Hybrid vehicle drivetrain. Hybrid vehicle drivetrains transmit power to the driving wheels for hybrid vehicles. A hybrid vehicle has multiple forms of motive power. Hybrids come in many configurations. For example, a hybrid may receive its energy by burning gasoline, but switch between an electric motor and a combustion engine .
Quadracycles were one solution to the problem of low-speed stability in early cycles and were typically multi-seat models.  Both tandem (in line) and sociable (side-by-side) seating configurations were used. One early design, predating 1869 was the Andrews Quadracycle, built by Andrews of Dublin, Ireland.
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Royal Enfield built and sold the first powered quadracycle in 1893. It had many bicycle components, including handle bars. The Royal Enfield resembles a modern ATV-style quad bike but was designed as a form of horseless carriagefor road use.
The term "ATV" was originally coined to refer to non-straddle ridden, typically six-wheeled, amphibious ATVs, such as the Jiger produced by the Jiger Corporation, the Amphicat produced by Mobility Unlimited Inc, and the Terra Tiger produced by the Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Company in the mid 1960s and early 1970s. With the introduction of straddle ridden ATVs, the term AATV was introduced to define the original amphibious ATVcategory.
The first three-wheeled ATV was the Sperry-Rand Tricart. It was designed in 1967 as a graduate project of John Plessinger at the Cranbrook Academy of Arts near Detroit. The Tricart was straddle-ridden with a sit-in rather than sit-on style (similar to the contemporaneous Big Wheel toy). In 1968 Plessinger sold the Tricart patents and design rights to Sperry-Rand New Hollandwho manufactured them commercially. Numerous small American manufacturers of 3-wheelers followed. These small manufacture...
Safety has been a major issue with ATVs due to the high number of deaths and injuries associated with them and the negligible protection offered by the machine. The modern breed of ATVs was introduced in the early 1970s and almost immediately realized alarming injury rates for children and adolescents. Based on analysis of the National Trauma Data ...
ATVs accounted for 58% of the SI (spark ignited) recreational vehicles in the US in the year 2000. That year, recreational SI vehicles produced 0.16% of NOx, 8% of HC, 5% of CO and 0.8% of PM emissions for all vehicles, both highway and nonroad. As a point of comparison, the nonroad SI < 19 kW (~25 hp) category (small spark ignition engines such as lawnmowers) comprised 20% of HC and 23% of CO total emissions.While recreational SI vehicles produce an aggregate of <4% of all HC emissions in th...
While the deep treads on some ATV tires are effective for navigating rocky, muddy and root covered terrain, these treads are also capable of digging channels that may drain bogs, increase sedimentation in streams at crossings and damage groomed snowmobiletrails. Proper trail construction techniques can mitigate these effects. In some countries where fencing is not common, such as the US, Canada and Australia, some ATV riders knowingly cross privately owned property in rural areas and travel o...
ATVs using tracks instead of wheels are used at France's Cap Prudhomme in Antarctica. ATVs are also used in agriculture to bridge the advantages of trucks and tractors. They are used in a variety of industries for their maneuverability and off-roading ability. These include: 1. border patrol 2. construction 3. emergency medical services 4. land man...
Sport models are built with performance, rather than utility, in mind. To be successful at fast trail riding, an ATV must have light weight, high power, good suspension and a low center of gravity. These machines can be modified for such racing disciplines as motocross, woods racing (also known as cross country), desert racing (also known as Hare S...
- Carsharing Programs
- Chinese Copy
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Construction and safety
The Twizy is an ultra-compact vehicle, with a length of 2.32 metres (7 ft 7 in), a width of 1.19 metres (3 ft 11 in) and a height of 1.46 metres (4 ft 9 in). The vehicle's frame and body offer occupants extra protection with its deformable structure, while the outboard position of the four wheels and the lateral beams located either side of the chassis provide protection in case of a side impact. The safety retention systems include a driver's airbag, a four-point safety belt at the front and...
The Twizy model is electric, and it therefore is part of Renault's Zero Emissions program.
The 6.1 kWh (22 MJ) lithium-ion battery is located underneath the front seat. Both motor variants carry the same weight of 474 kg (1,045 lb), including batteries of 100 kg (220 lb). The range is homologatedat 100 km (62 mi). In real conditions, Renault announces around 80 km (50 mi). At high speed and no eco-driving) the Twizy's range is about 50 km (31 mi). The battery can be charged with an extendable spiral cable stored beneath a flap at the front of the vehicle.The integrated charger is c...
The Twizy 80 in its standard European configuration received 2 stars in the Euro NCAPQuadricycle Ratings in 2014.
Since its market launch in March 2012, global sales reached 9,020 units through the end of 2012, of which, 9,015 units were sold in Europe, making the Twizy the best-selling plug-in electric vehicle in the European market that year. In France, a total of 1,551 units were registered through June 2012, including 1,212 Twizy 80s and 339 Twizy 45s, rep...
Renault tested a carsharing program called Twizy Way in Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, France, beginning in late June 2012. During the testing phase the program operated with a fleet of 50 Renault Twizys distributed over a pilot area covering around 27 km2 (10 sq mi), and around 200 were allowed to sign up for testing.Twizy Way opened the service to th...
In September 2014 the Chinese company Zhejiang Litong New Energy Automobile Corporation launched the Rayttle E28which greatly resembles the Twizy in outside appearance, size and claimed performance.Revised concept of the Twizy for a close-to-production vehicle, 2010, seen at the AutoRAI in Amsterdam.Twizy parked in Madrid city centre.Side view from the back at the motor show in Baden, 2012-05-05.Renault Twizy compared to a regular-sized car.
- History and Design
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The bookwheel, in its most commonly seen form, was invented in 1588 by Italian military engineer Agostino Ramelli, presented as one of the 195 designs in Le diverse et artificiose machine del Capitano Agostino Ramelli (The various and ingenious machines of Captain Agostino Ramelli). To ensure the books remained at a consistent angle, Ramelli incorp...
The bookwheel was an early attempt to solve the problem of managing increasingly numerous printed works, which were typically large and heavy in Ramelli's time. It has been called one of the earliest "information retrieval" devices and has been considered a precursor to modern technologies, such as hypertext and e-readers, that allow readers to sto...
A group of undergraduate engineering students at the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) constructed two bookwheels in 2018 based on Ramelli's design, but using modern tools and processes. Built from historically accurate materials such as European beech and white oak wood, each bookwheel weighs 600 pounds and can hold eight books. The bookwhee...John Considine: 'The Ramellian Bookwheel'. In: Erudition and the Republic of Letters, 2016, 1: 4, 381–411E. Hanebutt-Benz: Die Kunst des Lesens. Lesemöbel und Leseverhalten vom Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart. Frankfurt a. M., Museum für Kunsthandwerk, 1985. ISBN 3-88270-026-2M. Boghardt: 'Das Wolfenbuetteler Bücherrad'. In: Museum, April 1978, 58–60.Martha Teach Gnudi & Eugene S. Ferguson: Ramelli's ingenious machines. The various and ingenious machines of Agostino Ramelli (1588). Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1976. ISBN 0-85967-2...
USS. Gearing. Sold for scrap on 6 November 1974. USS Gearing (DD-710) was the lead ship of her class of destroyers in the United States Navy. She was named for three generations of the Gearing family, Commander Henry Chalfant Gearing, Sr., Captain Henry Chalfant Gearing, Jr. and Lieutenant Henry Chalfant Gearing, III. 
Quadrasteer is the name of a four wheel steering system developed by Delphi Automotive while under the ownership of General Motors for use in automobiles. It was available as an option on GM's full-size pickup trucks and 2500 Suburbans for model years 2002 through 2005. The system enables the vehicle to turn tighter. It was initially a $ ...
X-TRAIL 無憂仲夏遊 入主享NISSAN的逆息優惠專案 70萬0利率與四萬配件金，加贈首年丙式車體險。 X-TRAIL無憂仲夏遊，享三大好禮 70萬高額0利率 4萬配件金再加贈首年丙式車體險。