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3. ### Transformer - Wikipedia

en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Transformer
• Principles
• Construction
• Classification Parameters
• Applications
• History
• Bibliography

Ideal transformer

An ideal transformer is a theoretical linear transformer that is lossless and perfectly coupled. Perfect coupling implies infinitely high core magnetic permeability and winding inductances and zero net magnetomotive force (i.e. ipnp - isns = 0).[c] A varying current in the transformer's primary winding attempts to create a varying magnetic flux in the transformer core, which is also encircled by the secondary winding. This varying flux at the secondary winding induces a varying electromotive...

Transformer EMF equation

If the flux in the core is purely sinusoidal, the relationship for either winding between its rms voltage Erms of the winding, and the supply frequency f, number of turns N, core cross-sectional area a in m2 and peak magnetic flux density Bpeak in Wb/m2or T (tesla) is given by the universal EMF equation: 1. E rms = 2 π f N a B peak 2 ≈ 4.44 f N a B peak {\\displaystyle E_{\\text{rms}}={\\frac {2\\pi fNaB_{\\text{peak}}}{\\sqrt {2}}}\\approx 4.44fNaB_{\\text{peak}}}

Polarity

A dot convention is often used in transformer circuit diagrams, nameplates or terminal markings to define the relative polarity of transformer windings. Positively increasing instantaneous current entering the primary winding's ‘dot’ end induces positive polarity voltage exiting the secondary winding's ‘dot’ end. Three-phase transformers used in electric power systems will have a nameplate that indicate the phase relationships between their terminals. This may be in the form of a phasordiagra...

Cores

Core form = core type; shell form = shell type Closed-core transformers are constructed in 'core form' or 'shell form'. When windings surround the core, the transformer is core form; when windings are surrounded by the core, the transformer is shell form. Shell form design may be more prevalent than core form design for distribution transformer applications due to the relative ease in stacking the core around winding coils. Core form design tends to, as a general rule, be more economical, and...

Windings

The electrical conductor used for the windings depends upon the application, but in all cases the individual turns must be electrically insulated from each other to ensure that the current travels throughout every turn. For small transformers, in which currents are low and the potential difference between adjacent turns is small, the coils are often wound from enamelled magnet wire. Larger power transformers may be wound with copper rectangular strip conductors insulated by oil-impregnated pa...

Cooling

It is a rule of thumb that the life expectancy of electrical insulation is halved for about every 7 °C to 10 °C increase in operating temperature (an instance of the application of the Arrhenius equation). Small dry-type and liquid-immersed transformers are often self-cooled by natural convection and radiation heat dissipation. As power ratings increase, transformers are often cooled by forced-air cooling, forced-oil cooling, water-cooling, or combinations of these. Large transformers are fil...

Transformers can be classified in many ways, such as the following: 1. Power rating: From a fraction of a volt-ampere (VA) to over a thousand MVA. 2. Duty of a transformer: Continuous, short-time, intermittent, periodic, varying. 3. Frequency range: Power-frequency, audio-frequency, or radio-frequency. 4. Voltage class: From a few volts to hundreds of kilovolts. 5. Cooling type: Dry or liquid-immersed; self-cooled, forced air-cooled;forced oil-cooled, water-cooled. 6. Application: power supply, impedance matching, output voltage and current stabilizer, pulse, circuit isolation, power distribution, rectifier, arc furnace, amplifier output, etc.. 7. Basic magnetic form: Core form, shell form, concentric, sandwich. 8. Constant-potential transformer descriptor: Step-up, step-down, isolation. 9. General winding configuration: By IEC vector group, two-winding combinations of the phase designations delta, wye or star, and zigzag; autotransformer, Scott-T 10. Rectifier phase-shift winding c...

Various specific electrical application designs require a variety of transformer types. Although they all share the basic characteristic transformer principles, they are customized in construction or electrical properties for certain installation requirements or circuit conditions. In electric power transmission, transformers allow transmission of electric power at high voltages, which reduces the loss due to heating of the wires. This allows generating plants to be located economically at a distance from electrical consumers.All but a tiny fraction of the world's electrical power has passed through a series of transformers by the time it reaches the consumer. In many electronic devices, a transformer is used to convert voltage from the distribution wiring to convenient values for the circuit requirements, either directly at the power line frequency or through a switch mode power supply. Signal and audio transformers are used to couple stages of amplifiers and to match devices such...

Discovery of induction

Electromagnetic induction, the principle of the operation of the transformer, was discovered independently by Michael Faraday in 1831 and Joseph Henry in 1832. Only Faraday furthered his experiments to the point of working out the equation describing the relationship between EMF and magnetic flux now known as Faraday's law of induction: 1. | E | = | d Φ B d t | , {\\displaystyle |{\\mathcal {E}}|=\\left|{{\\mathrm {d} \\Phi _{\\text{B}}} \\over \\mathrm {d} t}\\right|,} where | E | {\\displaystyle |{\\m...

Induction coils

The first type of transformer to see wide use was the induction coil, invented by Rev. Nicholas Callan of Maynooth College, Ireland in 1836. He was one of the first researchers to realize the more turns the secondary winding has in relation to the primary winding, the larger the induced secondary EMF will be. Induction coils evolved from scientists' and inventors' efforts to get higher voltages from batteries. Since batteries produce direct current (DC) rather than AC, induction coils relied...

First alternating current transformers

By the 1870s, efficient generators producing alternating current (AC) were available, and it was found AC could power an induction coil directly, without an interrupter. In 1876, Russian engineer Pavel Yablochkov invented a lighting system based on a set of induction coils where the primary windings were connected to a source of AC. The secondary windings could be connected to several 'electric candles'(arc lamps) of his own design. The coils Yablochkov employed functioned essentially as tran...

 Beeman, Donald, ed. (1955). Industrial Power Systems Handbook. McGraw-Hill. Calvert, James (2001). "Inside Transformers". University of Denver. Archived from the original on May 9, 2007. Retrieved May 19, 2007. Coltman, J. W. (Jan 1988). "The Transformer". Scientific American. 258 (1): 86–95. Bibcode:1988SciAm.258a..86C. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0188-86. OSTI 6851152. Coltman, J.W. (Jan–Feb 2002). "The Transformer [Historical Overview]". IEEE Industry Applications Magazine. 8 (1): 8–15. doi:10.1109/2943.974352. S2CID 18160717.
4. ### Semiconductor - Wikipedia

en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Semiconductor
• Properties
• Materials
• Physics of Semiconductors
• Early History of Semiconductors

Variable electrical conductivity

Semiconductors in their natural state are poor conductors because a current requires the flow of electrons, and semiconductors have their valence bands filled, preventing the entire flow of new electrons. Several developed techniques allow semiconducting materials to behave like conducting materials, such as doping or gating. These modifications have two outcomes: n-type and p-type. These refer to the excess or shortage of electrons, respectively. An unbalanced number of electrons would cause...

Heterojunctions

Heterojunctions occur when two differently doped semiconducting materials are joined. For example, a configuration could consist of p-doped and n-doped germanium. This results in an exchange of electrons and holes between the differently doped semiconducting materials. The n-doped germanium would have an excess of electrons, and the p-doped germanium would have an excess of holes. The transfer occurs until an equilibrium is reached by a process called recombination, which causes the migrating...

Excited electrons

A difference in electric potential on a semiconducting material would cause it to leave thermal equilibrium and create a non-equilibrium situation. This introduces electrons and holes to the system, which interact via a process called ambipolar diffusion. Whenever thermal equilibrium is disturbed in a semiconducting material, the number of holes and electrons changes. Such disruptions can occur as a result of a temperature difference or photons, which can enter the system and create electrons...

A large number of elements and compounds have semiconducting properties, including: 1. Certain pure elements are found in group 14 of the periodic table; the most commercially important of these elements are silicon and germanium. Silicon and germanium are used here effectively because they have 4 valence electrons in their outermost shell, which gives them the ability to gain or lose electrons equally at the same time. 2. Binary compounds, particularly between elements in groups 13 and 15, such as gallium arsenide, groups 12 and 16, groups 14 and 16, and between different group-14 elements, e.g. silicon carbide. 3. Certain ternary compounds, oxides, and alloys. 4. Organic semiconductors, made of organic compounds. 5. Semiconducting metal–organic frameworks. The most common semiconducting materials are crystalline solids, but amorphous and liquid semiconductors are also known. These include hydrogenated amorphous silicon and mixtures of arsenic, selenium and tellurium in a variety o...

Energy bands and electrical conduction

Semiconductors are defined by their unique electric conductive behavior, somewhere between that of a conductor and an insulator. The differences between these materials can be understood in terms of the quantum states for electrons, each of which may contain zero or one electron (by the Pauli exclusion principle). These states are associated with the electronic band structure of the material. Electrical conductivity arises due to the presence of electrons in states that are delocalized (exten...

Charge carriers

The partial filling of the states at the bottom of the conduction band can be understood as adding electrons to that band. The electrons do not stay indefinitely (due to the natural thermal recombination) but they can move around for some time. The actual concentration of electrons is typically very dilute, and so (unlike in metals) it is possible to think of the electrons in the conduction band of a semiconductor as a sort of classical ideal gas, where the electrons fly around freely without...

Doping

The conductivity of semiconductors may easily be modified by introducing impurities into their crystal lattice. The process of adding controlled impurities to a semiconductor is known as doping. The amount of impurity, or dopant, added to an intrinsic (pure) semiconductor varies its level of conductivity. Doped semiconductors are referred to as extrinsic.By adding impurity to the pure semiconductors, the electrical conductivity may be varied by factors of thousands or millions. A 1 cm3 specim...

The history of the understanding of semiconductors begins with experiments on the electrical properties of materials. The properties of the time-temperature coefficient of resistance, rectification, and light-sensitivity were observed starting in the early 19th century. Thomas Johann Seebeck was the first to notice an effect due to semiconductors, in 1821. In 1833, Michael Faraday reported that the resistance of specimens of silver sulfide decreases, when they are heated. This is contrary to the behavior of metallic substances such as copper. In 1839, Alexandre Edmond Becquerel reported observation of a voltage between a solid and a liquid electrolyte, when struck by light, the photovoltaic effect. In 1873, Willoughby Smith observed that selenium resistors exhibit decreasing resistance, when light falls on them. In 1874, Karl Ferdinand Braun observed conduction and rectification in metallic sulfides, although this effect had been discovered much earlier by Peter Munck af Rosenschold...

 A. A. Balandin & K. L. Wang (2006). Handbook of Semiconductor Nanostructures and Nanodevices (5-Volume Set). American Scientific Publishers. ISBN 978-1-58883-073-9. Sze, Simon M. (1981). Physics of Semiconductor Devices (2nd ed.). John Wiley and Sons (WIE). ISBN 978-0-471-05661-4. Turley, Jim (2002). The Essential Guide to Semiconductors. Prentice Hall PTR. ISBN 978-0-13-046404-0. Yu, Peter Y.; Cardona, Manuel (2004). Fundamentals of Semiconductors : Physics and Materials Properties. Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-41323-3.
 Howstuffworks' semiconductor page Semiconductor Concepts at Hyperphysics Calculator for the intrinsic carrier concentrationin silicon Semiconductor OneSource Hall of Fame, Glossary
5. ### Gore-Tex - Wikipedia

en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Gore-Tex
• History
• Manufacture
• Design
• Clothing Technology
• Other Uses

Gore-Tex was co-invented by Wilbert L. Gore and Gore's son, Robert W. Gore. In 1969, Bob Gore stretched heated rods of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and created expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE). His discovery of the right conditions for stretching PTFE was a happy accident, born partly of frustration. Instead of slowly stretching the heated material, he applied a sudden, accelerating yank. The solid PTFE unexpectedly stretched about 800%, forming a microporous structure that was about 70% air.It was introduced to the public under the trademark Gore-Tex. Gore promptly applied for and obtained the following patents: 1. U.S. Patent 3,953,566, issued April 27, 1976, for a porous form of polytetrafluoroethylene with a micro-structure characterized by nodes interconnected by fibrils 2. U.S. Patent 4,187,390, issued February 5, 1980 3. U.S. Patent 4,194,041on March 18, 1980 for a "waterproof laminate", together with Samuel Allen Another form of stretched PTFE tape was produced pri...

PTFE is made using an emulsion polymerization process that utilizes the fluorosurfactant PFOA,a persistent environmental contaminant. In 2013, Gore eliminated the use of PFOAs in the manufacture of its weatherproof functional fabrics.

Gore-Tex materials are typically based on thermo-mechanically expanded PTFE and other fluoropolymer products. They are used in a wide variety of applications such as high-performance fabrics, medical implants, filter media, insulation for wires and cables, gaskets, and sealants. However, Gore-Tex fabric is best known for its use in protective, yet breathable, rainwear. The simplest sort of rain wear is a two layer sandwich. The outer layer is typically woven nylon or polyester and provides strength. The inner one is polyurethane(abbreviated: PU), and provides water resistance, at the cost of breathability. Early Gore-Tex fabric replaced the inner layer of PU with a thin, porous fluoropolymer membrane (Teflon) coating that is bonded to a fabric. This membrane had about 9 billion pores per square inch (around 1.4 billion pores per square centimeter). Each pore is approximately ​1⁄20,000the size of a water droplet, making it impenetrable to liquid water while still allowing the more vo...

Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene is used in clothing due to its breathability and water protection capabilities. It is used in rain jackets, and ePTFE can now be found in space suits and heart patches.

Gore-Tex is also used internally in medical applications, because it is nearly inert inside the body. Specifically, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (E-PTFE) can take the form of a fabric-like mesh. Implementing and applying the mesh form in the medical field is a promising type of technological material feature. In addition, the porosity of Gore-Tex permits the body's own tissue to grow through the material, integrating grafted material into the circulation system. Gore-Tex is used in a wide variety of medical applications, including sutures, vascular grafts, heart patches, and synthetic knee ligaments, which have saved thousands of lives. In the form of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (E-PTFE), Gore-Tex has been shown to be a reliable synthetic, medical material in treating patients with nasal dorsal interruptions. In more recent observations, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (E-PTFE) has recently been used as membrane implants for glaucoma surgery. Gore-Tex has been used for man...

6. ### Poly(methyl methacrylate) - Wikipedia

en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Poly(methyl_methacrylate)

Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), also known as acrylic, acrylic glass, perspex, or plexiglass, as well as by the trade names and brands Crylux, Plexiglas, Acrylite, Astariglas, Lucite, Perclax, and Perspex, among several others (), is a ...

7. ### Sport - Wikipedia

en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Sport
• Meaning and Usage
• History
• Fair Play
• Participation
• Amateur and Professional
• Technology
• Sports and Education
• Politics
• Religious Views
• Sources

Etymology

The word "sport" comes from the Old French desport meaning "leisure", with the oldest definition in English from around 1300 being "anything humans find amusing or entertaining". Other meanings include gambling and events staged for the purpose of gambling; hunting; and games and diversions, including ones that require exercise.Roget's defines the noun sport as an "activity engaged in for relaxation and amusement" with synonyms including diversion and recreation.

Nomenclature

The singular term "sport" is used in most English dialects to describe the overall concept (e.g. "children taking part in sport"), with "sports" used to describe multiple activities (e.g. "football and rugby are the most popular sports in England"). American English uses "sports" for both terms.

Definition

The precise definition of what separates a sport from other leisure activities varies between sources. The closest to an international agreement on a definition is provided by SportAccord, which is the association for all the largest international sports federations (including association football, athletics, cycling, tennis, equestrian sports, and more), and is therefore the de factorepresentative of international sport. SportAccord uses the following criteria, determining that a sport shoul...

Artifacts and structures suggest sport in China as early as 2000 BC. Gymnastics appears to have been popular in China's ancient past. Monuments to the Pharaohs indicate that a number of sports, including swimming and fishing, were well-developed and regulated several thousands of years ago in ancient Egypt. Other Egyptian sports included javelin throwing, high jump, and wrestling. Ancient Persian sports such as the traditional Iranian martial art of Zoorkhaneh had a close connection to warfare skills. Among other sports that originated in ancient Persia are polo and jousting. A wide range of sports were already established by the time of Ancient Greece and the military culture and the development of sport in Greece influenced one another considerably. Sport became such a prominent part of their culture that the Greeks created the Olympic Games, which in ancient times were held every four years in a small village in the Peloponnesus called Olympia. Sports have been increasingly organ...

Sportsmanship

Sportsmanship is an attitude that strives for fair play, courtesy toward teammates and opponents, ethical behaviour and integrity, and grace in victory or defeat. Sportsmanship expresses an aspiration or ethos that the activity will be enjoyed for its own sake. The well-known sentiment by sports journalist Grantland Rice, that it's "not that you won or lost but how you played the game", and the modern Olympic creed expressed by its founder Pierre de Coubertin: "The most important thing... is...

Cheating

Key principles of sport include that the result should not be predetermined, and that both sides should have equal opportunity to win. Rules are in place to ensure fair play, but participants can break these rules in order to gain advantage. Participants may cheat in order to unfairly increase their chance of winning, or in order to achieve other advantages such as financial gains. The widespread existence of gambling on the results of sports fixtures creates a motivation for match fixing, wh...

Doping and drugs

The competitive nature of sport encourages some participants to attempt to enhance their performance through the use of medicines, or through other means such as increasing the volume of blood in their bodies through artificial means. All sports recognised by the IOC or SportAccord are required to implement a testing programme, looking for a list of banned drugs, with suspensions or bans being placed on participants who test positive for banned substances.

Gender participation

Female participation in sports continues to rise alongside the opportunity for involvement and the value of sports for child development and physical fitness. Despite increases in female participation during the last three decades, a gap persists in the enrolment figures between male and female players in sports-related teams. Female players account for 39% of the total participation in US interscholastic athletics.

Youth participation

Youth sport presents children with opportunities for fun, socialisation, forming peer relationships, physical fitness, and athletic scholarships. Activists for education and the war on drugs encourage youth sport as a means to increase educational participation and to fight the illegal drug trade. According to the Center for Injury Research and Policy at Nationwide Children's Hospital, the biggest risk for youth sport is death or serious injury including concussion. These risks come from runn...

Disabled participation

Disabled sports also adaptive sports or parasports, are sports played by persons with a disability, including physical and intellectual disabilities. As many of these are based on existing sports modified to meet the needs of persons with a disability, they are sometimes referred to as adapted sports. However, not all disabled sports are adapted; several sports that have been specifically created for persons with a disability have no equivalent in able-bodied sports.

Sport can be undertaken on an amateur, professional or semi-professional basis, depending on whether participants are incentivised for participation (usually through payment of a wage or salary). Amateur participation in sport at lower levels is often called "grassroots sport". The popularity of spectator sport as a recreation for non-participants has led to sport becoming a major business in its own right, and this has incentivised a high paying professional sportculture, where high performing participants are rewarded with pay far in excess of average wages, which can run into millions of dollars. Some sports, or individual competitions within a sport, retain a policy of allowing only amateur sport. The Olympic Games started with a principle of amateur competition with those who practised a sport professionally considered to have an unfair advantage over those who practised it merely as a hobby. From 1971, Olympic athletes were allowed to receive compensation and sponsorship, and...

Technology plays an important part in modern sport. With it being a necessary part of some sports (such as motorsport), it is used in others to improve performance. Some sports also use it to allow off-field decision making. Sports science is a widespread academic discipline, and can be applied to areas including athlete performance, such as the use of video analysis to fine-tune technique, or to equipment, such as improved running shoes or competitive swimwear. Sports engineering emerged as a discipline in 1998 with an increasing focus not just on materials design but also the use of technology in sport, from analytics and big data to wearable technology. In order to control the impact of technology on fair play, governing bodies frequently have specific rules that are set to control the impact of technical advantage between participants. For example, in 2010, full-body, non-textile swimsuits were banned by FINA, as they were enhancing swimmers' performances. The increase in techno...

Research suggests that sports have the capacity to connect youth to positive adult role models and provide positive development opportunities, as well as promote the learning and application of life skills. In recent years the use of sport to reduce crime, as well as to prevent violent extremism and radicalization, has become more widespread, especially as a tool to improve self-esteem, enhance social bonds and provide participants with a feeling of purpose. There is no high-quality evidence that shows the effectiveness of interventions to increase sports participation of the community in sports such as mass media campaigns, educational sessions, and policy changes.There is also no high-quality studies that investigate the effect of such interventions in promoting healthy behavior change in the community.

Benito Mussolini used the 1934 FIFA World Cup, which was held in Italy, to showcase Fascist Italy. Adolf Hitler also used the 1936 Summer Olympics held in Berlin, and the 1936 Winter Olympics held in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, to promote the Nazi ideology of the superiority of the Aryan race, and inferiority of the Jews and other "undesirables".Germany used the Olympics to give off a peaceful image while secretly preparing for war. When apartheid was the official policy in South Africa, many sports people, particularly in rugby union, adopted the conscientious approach that they should not appear in competitive sports there. Some feel this was an effective contribution to the eventual demolition of the policy of apartheid, others feel that it may have prolonged and reinforced its worst effects. In the history of Ireland, Gaelic sports were connected with cultural nationalism. Until the mid-20th century a person could have been banned from playing Gaelic football, hurling, or other spor...

Sport was an important form of worship in Ancient Greek religion. The ancient Olympic Games, called the Olympiad, were held in honour of the head deity, Zeus, and featured various forms of religious dedication to him and other gods.As many Greeks travelled to see the games, this combination of religion and sport also served as a way of uniting them. The practice of athletic competitions has been criticised by some Christian thinkers as a form of idolatry, in which "human beings extol themselves, adore themselves, sacrifice themselves and reward themselves."Sports are seen by these critics as a manifestation of "collective pride" and "national self-deification" in which feats of human power are idolized at the expense of divine worship. Tertullian condemns the athletic performances of his day, insisting "the entire apparatus of the shows is based upon idolatry."The shows, says Tertullian, excite passions foreign to the calm temperament cultivated by the Christian: Christian clerics i...

This article incorporates text from a free content work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO Text taken from Strengthening the rule of law through education: a guide for policymakers, UNESCO, UNESCO. UNESCO. To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see this how-to page. For information on reusing text from Wikipedia, please see the terms of use.

8. ### Mummy - Wikipedia

en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Mummy

Mummy of Ramesses I. A mummy is a dead human or an animal whose soft tissues and organs have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or lack of air, so that the recovered body ...

9. ### GLOBALG.A.P - Wikipedia

en.wikipedia.org › wiki › GLOBALG

GLOBALG.A.P. is a farm assurance program, translating consumer requirements into Good Agricultural Practice. EurepGAP is a common standard for farm management practice created in the late 1990s by several European supermarket chains and their ...

10. ### GFriend - Wikipedia

en.wikipedia.org › wiki › GFriend
• History
• Members
• Discography
• Filmography
• Concert and Tours
• Awards and Nominations

2015: Debut with Season of Glass, Flower Bud and rise in popularity

On January 15, 2015, GFriend released their five-track debut EP Season of Glass. The lead single "Glass Bead" was composed by Seo Yong-bae and Iggy. The album debuted at number twelve on Gaon's weekly chart. The group started promotions for their album on January 16 on KBS's music program Music Bank. According to YouTube, the M/V of "Glass Bead" ranked number nine in top ten "Most Viewed K-Pop Videos Around the World in January 2015". On January 28, 2015, Billboardnamed GFriend as one of "Top...

2016: Snowflake, first music show wins, Showtime and LOL

On January 25, 2016, GFriend released their third EP titled Snowflake with the lead single "Rough". "Rough" is the last song to complete GFriend's high school concept trilogy along with "Glass Bead" and "Me Gustas Tu". GFriend started the promotions for Snowflake on January 26 on SBS MTV's music program The Show. The album debuted at number ten on Billboard's World Albums Chart, and the music video of "Rough" on YouTuberanked number three in top ten "Most Viewed K-Pop Videos Around the World...

2017: First fan-meeting, The Awakening, Parallel and Rainbow

On February 23, Source Music announced that GFriend were set to make a comeback on March 6. On February 27, it was revealed that their fourth EP will be titled The Awakening with the lead single "Fingertip". The Awakening global pre-orders exceeded 100,000 copies, which is higher than their past album LOL at 60,000. Additionally, the album also debuted at No. 5 on Billboard's World Album chart. In April 2017, GFriend held their first fan meeting, titled "Dear Buddy". On August 1, GFriend rele...

Korean albums

1. LOL(2016) 2. Time for Us(2019) 3. 回:Walpurgis Night(2020)

Japanese albums

1. Fallin' Light(2019)

In 2019, Shopee Indonesiahired GFriend as their 2019 Global K-Market Ambassador. The group's ambassadorship made a huge contribution to the brand's K-Wave net shares, as the group helped the brand to achieve an eightfold increase to their Korean sales on the platform and to earn first place for Indonesia, and seventh place worldwide, in the Best Brand Category of the 2019 Top Brand Buzz Awards.

DVDs & Blu-Ray

1. GFriend - Where R U Going? (2016) 2. 2016 Season's Greetings 3. 2017 Season's Greetings 4. 2018 Season's Greetings 5. 2018 GFRIEND 1st Concert "Season of GFriend" (2018) 6. 2019 Season's Greetings "Be In Full Bloom" 7. 2018 GFRIEND 1st Concert ENCORE "Season of Gfriend" (2019) 8. GFriend 1st Photo Book "여자친구" (2019) 9. 2020 Season's Greetings 10. 2019 GFRIEND ASIA TOUR in Seoul Go Go GFRIEND! (2020) 11. GFriend 2nd Photo Book (CHOICE) (2020) 12. 2021 Season's Greetings

Headlining concert & tours

1. GFriend 1st Asia Tour: Season of GFriend (2018) 2. GFriend Spring Tour 2019: Bloom (2019) 3. GFriend 2nd Asia Tour: Go Go GFriend! (2019) 4. GFriend Online Concert: GFriend C:ON (2020)

Concert participation

1. Big Hit Entertainment's New Year's Eve Live Concert (2020)

Showcase

1. GFriend L.O.L Showcase (2016) 2. GFriend Premium Showcase in Japan (2018)

GFriend got their first-ever major award for their debut extended play Season of Glass, released in January 2015, as the "Best New Female Artist" at Melon Music Awards on November 7, 2015. The group also won several new artist awards between late 2015 to early 2016, including at the 5th Gaon Chart Music Awards, the 30th Golden Disc Awards and the 25th Seoul Music Awards. The group received their first Grand Prize (Daesang) award at the 2016 Korean PD Awards. Their first music show win was on The Showwith "Rough" on February 2, 2016, after which the group went on to receive a total of 15 music show wins during the song's promotion. During their "Navillera" promotions they got a total of 14 music show wins, making them the girl group with most wins gained within a year with a total of 29 wins. The group's third extended play Snowflake single "Rough" won the group several awards between late 2016 to early 2017, including Song of the Year – January at the 7th Gaon Chart Music Awards. Th...

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