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Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea level (variable over geologic time frames) and consists mainly of crustal components such as rock, sand, ...
The suffix -land which can be found in several countries' name and country subdivisions indicates a toponymy—a land. The word came via Germanic "land." Below is the list of places that ends with "-land" or ...
- Factor of Production
- Addressing The Land Question
- Further Reading
Land is considered one of the three factors of production (also sometimes called the three producer goods) along with capital, and labor. Natural resources are fundamental to the production of all goods, including capital goods. While the particular role of land in the economy was extensively debated in classical economics it played a minor role in the neoclassical economics dominant in the 20th century. Income derived from ownership or control of natural resources is referred to as rent.
Because no man created the land, it does not have a definite original proprietor, owner or user. As a consequence, conflicting claims on geographic locations and mineral deposits have historically led to disputes over their economic rent and contributed to many civil wars and revolutions. In the context of geographic locations the resulting conflict is regularly understood as the land question (see e.g. United Kingdom, South Africa, Canada).
Land reformprograms are designed to redistribute possession and/or use of geographic land.
Georgists hold that this implies a perfectly inelastic supply curve (i.e., zero elasticity), suggesting that a land value tax that recovers the rent of land for public purposes would not affect the opportunity costof using land, but would instead only decrease the value of owning it. This view is supported by evidence that although land can come on and off the market, market inventories of land show if anything an inverse relationship to price (i.e., negative elasticity).
Land plays an important role in advanced economies. In the UK the "non-produced asset of land" accounts for 51% of the country's total net worth,implying that it plays a more important role in the economy than capital.
Some United Kingdom and commonwealth universities offer a courses in land economy, where economics is studied alongside law, business regulation, surveying and the built and natural environments. This mode of study at Cambridge dates back to 1917 when William Cecil Dampiersuggested the creation of a school of rural economy at the university.Anthony C. Fisher (1987). "Natural resources," The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics, v. 3, pp. 612–14.João Pedro Galhano Alves (2009). "The artificial simulacrum world. The geopolitical elimination of communitary land use and its effects on our present global condition", Eloquent Books, New York, U...Pierre Coulomb (1994). "De la terre à l’état: Eléments pour un cours de politique agricole", ENGREF, INRA-ESR Laboratoire d’Economie des Transitions, Montpellier, France, 47 pp.
Communal land is a (mostly rural) territory in possession of a community, rather than an individual or company . This sort of arrangement existed in almost all Europe until the 18th century, by which the king or the church ...
Presence Hong Kong
Hongkong Land is the single largest landlord in Central, Hong Kong. In recent decades, the company focused on upgrading its commercial buildings in Central. In 2003, the redevelopment of Swire House into the new Chater House was completed. Major renovations have since been carried out in the Prince's Building. The Landmark has also been redeveloped, with the luxury Landmark Mandarin Oriental Hotel and York House added. Hongkong Land has also redeveloped The Forum, the retail block at Exchange...
Footprint in the rest of Asia
Hongkong Land has expanded its business outside Hong Kong in recent years, and has significant interests across Asia, mostly in joint venture with local developers, including the Keppel Group in Singapore, the CIFI Group in Shanghai and the Longfor and China Merchantsgroups in Chongqing. In its commercial portfolio, in Singapore, it has attributable interest of some 1.8 million square feet of commercial space. Following One Raffles Link, the company developed One Raffles Quay, its second comm...
Hongkong Land was formed on 2 March 1889 and was initially named The Hongkong Land Investment and Agency Company Limited. It was founded by two prominent businessmen in Hong Kong — Sir Paul Chater and James Johnstone Keswick. Besides property, Chater was also known for his interests in brokerage and bullion while Keswick was Tai-pan of Jardine, Matheson and Company Limited. Chater had been lobbying for some time in government circles for a new reclamation project in the Victoria District in C...
Following construction of The New Oriental Building, between June 1904 and December 1905, Central saw the completion of five major buildings that were Hong Kong's first 'skyscrapers'. These included the Alexandra Building in 1904, which was built on the location of today's Alexandra House. By 1941 the company possessed 13 major properties in Central. The most valuable among them were Marina House, Alexandra Building, Holland House, Queen's Building and Prince's Building. Hongkong Land ceased...
1960s and 1970s
By the mid-1960s Hongkong Land owned nine major office blocks as well as the shopping complex in Prince's Building and The Mandarin Hotel. These were connected by the first pedestrian bridge. Since then, Hongkong Land's buildings have been linked to one another, forming a network of commercial buildings. During the 1970s, the company began investing in international markets, building a portfolio of properties in Australia, Hawaii, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Perhaps the bigge...
Hongkong Land is a major landlord in the Central Business Districts of Hong Kong, Singapore, Jakarta and has a presence in other Asian cities, including: Hong Kong 1. Alexandra House 2. Chater House 3. One, Two and Three Exchange Square 4. The Forum 5. Jardine House 6. The Landmark 7. Edinburgh Tower 8. Gloucester Tower 9. York House 10. Prince's Building Macau 1. One Central Macau 2. The Residences and Apartments at Mandarin Oriental Singapore 1. One Raffles Link 2. CityLink Mall 3. One Raff...
Hongkong Land has a significant residential property development business in Asia focusing on developments for sale for the high-and-luxury end of the market, through wholly owned or joint venture projects. Examples of recent residential projects completed or being developed are: Hong Kong 1. The Serenade 2. The Sail at Victoria 3. Ivy on Belcher's 4. Chi Fu Fa Yuen 5. Chi Lok Fa Yuen 6. Eightland Garden 7. Luk Yeung Sun Chuen 8. Westlands Gardens 9. May Tower One 10. Tregunter Towers 11. Ori...
Land reform in Taiwan. In the 1950s, after the Nationalist government fled to Taiwan, land reform and community development were carried out by the Sino-American Joint Commission on Rural Reconstruction. The course of action was made attractive, ...
- Beach Restoration
- Environmental Impact
- Land Amounts Added
- See Also
Land reclamation can be achieved with a number of different methods. The simplest method involves filling the area with large amounts of heavy rock and/or cement, then filling with clay and dirt until the desired height is reached. The process is called "infilling" and the material used to fill the space is generally called "infill". Draining of submerged wetlands is often used to reclaim land for agricultural use. Deep cement mixing is used typically in situations in which the material displaced by either dredgingor draining may be contaminated and hence needs to be contained. Land dredging is also another method of land reclamation. It is the removal of sediments and debris from the bottom of a body of water. It is commonly used for maintaining reclaimed land masses as sedimentation, a natural process, fills channels and harbors naturally.
Instances where the creation of new land was for the need of human activities. Notable examples include:
Agriculture was a drive for land reclamation before industrialisation. In South China, farmers reclaimed paddy fields by enclosing an area with a stone wall on the sea shore near a river mouth or river delta. The species of rice that grow on these grounds are more salt tolerant. Another use of such enclosed land is the creation of fish ponds. It is commonly seen on the Pearl River Delta and Hong Kong. These reclaimed areas also attract species of migrating birds. A related practice is the draining of swampy or seasonally submerged wetlands to convert them to farmland. While this does not create new land exactly, it allows commercially productive use of land that would otherwise be restricted to wildlife habitat. It is also an important method of mosquito control. Even in the post-industrial age, there have been land reclamation projects intended for increasing available agricultural land. For example, the village of Ogata in Akita, Japan, was established on land reclaimed from Lake...
Beach rebuilding is the process of repairing beaches using materials such as sand or mud from inland. This can be used to build up beaches suffering from beach starvation or erosion from longshore drift. It stops the movement of the original beach material through longshore drift and retains a natural look to the beach. Although it is not a long-lasting solution, it is cheap compared to other types of coastal defences. An example of this is the city of Mumbai.
As human overcrowding of developed areas intensified during the 20th century, it has become important to develop land re-use strategies for completed landfills. Some of the most common usages are for parks, golf courses and other sports fields. Increasingly, however, office buildings and industrial uses are made on a completed landfill. In these latter uses, methane captureis customarily carried out to minimize explosive hazard within the building. An example of a Class A office building constructed over a landfill is the Dakin Building at Sierra Point, Brisbane, California. The underlying fill was deposited from 1965 to 1985, mostly consisting of construction debris from San Francisco and some municipal wastes. Aerial photographs prior to 1965 show this area to be tidelandsof the San Francisco Bay. A clay cap was constructed over the debris prior to building approval. A notable example is Sydney Olympic Park, the primary venue for the 2000 Summer Olympic Games, which was built atop...
Draining wetlands for ploughing, for example, is a form of habitat destruction. In some parts of the world, new reclamation projects are restricted or no longer allowed, due to environmental protectionlaws. Reclamation projects have strong negative impacts on coastal populations, although some species can take advantage of the newly created area.
Reclaimed land is highly susceptible to soil liquefaction during earthquakes, which can amplify the amount of damage that occurs to buildings and infrastructure. Subsidence is another issue, both from soil compaction on filled land, and also when wetlands are enclosed by levees and drained to create Polders. Drained marshes will eventually sink below the surrounding water level, increasing the danger from flooding.Netherlands Main article: Land reclamation in the NetherlandsDrainage system (agriculture) – drainagefor land reclamationWordie, Jason (18 April 1999). "Land-grabbing titans who changed HK's profit for good". The Standard. Hong Kong. Archived from the original on May 22, 2011. Retrieved 1 October 2010.MacKinnon, J.; Verkuil, Y.I.; Murray, N.J. (2012), IUCN situation analysis on East and Southeast Asian intertidal habitats, with particular reference to the Yellow Sea (including the Bohai Sea), Oc...Murray, N.J.; Clemens, R.S.; Phinn, S.R.; Possingham, H.P.; Fuller, R.A. (2014), "Tracking the rapid loss of tidal wetlands in the Yellow Sea" (PDF), Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 12 (5...
The Land Before Time (1990) Original Motion Picture SoundtrackThe Land Before Time: Sing-Along Songs (1997) Songs from The Land Before Time, II, III & IVThe Songs from The Land Before Time (1997) Songs from The Land Before Time, II, III & IVThe Land Before Time: More Sing-Along Songs (1999) Songs from The Land Before Time V & VI and An American TailIII & IV
- Television Series
A television series based on the films began airing on YTV in Canada on January 5, 2007. It consisted of one season of 26 episodes, and officially premiered on Cartoon Network in the United States on March 5, 2007, after the DVD release of The Land Before Time XII: The Great Day of the Flyers. The TV series takes place after the events of The Land Before Time XIII: The Wisdom of Friends. It has since been collected and released on 6 DVDs, each containing 4 episodes, in the United States and the UK.
The series has spawned 14 spin-off games, eight for PC, one for the Game Boy Color, two for the Game Boy Advance and three for the original PlayStation. The PC games are usually educational games aimed for preschool and kindergarten. Games for the Game Boy Color and Advance include The Land Before Time and The Land Before Time: Into the Mysterious Beyond, in which the original six characters must search for Chomper. Games for the PlayStation include The Land Before Time: Big Water Adventure, a spin-off of Journey to Big Water, The Land Before Time: Great Valley Racing Adventure and The Land Before Time: Return to the Great Valley. They are all voiced by Lani Minella.
- Focus Areas
- Strategies, Programs and Initiatives
- The Trust For Public Land Action Fund
- Noteworthy Projects
- External Links
Consistent with its "Land for People" mission, The Trust for Public Land is widely known for urban conservation work, including New York City playgrounds and community gardens, Chicago's 606 linear park, Los Angeles green alleys, Climate-Smart Cities programs in 20 American cities,and "The 10-Minute Walk" initiative, which aims to put a high-quality park or open space within a 10-minute walk of every resident of every U.S. urban census tract. The Trust for Public Land simultaneously focuses on public access-oriented land protection, such as additions to Yosemite National Park, the Appalachian Trail, Cape Cod National Seashore, and other national, state, and municipal parks across America. The organization also prioritizes projects that celebrate and advance social equity, like helping to create Martin Luther King Jr. National Historical Park, the Stonewall National Monument, and the KashiaCoastal Reserve. Although The Trust for Public Land is an accredited land trust, the organizati...Parks for People, a strategy for providing close-to-home access to nature through parks, playgrounds, trails, community gardens, and other outdoor public spaces in U.S. cities, towns, and suburbs.Our Land,a strategy for protecting wild, working, and other open spaces, with an emphasis on enabling public access to natural areas for outdoor recreation.Climate-Smart Cities™ program, which helps municipalities assess climate risks, develop resilience strategies, and identify sites for parks, greenways, and other multi-benefit green infrastructure,...10-Minute Walk campaign—a collaboration with the National Recreation and Park Association and Urban Land Institute—which seeks to ensure that everyone in urban America lives within a 10-minute walk...Plan – The Trust for Public Land provides GIS-based spatial analysis services, including greenprinting, greenway and trail planning, and large landscape analysis.Fund– The organization advocates for public conservation funding by providing technical assistance, campaign services, research data, and conservation economics analyses.Protect– The Trust for Public Land works with willing sellers, public agencies, and conservation nonprofits to negotiate, structure, fund, and complete the conservation real estate transactions tha...Create – The organization helps communities plan, site, design, construct, and restore parks, using community engagement, participatory design, and creative placemakingtechniques.
The Trust for Public Land was founded in San Francisco in 1972 by Huey Johnson, the former western regional director of The Nature Conservancy, and other San Francisco Bay Area and national lawyers and conservationists. Johnson’s goal was to create an organization that would use emerging real estate, legal, and financial techniques to conserve land for human use and public benefit. An additional founding goal was to extend the conservation and environmental movements to cities, where an increasingly large segment of the population lived.Early Trust for Public Land programs of the 1970s and ‘80s included: 1. The Urban Land Program, which led to the creation of parks and gardens in Oakland, California, San Francisco, New York City, Newark, New Jersey, and other cities. 2. The Public Land Program, which included transactions that helped create the Golden Gate National Recreation Area, Cuyahoga Valley National Park, and the Sawtooth National Recreation Area in Idaho, among other parks a...
As a 501(c)(3) nonprofit, The Trust for Public Land is legally limited in the amount it can spend on campaigning for legislative and ballot measures. In 2000, the organization launched a 501(c)(4) affiliate, The Conservation Campaign, which is not limited in such spending. This affiliate entity is now called The Trust for Public Land Action Fund and frequently works with The Trust for Public Land to help pass local and state conservation finance measures.The Trust for Public Land ParkServeThe Trust for Public Land ParkScoreThe Trust for Public Land Parkology
- Public Reactions
- Legal Analysis
- Plan of Administration
- See Also
- External Links
The dispute regarding the border along the Danube River valley first arose in 1947 but was left unresolved during the existence of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. It became a contentious issue after the break-up of Yugoslavia. Serbia holds the opinion that the thalweg of the Danube valley and the centre line of the river represents the international border between the two countries. Croatia disagrees and claims that the international border lies along the boundaries of the cadastral municipalities located along the river—departing from the course at several points—reflecting the course of the Danube which existed in the 19th century before meandering and hydraulic engineeringworks altered its course. As a result, Croatia claims a large part of the disputed area controlled by Serbia, while Serbia does not claim the much smaller parts controlled by Croatia. Jedlička says that the land he has claimed, known as Gornja Siga (meaning upper tufa), was not claimed by either si...
The flag raising in Gornja Siga was performed by Vít Jedlička and some of his associates on the same day the republic was proclaimed. Jedlička is a member of the Czech Party of Free Citizens, which bases its values on the classical liberalideology. Jedlička stated that no nation claims the land as its own and he therefore could claim it using the terra nullius doctrine. The border, he argued, was defined in accordance with Croatian and Serbian border claims and did not interfere with any othe...
Croatian authorities have frequently blocked access to the area since the beginning of May 2015. In May 2015, Vít Jedlička and his translator Sven Sambunjak were briefly detained by Croatian police after making an attempt to cross the border. Jedlička spent one night in detention and then was convicted and ordered to pay a fine for illegal crossing of the Croatian border but appealed the verdict. He claimed that there were at least three Liberland citizens inside the area, who came from Switz...
Journalists have been uncertain as to how serious Jedlička is about his claims, with some calling it a publicity stunt. In an interview with Parlamentní Listy in April 2015, Jedlička claimed that he had received positive reactions for his initiative, mainly from his own party, the Party of Free Citizens, for which he was a regional chairman, but also from some members of the Civic Democratic Party and the Pirate Party. On 20 May 2015, Petr Mach, the leader of the Party of Free Citizens, expressed support for the creation of a state based on ideas of freedom, adding that the Party of Free Citizens wants the Czech Republic to become a similarly free country. Dominik Stroukal from the Czech-Slovak branch of the Ludwig von Mises Institute wrote: "The escapade succeeded for Vít. The whole world reports about Liberland with words like 'tax competition', 'libertarianism', etc." Goran Vojković, professor of law and columnist from the Croatian news portal Index.hr, described Liberland as a "...
Legal experts in both Serbia and Croatia have said that, under international law, Jedlička lacks the right to claim the area, which is currently the subject of a dispute between the two nations. Croatia and Serbia have dismissed Jedlička's claims as frivolous, although the two countries have reacted in different ways. On 24 April 2015, the Serbian Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated that while they consider the affair a trivial matter, the "new state" does not impinge upon the Serbian border, which is delineated by the Danube.Croatia, which currently administers the land in question, has stated that after international arbitration, it should be awarded to Croatia or Serbia, not to a third party. An article in the Chicago Journal of International Law, the law review of the University of Chicago Law School, examined Liberland's claim to statehood in light of the criteria laid out by the Montevideo Convention. According to the author, "Croatia’s insistence that Liberland is part of Serb...
A government with ten to twenty members has been suggested for the administration of Liberland, to be elected by electronic voting. In an interview, Jedlička said he intended to operate on an open-border policy. The goal of the micronation, as claimed by its website, is to create "a society where righteous people can prosper with minimal state regulations and taxes". The founders are inspired by countries like Monaco and Liechtenstein. A draft version of a codified constitution has been published on liberland.org.[self-published source] and a list of laws to be included in the constitution. These documents describe Liberland as a country governed under a three-power system with executive, legislative and judicial sectors that seek to promote individual rights, including property rights, freedom of speech and the right to keep and bear arms. It has also a list of criminal offences, which include "polluting environment", "public nuisance" in addition to crimes such as murder, manslaug...
According to its official web page, Liberland is currently looking for people who have respect for other people and their opinions, regardless of their race, ethnicity, orientation, or religion, have respect for private ownership which is untouchable, and have not been punished for past criminal offences. Liberland received 200,000 applications in a week. In the beginning of May 2015, Liberland accepted around thirty citizens. An event was supposed to take place in the claimed territory, but Croatian border police stopped the group from entering it from the Croatian side. An attempt to cross the river with fishing boats from Serbia failed because the local fishermen didn't have permits for transporting people with their boats. Serbian police informed Jedlička that anyone trying to cross the border illegally would be arrested. An improvised ceremony was instead held in Bački Monoštor. On 16 February 2018, United States politician and former candidate for U.S. Presidency Ron Paulwas o...
There has been no diplomatic recognition of Liberland by any member of the United Nations. Jedlička has visited another unrecognized republic, Somaliland, a self-declared state that proclaimed its independence from Somaliain 1991, and discussed mutual recognition with them.
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