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  1. Tzuyu - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tzuyu_(Singer)

    Chou Tzu-yu (周子瑜, born June 14, 1999), known mononymously as Tzuyu (Korean: 쯔위, Korean pronunciation: [t͈sɯ.ɥi]; Chinese: 子瑜), is a Taiwanese singer based in South Korea.[1] She is the youngest member of the girl group Twice, formed by ...

  2. Twice - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TWICE

    Twice ( Korean : 트와이스; Japanese: トゥワイス ), commonly stylized as TWICE, is a South Korean girl group formed by JYP Entertainment. The group is composed of nine members: Nayeon, Jeongyeon, Momo, Sana, Jihyo, Mina, Dahyun, Chaeyoung, and ...

  3. Deepfake - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deepfake
    • History
    • Techniques
    • Applications
    • Concerns
    • Positive Implications
    • Responses
    • in Popular Culture
    • See Also
    • External Links

    Photo manipulation was developed in the 19th century and soon applied to motion pictures. Technology steadily improved during the 20th century, and more quickly with digital video. Deepfake technology has been developed by researchers at academic institutions beginning in the 1990s, and later by amateurs in online communities.More recently the methods have been adopted by industry.

    Deepfakes rely on a type of neural network called an autoencoder. These consist of an encoder, which reduces an image to a lower dimensional latent space, and a decoder, which reconstructs the image from the latent representation. Deepfakes utilize this architecture by having a universal encoder which encodes a person in to the latent space. The latent representation contains key features about their facial features and body posture. This can then be decoded with a model trained specifically for the target.This means the target's detailed information will be superimposed on the underlying facial and body features of the original video, represented in the latent space. A popular upgrade to this architecture attaches a generative adversarial network to the decoder. A GAN trains a generator, in this case the decoder, and a discriminator in an adversarial relationship. The generator creates new images from the latent representation of the source material, while the discriminator attempt...

    Blackmail

    Deepfakes can be used to generate blackmail materials that falsely incriminate a victim. However, since the fakes cannot reliably be distinguished from genuine materials, victims of actual blackmail can now claim that the true artifacts are fakes, granting them plausible deniability. The effect is to void credibility of existing blackmail materials, which erases loyalty to blackmailers and destroys the blackmailer's control. This phenomenon can be termed "blackmail inflation", since it "deval...

    Pornography

    Many deepfakes on the internet feature pornography of people, often female celebrities whose likeness is typically used without their consent. Deepfake pornography prominently surfaced on the Internet in 2017, particularly on Reddit. A report published in October 2019 by Dutch cybersecurity startup Deeptrace estimated that 96% of all deepfakes online were pornographic. The first one that captured attention was the Daisy Ridley deepfake, which was featured in several articles. Other prominent...

    Politics

    Deepfakes have been used to misrepresent well-known politicians in videos. 1. In separate videos, the face of the Argentine President Mauricio Macri has been replaced by the face of Adolf Hitler, and Angela Merkel's face has been replaced with Donald Trump's. 2. In April 2018, Jordan Peele collaborated with Buzzfeed to create a deepfake of Barack Obama with Peele's voice; it served as a public service announcementto increase awareness of deepfakes. 3. In January 2019, Fox affiliate KCPQ aired...

    Fraud

    Audio deepfakes have been used as part of social engineering scams, fooling people into thinking they are receiving instructions from a trusted individual.In 2019, a U.K.-based energy firm's CEO was scammed over the phone when he was ordered to transfer €220,000 into a Hungarian bank account by an individual who used audio deepfake technology to impersonate the voice of the firm's parent company's chief executive.

    Credibility and authenticity

    Though fake photos have long been plentiful, faking motion pictures has been more difficult, and the presence of deepfakes increases the difficulty of classifying videos as genuine or not. AI researcher Alex Champandard has said people should know how fast things can be corrupted with deepfake technology, and that the problem is not a technical one, but rather one to be solved by trust in information and journalism. Deepfakes can be leveraged to defame, impersonate, and spread disinformation....

    Example events

    Deepfakes of North Korean leader Kim Jong-un and Russian president Vladimir Putin have also been created by a nonpartisan advocacy group RepresentUs. These deepfakes were meant to air publicly as commercials to relay the notion that interference by these leaders in US elections would be detrimental to the United States' democracy; the commercial also aimed to shock Americans to realize how fragile democracy is, and how media and news can significantly influence the country's path regardless o...

    Potential positive innovations have also emerged alongside the growing popularity and creation of deepfakes. For example, corporate training videos can be created using deepfaked avatars and their voices. An example of this is Synthesia, which uses deepfake technology with avatars to create personalized videos. Microsoft has developed an app called Seeing AI which uses artificial intelligence and deepfake technology to narrate the world around you to aid individuals who are blind and/or have low vision.With deepfake technology, this app can narrate text in documents, scan products and barcodes, recognize people and their emotions, describe the location and setting around you, identify currency and bills, and communicate these features in different languages in a volume and tone that is adjusted to your surroundings.

    Detection

    Most of the academic research surrounding deepfake seeks to detect the videos. The most popular technique is to use algorithms similar to the ones used to build the deepfake to detect them. By recognizing patterns in how deepfakes are created the algorithm is able to pick up subtle inconsistencies. Researchers have developed automatic systems that examine videos for errors such as irregular blinking patterns of lighting. This technique has also been criticized for creating a "Moving Goal post...

    Internet reaction

    Since 2017, Samantha Cole of Vice published a series of articles covering news surrounding deepfake pornography. On 31 January 2018, Gfycat began removing all deepfakes from its site. On Reddit, the r/deepfakes subreddit was banned on 7 February 2018, due to the policy violation of "involuntary pornography". In the same month, representatives from Twitter stated that they would suspend accounts suspected of posting non-consensual deepfake content. Chat site Discord has taken action against de...

    Legal response

    In the United States, there have been some responses to the problems posed by deepfakes. In 2018, the Malicious Deep Fake Prohibition Act was introduced to the US Senate, and in 2019 the DEEPFAKES Accountability Act was introduced in the House of Representatives. Several states have also introduced legislation regarding deepfakes, including Virginia, Texas, California, and New York. On 3 October 2019, California governor Gavin Newsom signed into law Assembly Bills No. 602 and No. 730. Assembl...

    The 1986 Mid-December issue of Analogmagazine published the novelette "Picaper" by Jack Wodhams. Its plot revolves around digitally enhanced or digitally generated videos produced by skilled hacker...
    The 1987 film The Running Manstarring Arnold Schwarzenegger depicts an autocratic government using computers to digitally replace the faces of actors with those of wanted fugitives to make it appea...
    In the 1992 techno-thriller A Philosophical Investigation by Philip Kerr, "Wittgenstein", the main character and a serial killer, makes use of both a software similar to Deepfake and a virtual real...
    The 1993 film Rising Sunstarring Sean Connery and Wesley Snipes depicts another character, Jingo Asakuma, who reveals that a computer disc has digitally altered personal identities to implicate a c...
    Sasse, Ben (19 October 2018). "This New Technology Could Send American Politics into a Tailspin". Opinions. The Washington Post. Retrieved 10 July 2019.