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  1. Sakhalin Koreans - Wikipedia › wiki › Sakhalin_Korean

    Sakhalin Koreans are Russian citizens and residents of Korean descent living on Sakhalin Island, who can trace their roots to the immigrants from the Gyeongsang and Jeolla provinces of Korea during the late 1930s and early 1940s, the latter half ...

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    • 1,500
  2. Kris Wu - Wikipedia › wiki › Kris_Wu
    • Early Life
    • Career
    • Personal Life
    • Endorsements and Ambassadorship
    • Philanthropy
    • Controversies

    Li Jiaheng (Chinese: 李嘉恒; pinyin: Lǐ Jiāhéng) was born on 6 November 1990 in Guangzhou, Guangdong, China, to Wu Xiuqin (later Stacey Yu Wu) and Li Kaiming. His parents divorced when he was a toddler. At the age of 10, he moved to Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, with his mother. He returned to China at the age of 14 and attended Guangzhou No. 7 Middle School for a brief period, after which he and his mother went back to Vancouver, where he attended Point Grey Secondary School and Sir Winston Churchill Secondary School under the name Kevin Li. At the age of 17, his legal name was changed to Wu Yi Fan (Chinese: 吴亦凡; pinyin: Wú Yìfán). At the age of 18, Wu auditioned for SM Entertainment's Canadian global auditions, which were held in Vancouver; after passing the auditions, he became a trainee for the company and was offered a role in Exoin 2012.

    2012–2014: Debut with Exo

    On 17 February 2012, Wu was introduced as the eleventh member of Exo. In April 2012, Exo made their debut and quickly became one of the most popular K-pop groups in South Korea and internationally, achieving commercial success with their studio album XOXO and their hit song "Growl" in 2013. The album became the first album by a Korea-based artist in twelve years to sell over one million copies, and is the 12th best selling album of all time in Korea. Before leaving the group, Wu was featured...

    2014–2016: Solo debut and other activities

    Wu released "Time Boils the Rain" as part of the soundtrack for the Chinese box office hit Tiny Times 3 in July 2014. In the following year, he became the youngest celebrity to have a wax figure at Madame Tussauds Shanghai and was named "Newcomer of the Year" by EsquireChina. Wu made his film debut in Somewhere Only We Know, directed by Xu Jinglei. The film was released on 14 February 2015 and debuted at No.1 on the Chinese box office, grossing US$37.81 million in six days following its relea...

    2017–present: International appearances and Antares

    Wu made his runway debut at Burberry's Fall 2016 Men's Show in London. He also took part in the 2016 NBA All-Star Game as a member of Team Canada, coached by Drake. In January 2017, Wu made his U.S. film debut in D. J. Caruso's XXX: Return of Xander Cage. He released the single "Juice", featuring Vin Diesel in the music video, as part of the soundtrack on 19 January . Wu then starred in Stephen Chow's film, Journey to the West: The Demons Strike Back, playing Tang Sanzang. In February 2017, W...

    Wu can speak four languages: Chinese (Mandarin and Cantonese), English, and Korean. In August 2019, during the 2019–20 Hong Kong protests, Wu shared photos of the Chinese flag accompanied by the hashtags "the Chinese national flag has 1.4 billion flag bearers" and "I am a flag bearer" on his official Weiboaccount.

    In 2015, Wu became the youth ambassadorfor the 3rd Silk Road International Film Festival in Xian. In 2016, he became the first endorser for Mixxtail. Mercedes-Benz chose Wu as their brand ambassador in China for their Smart division and introduced the limited edition "Kris Wu Edition" smart. Wu has also been made the global ambassador for I.T Cashback Card under American Express Hong Kong. The brand made him chief design advisor and the face of their latest in-house brand, Under Garden. He designed the lookbook for the latest collection. Burberry chose Wu as their global ambassador in 2016, making him the first non-British as well as the first Asian person to be the face of the brand. It was reported that Burberryexperienced a growth in sales and awareness with Chinese shoppers thanks to Kris' campaign. Wu made his international debut as the brand ambassador of Bulgari at 2017 BaselWorld.

    In June 2014, Wu joined Heart Ali, a project started by Fan Bingbing and Chen Lizhi (the general manager of Beijing Maite Media). The charity project is aimed at helping children suffering from congenital heart defects in Ngari Prefecturein Tibet. On 21 January 2016, he launched his own charity project called Extraordinary Honorary Court (不凡荣誉球场), a collaboration project with Sina, Weibo Sports, and Weibo Charity. The goal is to spread basketball in middle schools in China to encourage all basketball-loving youth to continue their dreams of pursuing this sport.Wu was also announced as the ambassador for China's Jr. NBA program and is part of the program's mentor group.

    SM Entertainment lawsuit

    On 15 May 2014, Wu filed a lawsuit against the agency to terminate his contract. SM Entertainmentclaimed to be completely taken aback despite having dealt with several disputes regarding their contracts in the past. On 30 July 2015, SM Entertainment filed a lawsuit against Wu and the Chinese companies working with him at the Beijing court, stating that "these activities have infringed the rights of the EXO members and SM, and have caused great financial harm to us and our partners. This is no...

    Sexual abuse allegations and arrest

    On 8 July 2021, Du Meizhu, a 19-year old Chinese college student, posted allegations online accusing Wu of a pattern of sexual assault involving multiple women, some underage, while they are unconscious and under the influence of alcohol. Through the Chinese social media platform Weibo, she stated she was raped under intoxication at age 17 and that she speaks for at least seven other victims, two of whom were minors at the time of the crime. The allegations were denied by Wu, though it was la...

  3. Tlatelolco massacre - Wikipedia › wiki › Tlatelolco_massacre
    • Background
    • Massacre
    • Investigation and Response
    • Us Government Records
    • Remembrance
    • Media Portrayals
    • Tlatelolco in The Arts
    • See Also
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    Mexican President Gustavo Díaz Ordaz struggled to maintain public order during a time of rising social tensions but suppressed movements by labor unions and farmers fighting to improve their lot. His administration suppressed independent labor unions, farmers, and was heavy-handed in trying to direct the economy. In 1958 under the previous administration of Adolfo López Mateos, when Díaz Ordaz was Minister of the Interior, labor leader Demetrio Vallejowas arrested and peasant activist Rubén Jaramillo was murdered. Arising from reaction to the government's violent repression of a July 1968 fight between rival porros (gangs), the student movement in Mexico City quickly grew to include large segments of the university students who were dissatisfied with the regime of the PRI, most especially at the Autonomous National University of Mexico (UNAM), and the National Polytechnic Institute (IPN) as well as other universities. After a fight by rival student groups in central Mexico City was...

    On October 2, 1968, around 10,000 university and high school students gathered in the Plaza de las Tres Culturas to protest the government's actions and listen peacefully to speeches. Many men and women not associated with the CNH gathered in the plaza to watch and listen; they included neighbors from the Residential complex, bystanders and children. The students had congregated outside the Chihuahua Building, a three-moduled thirteen-story apartment complex in the Plaza de las Tres Culturas. Among their chants were ¡No queremos olimpiadas, queremos revolución!("We don't want Olympics, we want revolution!"). Rally organizers did not try to call off the protest when they noticed an increased military presence in the area. Two helicopters, one from the police, and another one from the army, flew over the plaza. Around 5:55 P.M. red flares were shot from the nearby S.R.E. (Mexican Ministry of Foreign Relations) tower. Around 6:15 P.M. another two flares were shot, this time from a heli...

    In 1998, President Ernesto Zedillo, on the 30th anniversary of the Tlatelolco massacre, authorized a congressional investigation into the events of October 2. However, the PRI government continued its recalcitrance and did not release official government documents pertaining to the incident. In a 2002 All Things Considered radio interview with Kate Doyle, director of the Mexican Documentation Project for the US National Security Archive, she described the PRI government's investigations: "I mean, there have been a number of investigations throughout the years. In fact, former President Miguel de la Madridwas interviewed yesterday in the press, and said that he had asked the military and the interior secretary for documents and for photographs of the demonstrations, and was subjected to tremendous political pressure not to investigate. And when he continued to press, the military and the interior ministry claimed that their files were in disarray and they had nothing." Enduring quest...

    In October 2003, the role of the United States government in the massacre was publicized when the National Security Archive at George Washington University published a series of records from the CIA, the Pentagon, the State Department, the FBI and the White House which were released in response to Freedom of Information Actrequests. The documents detail: 1. That in response to Mexican government concerns over the security of the Olympic Games, the Pentagon sent military radios, weapons, ammunition and riot control training material to Mexico before and during the crisis. 2. That the CIA station in Mexico City produced almost daily reports concerning developments within the university community and the Mexican government from July to October. Six days before the massacre at Tlatelolco, both Echeverría and head of Federal Security (DFS) Fernando Gutiérrez Barriostold the CIA that "the situation will be under complete control very shortly". 3. That the Díaz Ordaz government "arranged"...

    In 1993, in remembrance of the 25th anniversary of the events, a stele was dedicated with the names of a few of the students and persons who lost their lives during the event. The Supreme Court of Justice of the Nationhas a mural commemorating the massacre. During June 2006, days before the controversial presidential election of 2006, 84-year-old Echeverría was charged with genocide in connection with the massacre. He was placed under house arrest pending trial. In early July of that year (after the presidential elections), he was cleared of genocide charges, as the judge found that Echeverría could not be put on trial because the statute of limitationshad expired. In December 2008 the Mexican Senate named October 2 starting in 2009 as a National Day of Mourning; the initiative had already passed the Deputies' Chamber of Congress. Alejandro Encinas, undersecretary of Human Rights, Population, and Migration, said on October 2, 2020 that the federal government would remove the names o...

    In 1969, Mexican rock band Pop Music Team, launched the single "Tlatelolco" but was heavily censored by the government after a few days of airplay. The 'Cinéma vérité documentary film El Grito, México 1968directed by Leobardo López Aretche captures the events surrounding the protest and massacre. Rojo Amanecer (1989), directed by Jorge Fons, is a Spanish-language film about the event. It focuses on the day of a middle-class family living in one of the apartment buildings surrounding the Plaza de Tlatelolco and is based on testimonials from witnesses and victims. It starred Héctor Bonilla, María Rojo, the Bichir Brothers, Eduardo Palomoand others. Alejandro Jodorowsky dramatized the massacre in The Holy Mountain(1973), with birds, fruits, vegetables, liquids and other things falling and being ripped out of the wounds of the dying students. Richard Dindo, a documentary filmmaker, made Ni olvido, ni perdón (2004),which includes contemporary interviews with witnesses and participants as...

    The 1968 massacre has been referenced in the arts and pop culture in various ways. For example, in literary works such as "La Noche de Tlatelolco" (1971) by Elena Poniatowska which collected interviews, chants, slogans, and banners from student movement survivors. Tlatelolco movement veterans like Carlos Monsiváis, José Emilio Pacheco, Octavio Paz, and Jaime Sabines have written poems on the massacre and films like Jorge Fons's Rojo Amanecer (1990) have kept the memory alive. American composer John Adams set Rosario Castellanos' poem on the massacre at Tlatelolco in his oratorio El Niño(2000). Tlatelolco has marked the history of massacres and national injustice in Mexico in other historical ways which have permeated the arts such as it being a place of Aztec sacrificial performances, being the place where the Aztecs surrendered to the Spanish, and giving way to legitimizing the genocide of indigenous people in Mexico.

    "The ghosts of Mexico 1968", The Economist,April 24, 2008
    Draper, Susana. 1968 Mexico: Constellations of Freedom and Democracy. Durham: Duke University Press, 2018. ISBN 978-1-4780-0101-0
    Ecker, Ronald L. (April 1, 2009). "The Tlatelolco Massacre in Mexico". Retrieved July 27, 2010.
    Flaherty, George F. Hotel Mexico: Dwelling on the '68 Movement, University of California Press, 2016.
  4. Kris - Wikipedia › wiki › Kris
    • Etymology
    • History
    • Description
    • Forging
    • Cultural Beliefs
    • Legendary and Historic Krisses
    • Symbolism
    • Gallery
    • Popular Culture
    • See Also

    The word kris derived from the Old Javanese term "ngiris" (Javanese: ꦔꦶꦫꦶꦱ꧀) which means "to slice" or "wedge". The spelling of "kris" is more frequently used in the West, but "keris" is more popular used in the dagger's native lands, as exemplified by the late Bambang Harsrinuksmo's popular book entitled Ensiklopedi Keris(Kris Encyclopedia). In Javanese, kris is known in three names according to the degree or level of linguistic politeness; ngoko: keris (Javanese: ꦏꦼꦫꦶꦱ꧀); lit. "to slice"; krama: dhuwung; and in krama inggil: wangkingan (Javanese: ꦮꦁꦏꦶꦔꦤ꧀). In Malay, Indonesian, Sundanese, Balinese and Sasak it is spelled keris (Pegon and Jawi: کريس). Other names include karih in Minangkabau, and sele in Buginese and Makassarese. Two notable exceptions are the Philippines where it is usually called kalis in Tagalog, although the Filipino kalis is more like a sword rather than a dagger, and Thailand where it is always spelled kris and pronounced either as kris or krit (กริช) in Thai...


    Kris history is generally traced through the study of carvings and bas-relief panels found in Java, Indonesia. Some of the most famous renderings of a kris appear on the bas-reliefs of Borobudur (825) and Prambanan temple (850), originated from Hindu-Buddhist Medang Mataram Kingdom of Central Java. The term kris was mentioned in several ancient Javanese inscriptions, including Humanding inscription (707 Saka or 875 CE), Jurungan inscription and Haliwangbang inscription (708 Saka or 876 CE), T...

    Development and distribution

    Although the people of Southeast Asia were already familiar with this type of stabbing weapon, the development of the kris most probably took place in Java, Indonesia. From its origin in Java, kris culture spread throughout the Indonesian archipelago, as far as Singapore, Malaysia, Southern Thailand and Southern Philippines through maritime trade links.:267 The spread of the kris to other nations such as Thailand, Malaysia and the Philippines, experts say, was credited to the growing influenc...


    In Java, the traditional art of kris-making is preserved in the Javanese culture heartland, the keraton (royal court) of Yogyakarta and Surakarta, and also the princedom of Mangkunegaran and Pakualaman. The Javanese kings and nobles of these courts are known to employ some kris blacksmiths (empu) and become the patrons of their works, although the activity of kris-making is declining. Until the 1990s, kris-making activities in Java had almost come to a standstill due to economic difficulties...

    Physically, the kris is a form of dagger with a blade measuring between 15 and 50 centimetres long, sharp on both edges and tip, broader and asymmetric shape near the hilt, made of a combination of several kinds of metals.:267 A kris's aesthetic value covers the dhapur (the form and design of the blade, with around 150 variants), the pamor (the pattern of metal alloy decoration on the blade, with around 60 variants), and tangguhreferring to the age and origin of a kris.

    The making of a kris was the specialised duty of metalworkers called empu (lit. "possessor") or pandai besi (lit. "iron-skilled"). In Java the honorary title empu refer to those ironsmiths who possess the special skill of forging the kris. According to Javanese beliefs, a kris empu should possess knowledge, technical skills and also spiritual prowess, since kris are believed to have physical and spiritual presence. This was meant to differentiate the masters from common pandai besi that mostly create common metal tools or peasant's weapons like parang or golok. In old Majapahit, a kris bladesmith was referred to as pande and all were reputed to be able to work hot iron with their bare hands. The people of Majapahit would eventually flee to Baliwhere the occupation has been preserved by the Pande clan to this day, members of whom also make jewellery. A bladesmith makes the blade in layers of different iron ores and meteorite nickel. Some blades can be made in a relatively short time,...

    Kris were worn at special ceremonies, with heirloom blades being handed down through successive generations. Both men and women might wear them, though those for women are smaller. A rich spirituality and mythology developed around the weapon. Kris are used for display, as talismans with magical powers, weapons, sanctified heirloom, auxiliary equipment for court soldiers, as an accessory for ceremonial dress, an indicator of social status, a symbol of heroism, etc. In the Barong dance of Bali there is a segment called keris dance, in which the villain Rangda magically enchants Airlangga's soldiers to commit suicide, while another magician makes them invulnerable to sharp objects. In a trancestate, the male dancers stab themselves in the chest with their own kris but remain unhurt. Keris dance is actually a dangerous dance, since it can led to the fatal accident that may caused injury or death. On February 2021, a 16 years old boy keris dancer was stabbed to death right in his heart...

    Several folktales—linked to historical figures—mention legendary kris that possess supernatural power and extraordinary ability. Most of the magical kris are of Javanese origin, while the tales are derived from Javanese ancient manuscript, Babad (Javanese chronicle) and the Sejarah Melayuof Malaysia.

    Throughout the archipelago, the kris is a symbol of heroism, martial prowess, power and authority. As a cultural symbol, the meticulously decorated kris represent refinement, art and beauty, as the pride and prized possession for its owner; however, as a weapon it is associated with violence, death and bloodshed. Probably for this reason, although the kris is widespread in Javanese culture, it is not used to symbolise Javanese culture or royalty, as Javanese tradition promotes harmony and discourages direct confrontation (hence the absence of knives on Indonesian dinner tables). This is also why the Javanese traditionally wear the kris on their back, to symbolize violence as the last resort. Balinese and Sundanesealso wearing kris on their back. However, in other parts of archipelago, from Sumatra to the Malay Peninsula and to Sulawesi, the kris is worn on the front or left side on the hip. The kris is depicted on different flags, emblems, coats and logos such as those of the Matara...

    Sultan Hamengkubuwono VI, King of Yogyakarta Sultanate(1855-1877), dressed in royal majesty attire including his kris.
    Portrait of Prince Diponegoro with kris, one of Indonesia's national heroes from Java, c. 1835.
    Wayang Klithik (Flat Wooden Puppet) figure of Damar Wulan with his kris, TropenmuseumCollectons, before 1933

    A kris was featured in season 6, episode 7 of the History Channel competition show, Forged In Fire, as the round three finale weapon to be created. A kris is featured in 'The Crab Who Played with the Sea' from Rudyard Kipling's Just So Stories. Duke Org Jindrax used kris knives on Power Rangers: Wild Force. Higeoyaji Moustache used a kris knife on Jungle Emperor Leo. Anya Melfissa from Hololive's Indonesian branch is based on a keris who has taken human form. A kris dagger was also featured in season 11, episode 7 of Midsomer Murders.

  5. Investigations Police of Chile - Wikipedia › wiki › Investigations_Police_of_Chile
    • History
    • Organization
    • See Also

    19th century

    The first reference to police work in Chile is in the Police Regulation of 1803, where the terms "high police" and "public security" are used. Then, in 1830, the Vigilantes and Serenos Corps of Santiago were created, whose work was followed throughout the country. In 1852 the Brigada de Policía was created in Santiago, where the Vigilantes and Serenos Corpswere merged. In the 1870s , the mayor of the city of Santiago, Benjamín Vicuña Mackenna proposed modelling the Brigada de Policía on the A...

    20th century

    The modern Investigations Police was established in 1933 as a separate organization of civil police, independent from the control of the militarized Carabineros de Chile.

    The Investigative Police divides its investigation areas according to the crime investigated, counting with it several specialized units of police investigation, which have Detectives specialists, experts and experts in the respective areas.

  6. Auto-Tune - Wikipedia › wiki › Auto-Tune
    • Description
    • History
    • Reception
    • See Also
    • External Links

    Auto-Tune is available as a plug-in for digital audio workstations used in a studio setting and as a stand-alone, rack-mounted unit for live performance processing. The processor slightly shifts pitches to the nearest true, correct semitone (to the exact pitch of the nearest note in traditional equal temperament). Auto-Tune can also be used as an effect to distort the human voice when pitch is raised or lowered significantly, such that the voice is heard to leap from note to note stepwise, like a synthesizer. Auto-Tune has become standard equipment in professional recording studios.Instruments such as the Peavey AT-200 guitar seamlessly use Auto-Tune technology for real time pitch correction.

    Auto-Tune was launched in September 1997 by Andy Hildebrand, a Ph.D. research engineer who specialized in stochastic estimation theory and digital signal processing. Over several months in early 1996, he implemented the algorithm on a custom Macintosh computer, and presented the result at the NAMM Showlater that year, where "it was instantly a massive hit." His method for detecting pitch involved the use of autocorrelation and proved to be superior to earlier attempts based on feature extraction that had problems processing certain aspects of the human voice such as diphthongs, leading to sound artifacts. Music industry engineers had previously considered the use of autocorrelation impractical because of the massive computational effort required, but Hildebrand found a "simplification [that] changed a million multiply addsinto just four. It was a trick – a mathematical trick". According to the Auto-Tune patent, the referred implementation detail simply consists, when processing new...


    At the 51st Grammy Awards in early 2009, the band Death Cab for Cutie made an appearance wearing blue ribbons to protest against the use of Auto-Tune in the music industry. Later that spring, Jay-Z titled the lead single of his album The Blueprint 3 as "D.O.A. (Death of Auto-Tune)". Jay-Z elaborated that he wrote the song under the personal belief that far too many people had jumped on the Auto-Tune bandwagon, and that the trend had become a gimmick. Christina Aguilera appeared in public in L...


    Despite its negative reputation, some critics have argued that Auto-Tune opens up new possibilities in pop music, especially in hip-hop and R&B. Instead of using it as a correction tool for poor vocals—its originally designed purpose—some musicians intentionally use the technology to mediate and augment their artistic expression. When French house duo Daft Punk was questioned about their use of Auto-Tune in their single "One More Time", Thomas Bangalter replied by saying, "A lot of people com...

    Impact and parodies

    The US TV comedy series Saturday Night Live parodied Auto-Tune using the fictional white rapper Blizzard Man, who sang in a sketch: "Robot voice, robot voice! All the kids love the robot voice!" Satirist "Weird Al" Yankovic poked fun at the overuse of Auto-Tune, while commenting that it seemed here to stay, in a YouTube video commented on by various publications such as Wired. Starting in 2009, the use of Auto-Tune to create melodies from the audio in video newscasts was popularized by Brookl...

    Ryan Dombal (2006-04-10). "Interview: Neko Case". Pitchfork. Archived from the original on 2007-05-01.– artistic integrity and Auto-Tune
    CBC Radio One Q: The Podcast for Thursday June 25, 2009 MP3– NPR's Tom Moon on the takeover of the Auto-Tune.
    "Auto-Tune", NOVA scienceNOW, PBS TV, June 30, 2009
  7. Records of the Three Kingdoms - Wikipedia › wiki › Records_of_the_Three_Kingdoms
    • Origin and Structure
    • Legacy
    • Dates
    • Annotations
    • Translations
    • See Also
    • External Links

    The Records of the Grand Historian, Book of Han and Book of the Later Han, and the Records of the Three Kingdoms make up the four early historical texts of the Twenty-Four Histories canon. The Records of the Three Kingdoms, also known as Sanguozhi, contains 65 volumes and about 360,000 Chinese characters broken into three books. The Book of Wei contains 30 volumes, the Book of Shu 15 volumes, while the Book of Wucontains 20 volumes. Each volume is organised in the form of one or more biographies. The author Chen Shou, was born in present-day Nanchong, Sichuan, in the state of Shu Han. After the Conquest of Shu by Wei in 263, he became an official historian under the government of the Jin dynasty, and created a history of the Three Kingdoms period. After the Conquest of Wu by Jin in 280, his work received the acclaim of senior minister Zhang Hua. Prior to the Jin dynasty, both the states of Cao Wei and Wu has already composed their own official histories, such as the Book of Wei by W...

    The Records of the Three Kingdoms was the main source of inspiration for the 14th century Romance of the Three Kingdoms, one of the four great Classic Chinese Novels. As such the records is considered one of the most influential historical and cultural texts in Chinese history. In addition, the records provide one of the earliest accounts of Korea and Japan. Chen's Records set the standard for how Korea and Japan would write their official histories as well.

    Due to the biographical rather than primarily annalistic arrangement of the work, assigning dates to the historical content is both imprecise and non-trivial. Certain volumes contain background information about their subjects' forebears which date back centuries before the main record. For example, the biography of Liu Yan begins with discussing his ancestor Liu Yu's enfeoffment at Jingling (present-day Tianmen, Hubei) in around 85 CE. The first event to receive detailed description throughout the work is the Yellow Turban Rebellion in 184. Many biographies make passing mention of the event, but more concrete information such as correspondence and troop movements during the uprising can be found in fragmentary form in at least four volumes: the biographies of Cheng Yu, Yu Jin, Liu Bei, and Sun Jian. The three books in the Records of the Three Kingdoms end at different dates, with the main section of the Book of Wei ending with the abdication of Cao Huan in 265, the Book of Shu endi...

    During the fifth century, the Liu Song dynasty historian Pei Songzhi (372–451) extensively annotated Chen Shou's Records of the Three Kingdoms using a variety of other sources, augmenting the text to twice the length of the original. This work, completed in 429, became one of the official histories of the Three Kingdoms period, under the title Sanguozhi zhu (三国志注 zhumeaning "notes"). Pei collected other records to add information he felt should be added. He provided detailed explanations to some of the geography and other elements mentioned in the original. He also included multiple accounts of the same events. Sometimes, the accounts he added contradicted each other, but he included them anyways since he could not decide which version was the correct one. If Pei added something that sounded wrong, he would make a note or even offer a correction. In regard to historical events and figures, as well as Chen Shou's original text, he added his own commentary.

    The Records of the Three Kingdoms has not been fully translated into English. William Gordon Crowell alludes to a project to translate Chen Shou's work with Pei Songzhi's commentary in full, but it was apparently discontinued. Parts of that project are published by Robert Joe Cutter and William Gordon Crowell under the title Empresses and Consorts: Selections from Chen Shou's Records of the Three States With Pei Songzhi's Commentary (University of Hawaii Press, 1999), which includes the translations for volumes 5, 34, and 50. Other translations include Kenneth J. Dewoskin's Doctors Diviners and Magicians of Ancient China: Biographies of Fang-Shih (Columbia University Press, 1983), which includes a full translation of volume 29. Rafe de Crespigny, in addition to his translation of Sun Jian's biography (Volume 46), also translated excerpts of the Records of the Three Kingdoms in his translation of the Zizhi Tongjian that deals with the last years of the Han dynasty, as does Achilles F...

    (in Chinese) Records of the Three Kingdoms on the Chinese Text Projectpage
    (in Chinese) Records of the Three Kingdoms 《三國志》Chinese text with matching English vocabulary
  8. The Walt Disney Company - Wikipedia › wiki › The_Walt_Disney_Company

    The Walt Disney Studios consists of the company's filmed entertainment and theatrical entertainment businesses, including Walt Disney Pictures, Walt Disney Animation Studios, Pixar, Marvel Studios, Lucasfilm, 20th Century Studios, ...

  9. List of CJK Unified Ideographs, part 1 of 4 - Wikipedia › wiki › List_of_Unicode_characters

    This page was last edited on 7 June 2020, at 09:57 (UTC). Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply.By ...

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