates a preference for the spelling -ize, e.g., realize vs. realise and globalization vs. globalisation. The rationale is etymological, in that the English suffix is mainly derived from the Greek suffix -ιζειν, (-izein), or the Latin -izāre. However, -ze is also sometimes treated as an Americanism insofar as the -ze suffix has crept into words where it did not originally belong, as with analyse (British English), which is spelt analyzein American English.

    British prime minister Stanley Baldwin described the OED as a "national treasure". Author Anu Garg, founder of, has called it a "lex icon". Tim Bray, co-creator of Extensible Markup Language (XML), credits the OED as the developing inspiration of that markup language. However, despite, and at the same time precisely because of, its claims of authority, the dictionary has been criticized since at least the 1960s from various angles. It has become a target precisely because of its scope, its claims to authority, its British-centredness and relative neglect of World Englishes, its implied but not acknowledged focus on literary language and, above all, its influence. The OED, as a commercial product, has always had to manoeuvre a thin line between PR, marketing and scholarship and one can argue that its biggest problem is the critical uptake of the work by the interested public. In his review of the 1982 supplement, University of Oxford linguist Roy Harris writes that crit...

    Brewer, Charlotte (8 October 2019). "Oxford English Dictionary Research". Examining the OED. The project sets out to investigate the principles and practice behind the Oxford English Dictionary...
    Brewer, Charlotte (2007), Treasure-House of the Language: the Living OED (hardcover), Yale University Press, ISBN 978-0-300-12429-3
    Dickson, Andrew (23 February 2018). "Inside the OED: can the world's biggest dictionary survive the internet?". the Guardian.
    Gilliver, Peter (2016), The Making of the Oxford English Dictionary (hardcover), Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-199-28362-0
    Oxford University Press pages: Second Edition, Additions Series Volume 1, Additions Series Volume 2, Additions Series Volume 3, The Compact Oxford English Dictionary New Edition, 20-volume printed...
  4. Kangxi radical - Wikipedia

    In Unicode version 3.0 (1999), a separate Kangxi Radicals block was introduced which encodes the 214 radicals in sequence, at U+2F00–2FD5. These are specific code points intended to represent the radical qua radical, as opposed to the character ...

  5. History of the administrative divisions of China (1949–present) - Wikipedia
    • Founding
    • 1950s
    • 1960s and 1970s
    • 1980s, 1990s and 2000s
    • External Links

    The Government of Chinamade the following changes: 1. China was divided into 6 greater administrative areas (大行政区 dà xíngzhèngqū) that came above provinces. 2. Manchuriawas reorganized completely. 3. Inner Mongolia was formed out of parts of Manchuriaas the first autonomous region. 4. The short-lived province Pingyuanwas set up. 5. Jiangsu was temporarily divided into two administrative regions: Subei and Sunan. 6. Anhui was temporarily divided into two administrative regions: Wanbei and Wannan. 7. Sichuan was temporarily divided into four administrative regions: Chuandong, Chuannan, Chuanxi and Chuanbei.

    In 1952, the provinces of Jiangsu, Anhui and Sichuan were restored. Pingyuan and Chahar were split into their surrounding provinces. Nanjing, old capital of the Republic of China, was deprived of municipality status and annexed by Jiangsu province. In 1953, Changchun and Harbinwere elevated to municipality status. In 1954, a massive campaign to cut the number of provincial-level divisions was initiated. Of the 14 municipalities existing in 1953, 11 were annexed by nearby provinces, with only Beijing, Shanghai, and Tianjin remaining. The province of Liaoning was formed out of the merger of Liaodong and Liaoxi, while Songjiang, Suiyuan and Ningxia disappeared into Heilongjiang, Inner Mongolia and Gansu, respectively. The greater administrative arealevel was abolished in 1954. The process continued in 1955 with Rehe being split among Hebei, Liaoning and Inner Mongolia, and Xikang disappearing into Sichuan. In that same year Xinjiang became the second autonomous region of China, and pla...

    In 1965 Tibet Autonomous Region was established out of the formerly self-governing Tibet Area, plus Qamdo Territory. In 1967 Tianjinwas split back out as a municipality.

    Starting in the 1980s, prefecture-level cities and county-level cities began to appear in very large numbers, usually by replacing entire prefectures and counties. Hainan and some other islands were split out of Guangdongand set up as a Hainan Province in 1988. In 1997 Chongqing became the fourth municipality of China. In that same year Hong Kong reverted to Chinese rule and became the first special administrative region. Macaubecame the second in 1999. In the 1990s, there was a campaign to abolish district public officesas a level. By 2004 very few remained. In the meantime, most prefectures have become prefecture-level cities.

  6. Kangxi Tongbao - Wikipediaāng_Xī_Tōng_Bǎo
    • Background
    • History
    • Mint Marks
    • Commemorative Issues
    • Kangxi Tongbao Charms and Poem Coins

    After the Manchus occupied Beijing in 1644 the government of the Qing dynasty began the production of the Shunzhi Tongbao (順治通寶) cash coins modeled after the Huichang Kaiyuan Tongbao cash coins (會昌開元通寶錢) of the Tang dynasty and the Dazhong Tongbao (大中通寶) and Hongwu Tongbao (洪武通寶) of the early Ming dynasty. Like these cash coins the Shunzhi Tongbao used mint marks in the form of a single Chinese character on the reverse side of the coin to indicate their origin. Other types of Shunzhi Tongbao were also cast creating a total of 5 different types. Under the Kangxi Emperor only two of these types were retained, one type had a Manchu characters on the left side of the reverse and a Chinese character on the right side of the reverse to indicate the mint of production and was used for provincial mints. And the other type had the name of the mint in Manchu on the right side with the character "ᠪᠣᠣ" (Boo) on the left which were used for cash coins produced at the Ministry of Revenue and Mini...

    In the year Kangxi 1 (or the Gregorian year 1662) all provincial mints in the Qing dynasty were closed down with the exception of the Jiangning Mint. Meanwhile in Kangxi 5 (1667) all provincial mints would re-open again but three years later a large number of them would close down due to the high price of copper in China at the time. The Guangzhou Mint in Guangdong started casting Kangxi Tongbao cash coins with a weight of 1.4 Mace (1 mace = 3.73 gram) in the year Kangxi 7 (1668) which was heavier than those in many other provinces.Those responsible for the transportation of copper rarely made the mints in time, and while copper prices were rising daily the Ministry of Revenue still maintained a fixed rate of exchange between copper and silver causing many provincial mints to quickly lose money, while on paper they were still profitable. A mint was established in Tainan, Taiwan in the year 1689 but it didn't produce much cash coins and was closed down in 1692, for this reason Taiwan...

    Under the Kangxi Emperor cash coins with the inscription Kangxi Tongbao were produced with both a Chinese character and a Manchu character on the reverse side of the coin at provincial mints, while the Ministries of Revenue and Public Works in the city of Beijing, Zhiliexclusively used Manchu characters.

    In 1713 a special Kangxi Tongbao (康熙通寶) cash coin was issued to commemorate the sixtieth birthday of the Kangxi Emperor, these bronze coins were produced with a special yellowish colour, and these cash coins believed to have "the powers of a charm" immediately when it entered circulation, this commemorative coin contains a slightly different version of the Hanzi symbol "熙", at the bottom of the cash, as this character would most commonly have a vertical line at the left part of it but did not have it, and the part of this symbol which was usually inscribed as "臣" has the middle part written as a "口" instead. Notably, the upper left area of the symbol "通" only contains a single dot as opposed of the usual two dots used during this era. Several myths were attributed to this coin over the following three-hundred years since it has been cast such as the myth that the coin was cast from molten down "golden" (brass) statues of the 18 disciples of the Buddha which earned this coin the nick...

    Chinese poem coins (Traditional Chinese: 詩錢; Simplified Chinese: 诗钱; Pinyin: shī qián, alternatively 二十錢局名) were Chinese cash coins cast under the Kangxi Emperor, a Manchu Emperor known for his Chinese poetry skills and wrote the work "Illustrations of Plowing and Weaving" (耕織圖) in 1696. Under the Kangxi Emperor 23 mints operated at various times with many closing and reopening, the coins produced under the Kangxi Emperor all had the obverse inscription Kāng Xī Tōng Bǎo (康熙通寶). As the name Kangxi was composed of the characters meaning "health" (康) and "prosperous" (熙) the Kāng Xī Tōng Bǎo cash coins were already viewed as having auspicious properties by the Chinese people. As the Kāng Xī Tōng Bǎo cash coins were produced at various mints some people placed these coins together to form poems, even though many of these poems did not have any meaning they were composed in adherence to the rules of Classical Chinese poetry. These coins were always placed together to form the following p...

  7. Starbucks - Wikipedia

    Starbucks' caffe lattes. Starbucks Corporation is an American multinational chain of coffeehouses and roastery reserves headquartered in Seattle, Washington. As the world's largest coffeehouse chain, Starbucks is seen to be the main ...

  8. Differences between Shinjitai and Simplified characters - Wikipedia
    • List of Different Simplifications
    • Traditional Characters That May Cause Problems Displaying
    • Different Stroke Orders in Chinese and Japanese

    The old and new forms of the Kyōiku Kanji and their Hànzì equivalents are listed below. In the following lists, the characters are sorted by the radicals of the Japanese kanji. The two Kokuji働 and 畑 in the Kyōiku Kanji List, which have no Chinese equivalents, are not listed here; in Japanese, neither character was affected by the simplifications. Note that 弁 is used to simplify three different Traditional characters (辨, 瓣, and 辯) in Japan. 1. No simplificationin either language (The following characters were simplified neither in Japanese nor in Chinese.) 1. 一 丁 下 三 不 天 五 民 正 平 可 再 百 否 武 夏 中 内 出 本 世 申 由 史 冊 央 向 曲 印 州 表 果 半 必 永 求 九 丸 千 久 少 夫 午 失 末 未 包 年 危 后 兵 我 束 卵 承 垂 刷 重 省 看 勉 七 乳 才 予 事 二 元 亡 六 主 市 交 忘 夜 育 京 卒 商 率 就 人 化 今 仁 付 代 仕 他 令 以 合 全 任 休 件 仲 作 何 位 住 余 低 似 命 使 念 例 供 信 保 便 値 修 借 候 倍 俳 俵 健 停 働 像 先 入 八 分 公 共 弟 並 典 前 益 善 尊 同 周 次 兆 冷 弱 刀 切 別 判 制 券 刻 副 割 力 加 助 努 勇 勤 句 北 疑 十 古 孝 直 南 真 裁 博 上 反 灰 厚 原 台 能 友 収 口 司 右 兄 吸 告 君 味 呼 品 唱 器 四 回 因 困 固 土 去 地 在 寺 均 志 坂 幸 型 城 基 域 喜 境 士 冬 各 夕 外 名 多...

    Some of the traditional Kanji are not included in the Japanese font of Windows XP/2000, and only rectangles are shown. Downloading the Meiryo font from the Microsoft website (VistaFont_JPN.EXE) and installing it will solve this problem. Note that within the Jōyō Kanji there are 62 characters the old forms of which may cause problems displaying: Kyōiku Kanji (26): Grade 2 (2 Kanji): 海 社 Grade 3 (8 Kanji): 勉 暑 漢 神 福 練 者 都 Grade 4 (6 Kanji): 器 殺 祝 節 梅 類 Grade 5 (1 Kanji): 祖 Grade 6 (9 Kanji): 勤 穀 視 署 層 著 諸 難 朗 Secondary-School Kanji (36): 欄 廊 虜 隆 塚 祥 侮 僧 免 卑 喝 嘆 塀 墨 悔 慨 憎 懲 敏 既 煮 碑 祉 祈 禍 突 繁 臭 褐 謁 謹 賓 贈 逸 響 頻 These characters are Unicode CJK Unified Ideographs for which the old form (kyūjitai) and the new form (shinjitai) have been unified under the Unicode standard. Although the old and new forms are distinguished under the JIS X 0213 standard, the old forms map to Unicode CJK Compatibility Ideographs which are considered by Unicode to be canonically equivalent to the new forms and ma...

    Some characters, whether simplified or not, look the same in Chinese and Japanese, but have different stroke orders. For example, in Japan, 必 is written with the top dot first, while the Traditional stroke order writes the 丿 first. In the characters 王 and 玉, the vertical stroke is the third stroke in Chinese, but the second stroke in Japanese.Taiwan and Hong Kong use Traditional characters, though with an altered stroke order.

  9. SWOT analysis - Wikipedia
    • Overview
    • Use
    • in Community Organizations
    • Limitations and Alternatives
    • SWOT Analysis in Popular Culture
    • Bibliography

    SWOT assumes that strengths and weaknesses are frequently internal, while opportunities and threats are more commonly external.The name is an acronym for the four parameters the technique examines: 1. Strengths: characteristics of the business or project that give it an advantage over others. 2. Weaknesses: characteristics that place the business or project at a disadvantage relative to others. 3. Opportunities: elements in the environment that the business or project could exploit to its advantage. 4. Threats: elements in the environment that could cause trouble for the business or project. The degree to which the internal environment of the firm matches with the external environment is expressed by the concept of strategic fit. Identification of SWOTs is important because they can inform later steps in planning to achieve the objective. First, decision-makers should consider whether the objective is attainable, given the SWOTs. If the objective is notattainable, they must select a...

    SWOT analysis can be used in any decision-making situation when a desired end-state (objective) is defined, not just profit-seeking organizations. Examples include non-profit organizations, governmental units, and individuals. SWOT analysis may also be used in pre-crisis planning and preventive crisis management. SWOT analysis may also be used in creating a recommendation during a viability study/survey.

    The SWOT analysis has been used in community work as a tool to identify positive and negative factors within organizations, communities, and the broader society that promote or inhibit successful implementation of social services and social change efforts.It is used as a preliminary resource, assessing strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats in a community served by a nonprofit or community organization. Although SWOT analysis is a part of the planning, it will not provide a strategic plan if used by itself, but a SWOT list can becomes a series of recommendations. Strengths and weaknesses (internal factors within an organization): 1. Human resources—staff, volunteers, board members, target population 2. Physical resources—your location, building, equipment 3. Financial—grants, funding agencies, other sources of income 4. Activities and processes—programs you run, systems you employ 5. Past experiences—building blocks for learning and success, your reputation in the communi...

    SWOT is intended as a starting point for discussion and cannot, in itself, show managers how to achieve a competitive advantage,particularly in a rapidly changing environment. Menon et al. (1999) and Hill and Westbrook (1997) suggested "no-one subsequently used the outputs within the later stages of the strategy". Others have critiqued hastily designed SWOT lists. Preoccupation with a single strength, such as cost control, they can neglect their weaknesses, such as product quality.Domineering by one or two community workers devalues the possible contributions of community members. Michael Porter developed the five forces framework as a reaction to SWOT, which he found lacking in rigor and ad hoc. Other names include WOTS-UP (Gray and Smeltzer, 1989) and TOWS(reversing the emphasis, with external first).

    Ads: Coca-Cola has used SWOT analysisin targeting television ads
    Television shows: In the Silicon Valley episode "Homicide" (Season 2, Episode 6), Jared Dunn (Zach Woods) introduces the Pied Piper team to SWOT analysis. Later in that episode Dinesh (Kumail Nanji...

    Dag Øivind Madsen, "SWOT Analysis: A Management Fashion Perspective", International Journal of Business Research 16:1:39–56 (2016) full text

  10. Kyōiku kanji - Wikipedia

    Kyōiku kanji (教育漢字, literally "education kanji"), also known as Gakunenbetsu kanji haitōhyō (学年別漢字配当表, literally "list of kanji by school year") is a list of 1,026 kanji and associated readings developed and ...

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  1. 台康 相關