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  1. Rubbing alcohol - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rubbing_alcohol
    • History
    • Properties
    • Us Legislation
    • Warnings

    The term "rubbing alcohol" came into prominence in North America in the mid-1920s. The original rubbing alcohol was literally used as a liniment for massage; hence the name. This original rubbing alcohol was rather different from today's precisely formulated surgical spirit; in some formulations it was perfumed and included different additives, notably a higher concentration of methyl salicylate. The name "rubbing" also emphasized that the alcohol was not intended for consumption, a significant distinction in Prohibition-era America; nonetheless it had become a well-documented surrogate alcoholas early as 1925.

    All rubbing alcohols are volatile and flammable. Ethyl rubbing alcohol has an extremely bitter taste from additives. The specific gravityof Formula 23-H is between 0.8691 and 0.8771 at 15.56 °C (60.01 °F). Isopropyl rubbing alcohols contain from 50% to 99% by volume of isopropyl alcohol, the remainder consisting of water. Boiling points vary with the proportion of isopropyl alcohol from 80 to 83 °C (176 to 181 °F); likewise, freezing points vary from −32 to −50 °C (−26 to −58 °F).Surgical spirit BP boils at 80 °C (176 °F). Naturally colorless, products may contain color additives. They may also contain medically-inactive additives for fragrance, such as wintergreen oil (methyl salicylate),or for other purposes.

    To protect alcohol tax revenue in the United States all preparations classified as Rubbing Alcohols (defined as those containing ethanol) must have poisonous additives to limit human consumption in accordance with the requirements of the US Treasury Department, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, using Formula 23-H (8 parts by volume of acetone, 1.5 parts by volume of methyl isobutyl ketone, and 100 parts by volume of ethyl alcohol). It contains 87.5–91% by volume of absolute ethyl alcohol. The rest consists of water and the denaturants, with or without color additives, and perfume oils. Rubbing alcohol contains in each 100 ml more than 355 mg of sucrose octaacetate or more than 1.40 mg of denatonium benzoate. The preparation may be colored with one or more color additives. A suitable stabilizer may also be added.

    Product labels for rubbing alcohol include a number of warnings about the chemical, including the flammability hazards and its intended use only as a topical antiseptic and not for internal wounds or consumption. It should be used in a well-ventilated area due to inhalation hazards. Poisoning can occur from ingestion, inhalation, absorption, or consumption of rubbing alcohol.

  2. Alcohol - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alcohol
    • History
    • Nomenclature
    • Applications
    • Toxicity
    • Physical Properties
    • Occurrence in Nature
    • Production
    • Reactions

    The inflammable nature of the exhalations of wine was already known to ancient natural philosophers such as Aristotle (384–322 BCE), Theophrastus (c. 371–287 BCE), and Pliny the Elder (23/24–79 CE). However, this did not immediately lead to the isolation of alcohol, even despite the development of more advanced distillation techniques in second- and third-century Roman Egypt. An important recognition, first found in one of the writings attributed to Jābir ibn Ḥayyān (ninth century CE), was that by adding salt to boiling wine, which increases the wine's relative volatility, the flammability of the resulting vapors may be enhanced. The distillation of wine is attested in Arabic works attributed to al-Kindī (c. 801–873 CE) and to al-Fārābī (c. 872–950), and in the 28th book of al-Zahrāwī's (Latin: Abulcasis, 936–1013) Kitāb al-Taṣrīf (later translated into Latin as Liber servatoris). In the twelfth century, recipes for the production of aqua ardens ("burning water", i.e., alcohol) by d...

    Etymology

    The word "alcohol" is from the Arabic kohl (Arabic: الكحل‎, romanized: al-kuḥl), a powder used as an eyeliner. Al- is the Arabic definite article, equivalent to the in English. Alcohol was originally used for the very fine powder produced by the sublimation of the natural mineral stibnite to form antimony trisulfide Sb2S3. It was considered to be the essence or "spirit" of this mineral. It was used as an antiseptic, eyeliner, and cosmetic. The meaning of alcohol was extended to distilled subs...

    Systematic names

    IUPAC nomenclature is used in scientific publications and where precise identification of the substance is important, especially in cases where the relative complexity of the molecule does not make such a systematic name unwieldy. In naming simple alcohols, the name of the alkane chain loses the terminal e and adds the suffix -ol, e.g., as in "ethanol" from the alkane chain name "ethane". When necessary, the position of the hydroxyl group is indicated by a number between the alkane name and t...

    Common names

    In other less formal contexts, an alcohol is often called with the name of the corresponding alkyl group followed by the word "alcohol", e.g., methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol. Propyl alcohol may be n-propyl alcohol or isopropyl alcohol, depending on whether the hydroxyl group is bonded to the end or middle carbon on the straight propanechain. As described under systematic naming, if another group on the molecule takes priority, the alcohol moiety is often indicated using the "hydroxy-" prefix....

    Alcohols have a long history of myriad uses. For simple mono-alcohols, which is the focus on this article, the following are most important industrial alcohols: 1. methanol, mainly for the production of formaldehyde and as a fuel additive 2. ethanol, mainly for alcoholic beverages, fuel additive, solvent 3. 1-propanol, 1-butanol, and isobutyl alcohol for use as a solvent and precursor to solvents 4. C6–C11 alcohols used for plasticizers, e.g. in polyvinylchloride 5. fatty alcohol (C12–C18), precursors to detergents Methanol is the most common industrial alcohol, with about 12 million tons/y produced in 1980. The combined capacity of the other alcohols is about the same, distributed roughly equally.

    With respect to acute toxicity, simple alcohols have low acute toxicities. Doses of several milliliters are tolerated. For pentanols, hexanols, octanols and longer alcohols, LD50range from 2–5 g/kg (rats, oral). Methanol and ethanol are less acutely toxic. All alcohols are mild skin irritants. The metabolism of methanol (and ethylene glycol) is affected by the presence of ethanol, which has a higher affinity for liver alcohol dehydrogenase. In this way methanol will be excreted intact in urine.

    In general, the hydroxyl group makes alcohols polar. Those groups can form hydrogen bonds to one another and to most other compounds. Owing to the presence of the polar OH alcohols are more water-soluble than simple hydrocarbons. Methanol, ethanol, and propanol are miscible in water. Butanol, with a four-carbon chain, is moderately soluble. Because of hydrogen bonding, alcohols tend to have higher boiling points than comparable hydrocarbons and ethers. The boiling point of the alcohol ethanol is 78.29 °C, compared to 69 °C for the hydrocarbon hexane, and 34.6 °C for diethyl ether.

    Simple alcohols are found widely in nature. Ethanol is the most prominent because it is the product of fermentation, a major energy-producing pathway. The other simple alcohols are formed in only trace amounts. More complex alcohols however are pervasive, as manifested in sugars, some amino acids, and fatty acids.

    Ziegler and oxo processes

    In the Ziegler process, linear alcohols are produced from ethylene and triethylaluminium followed by oxidation and hydrolysis. An idealized synthesis of 1-octanolis shown: 1. Al(C2H5)3 + 9 C2H4 → Al(C8H17)3 2. Al(C8H17)3 + 3 O + 3 H2O → 3 HOC8H17 + Al(OH)3 The process generates a range of alcohols that are separated by distillation. Many higher alcohols are produced by hydroformylationof alkenes followed by hydrogenation. When applied to a terminal alkene, as is common, one typically obtains...

    Hydration reactions

    Some low molecular weight alcohols of industrial importance are produced by the addition of water to alkenes. Ethanol, isopropanol, 2-butanol, and tert-butanol are produced by this general method. Two implementations are employed, the direct and indirect methods. The direct method avoids the formation of stable intermediates, typically using acid catalysts. In the indirect method, the alkene is converted to the sulfate ester, which is subsequently hydrolyzed. The direct hydration using ethyle...

    Biological routes

    Ethanol is obtained by fermentation using glucose produced from sugar from the hydrolysis of starch, in the presence of yeast and temperature of less than 37 °C to produce ethanol. For instance, such a process might proceed by the conversion of sucrose by the enzyme invertase into glucose and fructose, then the conversion of glucose by the enzyme complex zymaseinto ethanol and carbon dioxide. Several species of the benign bacteria in the intestine use fermentation as a form of anaerobic metab...

    Deprotonation

    With a pKa of around 16–19, they are, in general, slightly weaker acids than water. With strong bases such as sodium hydride or sodium they form salts called alkoxides, with the general formula RO− M+. 1. 2 R-OH + 2 NaH → 2 R-O−Na+ + 2 H2 2. 2 R-OH + 2 Na → 2 R-O−Na+ + H2 The acidity of alcohols is strongly affected by solvation. In the gas phase, alcohols are more acidic than in water.

    Nucleophilic substitution

    The OH group is not a good leaving group in nucleophilic substitution reactions, so neutral alcohols do not react in such reactions. However, if the oxygen is first protonated to give R−OH2+, the leaving group (water) is much more stable, and the nucleophilic substitution can take place. For instance, tertiary alcohols react with hydrochloric acid to produce tertiary alkyl halides, where the hydroxyl group is replaced by a chlorine atom by unimolecular nucleophilic substitution. If primary or...

    Dehydration

    Meanwhile, the oxygen atom has lone pairs of nonbonded electrons that render it weakly basic in the presence of strong acids such as sulfuric acid. For example, with methanol: Upon treatment with strong acids, alcohols undergo the E1 elimination reaction to produce alkenes. The reaction, in general, obeys Zaitsev's Rule, which states that the most stable (usually the most substituted) alkene is formed. Tertiary alcohols eliminate easily at just above room temperature, but primary alcohols req...

  3. Isopropyl alcohol - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isopropyl_alcohol
    • Properties
    • Reactions
    • History
    • Production
    • Uses
    • Safety
    • Toxicology
    • External Links

    Isopropyl alcohol is miscible in water, ethanol, ether, and chloroform. It dissolves ethyl cellulose, polyvinyl butyral, many oils, alkaloids, gums and natural resins. Unlike ethanol or methanol, isopropyl alcohol is not miscible with salt solutions and can be separated from aqueous solutions by adding a salt such as sodium chloride. The process is colloquially called salting out, and causes concentrated isopropyl alcohol to separate into a distinct layer. Isopropyl alcohol forms an azeotrope with water, which gives a boiling point of 80.37 °C (176.67 °F) and a composition of 87.7% by mass (91% by volume) isopropyl alcohol. Water–isopropyl alcohol mixtures have depressed melting points.It has a slightly bitter taste, and is not safe to drink. Isopropyl alcohol becomes increasingly viscous with decreasing temperature and freezes at −89 °C (−128 °F). Isopropyl alcohol has a maximal absorbance at 205 nm in an ultraviolet–visiblespectrum.

    Isopropyl alcohol can be oxidized to acetone, which is the corresponding ketone. This can be achieved using oxidizing agents such as chromic acid, or by dehydrogenation of isopropyl alcohol over a heated copper catalyst: 1. (CH3)2CHOH → (CH3)2CO + H2 Isopropyl alcohol is often used as both solvent and hydride source in the Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley reduction and other transfer hydrogenation reactions. Isopropyl alcohol may be converted to 2-bromopropane using phosphorus tribromide, or dehydrated to propene by heating with sulfuric acid. Like most alcohols, isopropyl alcohol reacts with active metals such as potassium to form alkoxides that can be called isopropoxides. The reaction with aluminium (initiated by a trace of mercury) is used to prepare the catalyst aluminium isopropoxide.

    In 1920, Standard Oil first produced isopropyl alcohol by hydrating propene. Isopropyl alcohol was oxidized to acetone for the preparation of cordite, a smokeless, low explosivepropellant.

    In 1994, 1.5 million tonnes of isopropyl alcohol were produced in the United States, Europe, and Japan. It is primarily produced by combining water and propene in a hydration reaction or by hydrogenating acetone.There are two routes for the hydration process and both processes require that the isopropyl alcohol be separated from water and other by-products by distillation. Isopropyl alcohol and water form an azeotrope, and simple distillation gives a material that is 87.9% by mass isopropyl alcohol and 12.1% by mass water. Pure (anhydrous) isopropyl alcohol is made by azeotropic distillation of the wet isopropyl alcohol using either diisopropyl ether or cyclohexaneas azeotroping agents.

    In 1990, 45,000 metric tonnes of isopropyl alcohol were used in the United States, mostly as a solvent for coatings or for industrial processes. In that year, 5400 metric tonnes were used for household purposes and in personal care products. Isopropyl alcohol is popular in particular for pharmaceutical applications, due to its low toxicity. Some isopropyl alcohol is used as a chemical intermediate. Isopropyl alcohol may be converted to acetone, but the cumene processis more significant.

    Isopropyl alcohol vapor is denser than air and is flammable, with a flammability range of between 2 and 12.7% in air. It should be kept away from heat and open flame. Distillation of isopropyl alcohol over magnesium has been reported to form peroxides, which may explode upon concentration. Isopropyl alcohol causes eye irritation and is a potential allergen.Wearing protective gloves is recommended.

    Isopropyl alcohol and its metabolite, acetone, act as central nervous system (CNS) depressants. Poisoning can occur from ingestion, inhalation, or skin absorption. Symptoms of isopropyl alcohol poisoning include flushing, headache, dizziness, CNS depression, nausea, vomiting, anesthesia, hypothermia, low blood pressure, shock, respiratory depression, and coma. Overdoses may cause a fruity odor on the breath as a result of its metabolism to acetone.Isopropyl alcohol does not cause an anion gap acidosis, but it produces an osmolal gapbetween the calculated and measured osmolalities of serum, as do the other alcohols. Isopropyl alcohol is oxidized to form acetone by alcohol dehydrogenase in the liver and has a biological half-life in humans between 2.5 and 8.0 hours. Unlike methanol or ethylene glycol poisoning, the metabolites of isopropyl alcohol are considerably less toxic, and treatment is largely supportive. Furthermore, there is no indication for the use of fomepizole, an alcohol...

  4. Liquor - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distilled_beverage
    • Nomenclature
    • Etymology
    • History of Distillation
    • Flammability
    • Serving
    • Alcohol Consumption by Country
    • Health Effects
    • Bibliography

    The term "spirit" refers to liquor that contains no added sugar and has at least 20% alcohol by volume (ABV).[citation needed] Liquor bottled with added sugar and added flavorings, such as Grand Marnier, Frangelico, and American schnapps, are known instead as liqueurs. Liquor generally has an alcohol concentration higher than 30%. Beer and wine, which are not distilled, are limited to a maximum alcohol content of about 20% ABV, as most yeasts cannot metabolise when the concentration of alcohol is above this level; as a consequence, fermentationceases at that point.

    The origin of "liquor" and its close relative "liquid" was the Latin verb liquere, meaning "to be fluid". According to the Oxford English Dictionary, an early use of the word in the English language, meaning simply "a liquid", can be dated to 1225. The first use the OEDmentions of its meaning "a liquid for drinking" occurred in the 14th century. Its use as a term for "an intoxicating alcoholic drink" appeared in the 16th century.

    Early history

    Early evidence of distillation comes from Akkadian tablets dated c. 1200 BC describing perfumery operations, providing textual evidence that an early, primitive form of distillation was known to the Babylonians of ancient Mesopotamia. Early evidence of distillation also comes from alchemists working in Alexandria, Roman Egypt, in the 1st century. Distilled water was described in the 2nd century AD by Alexander of Aphrodisias. Alchemists in Roman Egypt were using a distillation alembic or stil...

    Distillation of wine

    The inflammable nature of the exhalations of wine was already known to ancient natural philosophers such as Aristotle (384–322 BCE), Theophrastus (c. 371–287 BCE), and Pliny the Elder (23/24–79 CE). However, this did not immediately lead to the isolation of alcohol, even despite the development of more advanced distillation techniques in second- and third-century Roman Egypt. An important recognition, first found in one of the writings attributed to Jābir ibn Ḥayyān (ninth century CE), was th...

    Microdistilling

    Microdistilling (also known as craft distilling) began to re-emerge as a trend in the United States following the microbrewing and craft beer movement in the last decades of the 20th century. In contrast, large-scale distillation facilities were never as dominant in Scotland, so the tradition of small-scale distillation was never really lost in the Scotch whiskymarket.

    Liquor that contains 40% ABV (80 US proof) will catch fire if heated to about 26 °C (79 °F) and if an ignition source is applied to it. This temperature is called its flash point. The flash point of pure alcoholis 16.6 °C (61.9 °F), less than average room temperature. The flammability of liquor is applied in the cooking technique flambé. The flash points of alcohol concentrations from 10% ABV to 96% ABV are: 1. 10% – 49 °C (120 °F) – ethanol-based water solution 2. 12.5% – about 52 °C (126 °F) –wine 3. 15% – 42 °C (108 °F) – sake, mijiu, cheongju 4. 20% – 36 °C (97 °F) – shōchū, fortified wine 5. 30% – 29 °C (84 °F) – strong shōchū 6. 40% – 26 °C (79 °F) – typical vodka, whisky or brandy 7. 50% – 24 °C (75 °F) – typical baijiu, strong whisky, bottled in bond whisky, typical blanche absinthe 8. 60% – 22 °C (72 °F) – strong baijiu, normal tsikoudia (called mesoraki or middle raki), barrel proof whisky, typical verte absinthe 9. 70% – 21 °C (70 °F) – slivovitz 10. 80% – 20 °C (68 °F) –...

    Liquor can be served: 1. Neat — at room temperature without any additional ingredient(s) 2. Up — shaken or stirred with ice, strained, and served in a stemmed glass 3. Down — shaken or stirred with ice, strained, and served in a rocks glass 4. On the rocks — over ice cubes 5. Blended or frozen — blended with ice 6. With a simple mixer, such as club soda, tonic water, juice, or cola 7. As an ingredient of a cocktail 8. As an ingredient of a shooter 9. With water 10. With water poured over sugar (as with absinthe)

    The World Health Organization measures and publishes alcohol consumption patterns in different countries. The WHO measures alcohol consumed by persons 15 years of age or older and reports it on the basis of liters of pure alcohol consumed per capitain a given year in a country.

    Short-term effects

    Distilled spirits contain ethyl alcohol, the same chemical that is present in beer and wine and as such, spirit consumption has short-term psychological and physiological effects on the user. Different concentrations of alcohol in the human body have different effects on a person. The effects of alcohol depend on the amount an individual has drunk, the percentage of alcohol in the spirits and the timespan that the consumption took place, the amount of food eaten and whether an individual has...

    Long-term effects

    The main active ingredient of distilled spirits is alcohol, and therefore, the health effects of alcohol apply to spirits. Drinking more than 1-2 drinks a day increases the risk of heart disease, high blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, and stroke. The risk is greater in younger people due to binge drinking which may result in violence or accidents. About 3.3 million deaths (5.9% of all deaths) are believed to be due to alcohol each year. Unlike for wine and perhaps beer, there is no evidenc...

    Demographics

    Consumption of distilled alcohol is the most important single factor behind variation on mortality rates and life expectancy for men in Europe. For example, in heavily Islamic regions of the Caucases (Islam forbids alcohol consumption) the life expectancy gap between women and men is five years; in nearby Christian areas it is ten years, and in the Czech Republic (where beer predominates) the chance of a man dying between the ages of 15 and 60 is less than half that of nearby Ukraine.

    Blue, Anthony Dias (2004). The Complete Book of Spirits: A Guide to Their History, Production, and Enjoyment. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 0-06-054218-7.
    Forbes, Robert (1997). Short History of the Art of Distillation from the Beginnings up to the Death of Cellier Blumenthal. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 90-04-00617-6.
    Multhauf, Robert (1993). The Origins of Chemistry. Gordon & Breach Science Publishers. ISBN 2-88124-594-3.
  5. Alcoholic drink - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alcoholic_drink
    • Fermented Drinks
    • Distilled Drinks
    • Food Energy
    • Amount of Use
    • Reasons For Use
    • Alcohol Measurement
    • Laws
    • History
    • See Also
    • External Links

    Beer

    Beer is a beverage fermented from grain mash. It is typically made from barley or a blend of several grains and flavored with hops. Most beer is naturally carbonated as part of the fermentation process. If the fermented mash is distilled, then the drink becomes a spirit. In the Andean region, the most common beer is chicha, made from grain or fruits.Beer is the most consumed alcoholic beverage in the world.

    Wine

    Wine is a fermented beverage produced from grapes and sometimes other fruits. Wine involves a longer fermentation process than beer and a long aging process (months or years), resulting in an alcohol content of 9%–16% ABV.

    Cider

    Cider or cyder (/ˈsaɪdər/ SY-dər) is a fermented alcoholic drink made from any fruit juice; apple juice (traditional and most common), peaches, pears ("Perry" cider) or other fruit. Cider alcohol content varies from 1.2% ABV to 8.5% or more in traditional English ciders. In some regions, cider may be called "apple wine".

    Liquors (or spirits) are alcoholic drinks produced by distilling (i.e., concentrating by distillation) ethanol produced by means of fermenting grain, fruit, or vegetables. Unsweetened, distilled, alcoholic drinks that have an alcohol content of at least 20% ABV are called spirits. For the most common distilled drinks, such as whiskey and vodka, the alcohol content is around 40%. The term hard liquor is used in North America to distinguish distilled drinks from undistilled ones (implicitly weaker). Vodka, gin, baijiu, shōchū, soju, tequila, whiskey, brandy and rum are examples of distilled drinks. Distilling concentrates the alcohol and eliminates some of the congeners. Freeze distillation concentrates ethanol along with methanol and fusel alcohols (fermentation by-products partially removed by distillation) in applejack. Fortified wine is wine, such as port or sherry, to which a distilled beverage (usually brandy) has been added. Fortified wine is distinguished from spirits made fro...

    Alcoholic drinks are a source of food energy. The USDA uses a figure of 6.93 kilocalories (29.0 kJ) per gram of alcohol (5.47 kcal or 22.9 kJ per ml) for calculating food energy. In addition to alcohol, many alcoholic drinks contain carbohydrates. For example, in 12 US fl oz (355 ml) of 5% ABV beer, along with approximately 18 ml of alcohol (96 kilocalories or 400 kilojoules), there are usually 10–15 g of carbohydrates (about 40–60 kcal or 170–250 kJ).[citation needed] Excessive daily calorie intake may contribute to an increase in body weight and "beer belly". In addition to the direct effect of its caloric content, alcohol is also known to potentiate the insulin response of the human body to glucose, which, in essence, "instructs" the body to convert consumed carbohydrates into fat and to suppress carbohydrate and fat oxidation. Ethanol is directly processed in the liver to acetyl CoA, the same intermediate product as in glucose metabolism. Because ethanol is mostly metabolized an...

    The average number of people who drink as of 2016[update] was 39% for males and 25% for females (2.4 billion people in total). Females on average drink 0.7 drinks per day while males drink 1.7 drinks per day.The rates of drinking varies significantly in different areas of the world. 1. Age-standardised prevalence of current drinking for females (A) and males (B) in 2016, in 195 locations. 2. Average standard drinks (10 g of pure ethanol per serving) consumed per day, age-standardised, for females (A) and males (B) in 2016, in 195 locations.

    Apéritifs and digestifs

    An apéritif is any alcoholic beverage usually served before a meal to stimulate the appetite, while a digestif is any alcoholic beverage served after a meal for the stated purpose of improving digestion. Fortified wine, liqueurs, and dry champagne are common apéritifs. Because apéritifs are served before dining, they are usually dry rather than sweet. One example is Cinzano, a brand of vermouth. Digestifs include brandy, fortified wines and herb-infused spirits (Drambuie).

    Flavoring

    Pure ethanol tastes bitter to humans; some people also describe it as sweet. However, ethanol is also a moderately good solvent for many fatty substances and essential oils. This facilitates the use of flavoring and coloring compounds in alcoholic drinks as a taste mask, especially in distilled drinks. Some flavors may be naturally present in the beverage's raw material. Beer and wine may also be flavored before fermentation, and spirits may be flavored before, during, or after distillation....

    Alcohol concentration

    The concentration of alcohol in a beverage is usually stated as the percentage of alcohol by volume (ABV, the number of milliliters (ml) of pure ethanol in 100 ml of beverage) or as proof. In the United States, proof is twice the percentage of alcohol by volume at 60 degrees Fahrenheit (e.g. 80 proof = 40% ABV). Degrees proof were formerly used in the United Kingdom, where 100 degrees proof was equivalent to 57.1% ABV. Historically, this was the most dilute spirit that would sustain the combu...

    Alcohol laws regulate the manufacture, packaging, labelling, distribution, sale, consumption, blood alcohol content of motor vehicle drivers, open containers, and transportation of alcoholic drinks. Such laws generally seek to reduce the adverse health and social impacts of alcohol consumption. In particular, alcohol laws set the legal drinking age, which usually varies between 15 and 21 years old, sometimes depending upon the type of alcoholic drink (e.g., beer vs wine vs hard liquor or distillates). Some countries do not have a legal drinking or purchasing age, but most countries set the minimum age at 18 years. Some countries, such as the U.S., have the drinking age higher than the legal age of majority (18), at age 21 in all 50 states. Such laws may take the form of permitting distribution only to licensed stores, monopoly stores, or pubs and they are often combined with taxation, which serves to reduce the demand for alcohol (by raising its price) and it is a form of revenue fo...

    10,000–5000 BC: Discovery of late Stone Agejugs suggests that intentionally fermented drinks existed at least as early as the Neolithic period.
    7000–5600 BC: Examination and analysis of ancient pottery jars from the neolithic village of Jiahu in the Henan province of northern China revealed residue left behind by the alcoholic drinks they...
    9th–10th centuries AD: Medieval Muslim chemists such as Jābir ibn Ḥayyān (Latin: Geber, ninth century) and Abū Bakr al-Rāzī (Latin: Rhazes, 854–925) experimented extensively with the distillation o...
    12th century: The process of distillation spread from the Middle East to Italy, where distilled alcoholic drinks were recorded in the mid-12th century. In China, archaeological evidence indicates t...
    About 37 percent of college students could now be considered alcoholics, Daily Emerald
    What Is a Standard Drink?, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
  6. Everclear - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Everclear_(alcohol)
    • Consumption
    • Similar Brands
    • Alcohol Content
    • in Popular Culture
    • See Also

    According to the manufacturer, Everclear "should be viewed as an unfinished ingredient", not consumed directly in undiluted form, and the company acknowledges that the product "has a rather notorious reputation" due to its high alcohol content. Rather than consuming Everclear directly, the company says it should be diluted by mixing it with water (to make vodka) or other ingredients until the alcohol strength of the drink is "no more dangerous than other spirits or liqueurs on the shelf". For example, ordinary vodka, gin, rum and tequila have an alcohol concentration typically around 40% alcohol by volume (80 proof), and liqueursare typically around 20% alcohol (40 proof). Everclear is also used as a household "food-grade" cleaning and disinfecting alcohol because its fumes/smell is fairly non-toxic (as opposed to isopropyl or rubbing alcohol, which is toxic to breathe or drink). Everclear is also used for extracting flavor from other ingredients to make infusions and tincturesbecau...

    Luxco also manufactures two other brands, Golden Grain alcohol and Crystal Clear alcohol, as essentially the same spirit with a different brand name.Several other brands of grain neutral spirits are also available on the market from other companies.

    Ethanol cannot be concentrated by ordinary distillation to greater than 97.2% by volume (95.6% by weight), because at that concentration, the vapor has the same ratio of water to alcohol as the liquid, a phenomenon known as azeotropy.The 190-proof variation of Everclear is 92.4% ethanol by weight and is thus produced at approximately the practical limit of distillation purity. Some U.S. states impose limits on maximum alcohol content, or have other restrictions that prohibit the sale of the 190-proof variation of Everclear, and several of those also effectively prohibit lower-proof Everclear.

    In the 1991 rap tune "Ever So Clear", Bushwick Bill of the Geto Boys tells the tale of his night drinking Everclear and getting high on PCP earlier that year that resulted in his eye being shot out...
    The Roger Creager song "The Everclear Song" (written by Mike Ethan Messick and released on the 1998 album Having Fun All Wrong) refers to it.
    The Jerrod Niemann song "For Everclear" on the 2010 album Judge Jerrod & the Hung Juryrefers to it.
    American rock band Everclear is named for the spirit. "Pure White Evil," a nickname for the drink coined by the band's singer/guitarist Art Alexakis, was the original working title for their album...
  7. Gin and tonic - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gin_and_tonic
    • Garnish
    • History
    • Variations
    • in Popular Culture
    • Images
    • See Also

    Gin and tonic is traditionally garnished with a slice or wedge of lime, often slightly squeezed into the drink before being placed in the glass. In most parts of the world, lime remains the only usual garnish; however, lemon is often used as an alternative fruit. In the United Kingdom, the use of both lemon and lime together is known as an "Evans". Although the origins of the use of lemons are unknown, their use dates back at least as far as the late 1930s. In addition, lemons are often more readily available, and cheaper to purchase, than limes. The use of lemon or lime is a debated issue – some leading brands, such as Gordon's, Tanqueray, and Bombay Sapphire,recommend the use of lime in their gin.

    The cocktail was introduced by the army of the British East India Company in India. In India and other tropical regions, malaria was a persistent problem. In the 1700s, Scottish doctor George Cleghorn studied how quinine, a traditional cure for malaria, could be used to prevent the disease. The quinine was drunk in tonic water but the bitter taste was unpleasant. British officers in India in the early 19th century took to adding a mixture of water, sugar, lime and gin to the quinine in order to make the drink more palatable, thus gin and tonic was born. Soldiers in India were already given a gin ration, and the sweet concoction made sense.Since it is no longer used as an antimalarial, tonic water today contains much less quinine, is usually sweetened, and is consequently much less bitter. Gin and tonic is a popular cocktail during the summer.A 2004 study found that after 12 hours, "considerable quantities (500 to 1,000 ml) of tonic water may, for a short period of time, lead to quin...

    Mixers can include lime juice, lemon juice, orange juice and spiced simple syrup, grenadine, tea,etc. Besides the classic lime wheel, garnishes can include, for example, orange peel, star anise, thyme-elderflower, a slice of ginger, pink grapefruit and rosemary, cucumber, mint and black peppercorns, strawberry and basil, strawberry syrup, chillies and lime, etc. Fruits such as kumquats or other citrus or cucumber can be muddled in it. A gin and tonic can also be mixed with a sorbet. Some gin-and-tonic inspired drinks also have champagne (e.g. the Parisian), vermouth and Campari (e.g. the Sbagliato-nic), vermouth and bitters (e.g. the Posh G&T), super smokey whiskey (e.g. the Ol' Smokey), peach liqueur and grapefruit bitters (e.g. the Tonic Delight), mint bitters and chocolate liqueur (e.g. the Guilty Pleasure), etc.

    The trans-galactic nature of the gin and tonic is imagined in Douglas Adams' novel The Restaurant at the End of the Universe, which describes how "85% of all known worlds in the Galaxy, be they primitive or highly advanced, have invented a drink called jynnan tonnyx, or gee-N'N-T'N-ix, or jinond-o-nicks, or any one of a thousand or more variations on the same phonetic theme. The drinks themselves are not the same, and vary between the Sivolvian 'chinanto/mnigs' which is ordinary water served at slightly above room temperature, and the Gagrakackan 'tzjin-anthony-ks' which kills cows at a hundred paces; and in fact the one common factor between all of them, beyond the fact that the names sound the same, is that they were all invented and named before the worlds concerned made contact with any other worlds." James Bond specifies a recipe for a gin and tonic while in Kingston, Jamaica, in the book Dr. No. Unusually, it involves the juice of a whole lime. In the BBC1 and Amazon Prime TV...

    Gin and tonic made with Bombay Sapphire London Dry Gin and Schweppes Indian Tonic, garnished with slices of lime
    A gin and tonic with ice and lemon wedge
    Gin and tonic made from Estonian Crafter'sGin. The botanicals in the gin have turned the drink pink in colour
    A Spanish gin tonic served in a balloon glass
  8. Disinfectant - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disinfectant
    • Definitions
    • Measurements of Effectiveness
    • Properties
    • Types
    • Home Disinfectants
    • See Also
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    The Australian Therapeutic Goods Order No. 54defines several grades of disinfectant as will be used below.

    One way to compare disinfectants is to compare how well they do against a known disinfectant and rate them accordingly. Phenol is the standard, and the corresponding rating system is called the "Phenol coefficient". The disinfectant to be tested is compared with phenol on a standard microbe (usually Salmonella typhi or Staphylococcus aureus). Disinfectants that are more effective than phenol have a coefficient > 1. Those that are less effective have a coefficient < 1. The standard European approach for disinfectant validation consists of a basic suspension test, a quantitative suspension test (with low and high levels of organic material added to act as ‘interfering substances’) and a two part simulated-use surface test. A less specific measurement of effectiveness is the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classification into either high, intermediate or low levels of disinfection. "High-level disinfection kills all organisms, except high levels of bacterial spores"...

    A perfect disinfectant would also offer complete and full microbiological sterilisation, without harming humans and useful form of life, be inexpensive, and noncorrosive. However, most disinfectants are also, by nature, potentially harmful (even toxic) to humans or animals. Most modern household disinfectants contain denatonium, an exceptionally bitter substance added to discourage ingestion, as a safety measure. Those that are used indoors should never be mixed with other cleaning products as chemical reactions can occur.The choice of disinfectant to be used depends on the particular situation. Some disinfectants have a wide spectrum (kill many different types of microorganisms), while others kill a smaller range of disease-causing organisms but are preferred for other properties (they may be non-corrosive, non-toxic, or inexpensive). There are arguments for creating or maintaining conditions that are not conducive to bacterial survival and multiplication, rather than attempting to...

    Air disinfectants

    Air disinfectants are typically chemical substances capable of disinfecting microorganisms suspended in the air. Disinfectants are generally assumed to be limited to use on surfaces, but that is not the case. In 1928, a study found that airborne microorganisms could be killed using mists of dilute bleach. An air disinfectant must be dispersed either as an aerosol or vapourat a sufficient concentration in the air to cause the number of viable infectious microorganisms to be significantly reduc...

    Alcohols

    Alcohol and alcohol plus Quaternary ammonium cation based compounds comprise a class of proven surface sanitizers and disinfectants approved by the EPA and the Centers for Disease Control for use as a hospital grade disinfectant. Alcohols are most effective when combined with distilled water to facilitate diffusion through the cell membrane; 100% alcohol typically denatures only external membrane proteins. A mixture of 70% ethanol or isopropanol diluted in water is effective against a wide sp...

    Aldehydes

    Aldehydes, such as formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde, have a wide microbicidal activity and are sporicidal and fungicidal. They are partly inactivated by organic matter and have slight residual activity. Some bacteria have developed resistance to glutaraldehyde, and it has been found that glutaraldehyde can cause asthma and other health hazards, hence ortho-phthalaldehyde is replacing glutaraldehyde.[citation needed]

    The most cost-effective home disinfectant is chlorine bleach (typically a >10% solution of sodium hypochlorite), which is effective against most common pathogens, including disinfectant-resistant organisms such as tuberculosis (mycobacterium tuberculosis), hepatitis B and C, fungi, and antibiotic-resistant strains of staphylococcus and enterococcus. It has disinfectant action against some parasitic organisms.[failed verification] The benefits of chlorine bleach include its inexpensive and fast acting nature. However it is harmful to mucous membranes and skin upon contact, has a strong odour; is not effective against Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium; and combination with other cleaning products such as ammonia and vinegar can generate noxious gases like chlorine. The best practice is not to add anything to household bleach except water. As with most disinfectants, the area requiring disinfection should be cleaned before the application of the chlorine bleach, as the presence of or...

    Diethylene glycol - a raw material for air sanitation
    Soule, H.; D. L. Duc; M. R. Mallaret; B. Chanzy; A. Charvier; B. Gratacap-Cavallier; P. Morand; J. M. Seigneurin (November–December 1998). "Virus resistance in a hospital environment: overview of t...
    Sandle, T., ed. (2012). The CDC Handbook: A Guide to Cleaning and Disinfecting Cleanrooms (1st ed.). Grosvenor House Publishing Limited. ISBN 978-1781487686.
  9. Essaouira - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Essaouira
    • Name and Etymology
    • History
    • Geography
    • Climate
    • Essaouira Today
    • Culture
    • Sights
    • Notable People
    • See Also
    • Further Reading

    The name of the city is usually spelled Essaouira in Latin script, and الصويرة in Arabic script. Both spellings represent its name in Moroccan Arabic, ṣ-Ṣwiṛa. This is the diminutive (with definite article) of the noun ṣuṛ which means "wall (as round a yard, city), rampart". The pronunciation with pharyngealized /ṣ/ and /ṛ/ is a typically Moroccan development. In Classical Arabic, the noun is sūr (سور, with plain /s/ and /r/), diminutive suwayrah (سويرة); this is the only form cited in all dictionaries of Classical Arabic. Hence, the spelling of the name in Arabic script according to the classical pronunciation is السويرة al-Suwayrah (with sīn not ṣād). In the Berber language, which is spoken by a sizeable proportion of the city's inhabitants, it is called Taṣṣort, meaning "the small fortress". In Moroccan Arabic, a single male inhabitant is called ṣwiṛi, plural ṣwiṛiyin, a single female inhabitant is ṣwiṛiya, plural ṣwiṛiyat. In the Berber language, a single male inhabitant is u Ta...

    Archaeological research shows that Essaouira has been occupied since prehistorictimes. The bay at Essaouira is partially sheltered by the island of Mogador, making it a peaceful harbor protected against strong marine winds.

    Essaouira is protected by a natural bay partially shielded from wave action by the Iles Purpuraires. A broad sandy beach extends from the harbour south of Essaourira, at which point the Oued Ksob discharges to the ocean; south of the discharge lies the archaeological ruin, the Bordj El Berod. The Canary Current is responsible for the generally southward movement of ocean circulation and has led to enhancement of the local fishery. The village of Diabat lies about five kilometres (3.1 miles) south of Essaouira, immediately south of the Oued Ksob. Essaouira connects to Safi to the north and to Agadir to the south via the N1 road and to Marrakech to the east via the R 207 road. There is a small airport some 7 to 8 km (4 to 5 mi) away from the town, which schedules several flights a week to Paris-Orly, London-Luton and Brussels-South (Charleroi) and daily to Casablanca. 1. Essaouira viewed from space. 2. The desert road between Marrakeshand Essaouira. 3. Argantree near Essaouira. 4. Ess...

    Essaouira's climate is semi-arid (BSk) bordering a warm summer Mediterranean one (Csb) with mild temperatures year round. The gap between highs and lows is small and summers are warm while winters are mild. Annual rainfall is usually 300 to 500 millimetres (12 to 20 in). Essaouira has seen considerable heating in the summer in recent years. The average summer high temperature has surpassed 30°C every year since 2013. A new record high temperature of 47°C (117°F) was set on 11 August 2013.

    The Medina of Essaouira (formerly "Mogador") is a UNESCO World Heritage listed city, an example of a late 18th-century fortified town, as transferred to North Africaby European colonists. 1. Xiphias gladius, Essaouira 2. Fishmarket in Essaouira 3. Funfair in Essaouira 4. Fishermen in Essaouira after a good fishing day 5. Clock tower in Essaouira 6. Essaouira book market. 7. Saidi-Souiri type Essaouira carpet.

    Essaouira presents itself as a city full of culture: several small art galleries are found all over the town. Since 1998, the Gnaoua Festival of World Music is held in Essaouira, normally in the last week of June. It brings together artists from all over the world. Although focused on gnaoua music, it includes rock, jazz and reggae. Dubbed as the "Moroccan Woodstock" it lasts four days and attracts annually around 450,000 spectators.

    Medina
    Fortifications:
    The most picturesque gates:
    Tagart beach (with sand dunes)
    David Bensoussan & Asher Knafo, "Mariage juif à Mogador" Éditions Du Lys, www.editionsdulys.ca, Montréal, 2004 (ISBN 2-922505-15-4)
    David Bensoussan, Le fils de Mogador, www.editionsdulys.ca,Éditions Du Lys, Montréal, 2002 (ISBN 978-2-922505-21-4)
    David Bensoussan, Il était une fois le Maroc : témoignages du passé judéo-marocain, éd. du Lys, www.editionsdulys.ca, Montréal, 2010 (ISBN 2-922505-14-6); Deuxième édition : www.iuniverse.com, ISBN...
    David Bensoussan, La rosace du roi Salomon, Les Éditions Du Lys,www.editionsdulys.ca, 2011, ISBN 978-2-922505-23-8.
  10. Malibu, California - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malibu,_California

    Malibu lagoon. Malibu ( / ˈmælɪbuː /) ( Spanish: Malibú) is a beach city in the Santa Monica Mountains region of Los Angeles County, California, situated about 30 miles (48 km) west of Downtown Los Angeles. It is known for its Mediterranean ...

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