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Earthquake epicenters occur mostly along tectonic plate boundaries, and especially on the Pacific Ring of Fire. An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth resulting from a sudden release ...
Seismology (/saɪzˈmɒlədʒi, saɪs-/; from Ancient Greek σεισμός (seismós) meaning "earthquake" and -λογία (-logía) meaning "study of") is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the ...
- List of Aftershocks
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Qinghai lies in the northeastern part of the Tibetan Plateau, which formed due to the ongoing collision of the Indian Plate with the Eurasian Plate. The main deformation in this area is crustal shortening, but there is also a component of left lateral strike-slip faulting on major west–east trending structures such as the Kunlun and Altyn Tagh faultsystems that accommodate southeastward translation of the Tibetan area. The earthquake occurred on the Yushu fault, about 300 kilometres (186 mi) south of the Kunlun fault. The Yushu fault forms part of the Yushu-Garzê-Xianshuihe fault zone (玉树-甘孜-鲜水河断裂带), one of the most active fault zones in eastern Tibet. In history, many earthquakes greater than magnitude 7 have occurred in the Xianshuihe fault zone, for example, the magnitude 7.25 earthquake in the Luhuo area on March 24, 1923, and the Ms 7.6 earthquake on February 6, 1973, in Luhuo. Almost all sections of the Xianshuihe fault zone have produced strong earthquakes in records, except...
The earthquake was preceded by a large number of foreshocks (the largest M4.9) starting two hours before the mainshock and located near its epicenter. The mainshock was followed less than two hours later by a M6.1 aftershock. A total rupture length of about 80 km has been derived from a study of ground rupture backed up by SAR interferometry. Three fault segments have been identified, the most northwesterly of which ruptured during the M6.1 aftershock. Analysis of the records from a seismometer located close to the fault rupture and the teleseismic responses from two distant seismometers (in Australia and Germany) suggest that the rupture propagated to the southeast at a speed well in excess of the S-wave velocity, making this an example of a supershear earthquake.
In Qinghai, building damage was reported with no casualties in the counties of Zadoi, Nangqên, and Qumarlêb of Yushu Prefecture. At least 11 schools were destroyed in the earthquake. Over 85% of buildings in Gyegu, mostly of wood-earth construction, were destroyed, leaving hundreds trapped and thousands homeless. A vocational school collapsed and trapped many students.Power outage was also reported in Gyêgu. In Sichuan, strong shaking could be felt in the counties of Sêrxü, Dêgê, and Baiyü, Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. Road damage was reported in Sêrxü County. Due to the rough terrain and the fact that landslides destroyed the local infrastructure, the initial rescue operations were undertaken by the People's Armed Police and People's Liberation Army soldiers of Lanzhou Military Region.The Qinghai provincial government said in a public statement that five thousand tents, 100,000 thick, cotton coats, and heavy blankets were being sent to help survivors cope with the strong wi...
Chinese Communist Party general secretary Hu Jintao and State Council premier Wen Jiabao urged all-out efforts to help rescue those affected by the earthquake. Several hours after news of the quake broke, Vice Premier Hui Liangyu was sent to the region to oversee rescue efforts. Some 3,700 personnel from the Qinghai division of the People's Armed Police was sent to the region to aid in rescue efforts. Specialty personnel also arrived from neighbouring provinces Gansu, Shaanxi, and Ningxia, as well as the Tibet Autonomous Region. China's paramount leader Hu Jintao was in Brazil at the time and decided to cut short a state visit and BRIC summit and rush back to China to co-ordinate rescue efforts. He also postponed his upcoming tour to Venezuela and Chile. Premier Wen Jiabao arrived in Yushu on April 15 to lead rescue work, and postponed his trip to southeast Asia.Hu arrived in Yushu three days after Wen, to help guide the relief efforts and console victims.
The initial earthquake was preceded by a foreshock and followed by several aftershocks, four above magnitude 5, including a M5.8 aftershock at a 4 km (2.5 mi) depth on April 14. Only shocks with magnitude 4.0 or higher are listed. Shocks with magnitude 5.5 or higher are highlighted in light blue. The main shock with moment magnitude 6.9 Mwis highlighted in dark blue.The International Seismological Centre has a bibliography and/or authoritative datafor this event.ReliefWeb's main pagefor this event.
The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake occurred on California's Central Coast on October 17 at 5:04 p.m. local time. The shock was centered in The Forest of Nisene Marks State Park in Santa Cruz County, approximately 10 mi (16 km) northeast of ...
The April 2015 Nepal earthquake (also known as the Gorkha earthquake)   killed nearly 9,000 people and injured nearly 22,000. It occurred at 11:56 Nepal Standard Time on 25 April 2015, with a magnitude of 7.8M w  or 8.1M s  and a ...
According to the United States Geological Survey:  The earthquake occurred as the result of motion on a northeast striking reverse fault or thrust fault on the northwestern margin of the Sichuan Basin.The earthquake's epicenter and ...
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Initially it was thought that the epicenter was 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) east of Carmen, Bohol, triggered by the East Bohol Fault. But according to the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), the 7.2 earthquake may have been caused by a previously undiscovered fault transecting Bohol running ENE-WSW parallel to the island's northwest coast. This was apparent in the pattern of epicenters of the subsequent aftershocks. The 15 October 2013 magnitude (Mw) 7.2 Bohol earthquake produced an approximate 50 kilometres (31 mi) long, 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) wide northeast trending zone of uplift with an approximate 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) long discontinuous ground rupture indicating predominantly reverse‐slip movement on a southeast dipping fault. Displacement along the northeastern segment of the NBF in Inabanga is significantly larger in the northeast than in the southwest. In the northeast, the displacement is mostly 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) and reaches a maximum of 5 metres (1...
The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center did not issue a Pacific-wide tsunami threat. The United States Geological Survey issued a yellow warning, saying "some casualties and damage are possible and the impact should be relatively localized. Past yellow alerts have required a local or regional level response." SHOA, of the Chilean Navy, stated the earthquake would not affect national or South American coasts.
The earthquake struck as the Philippines was observing the Muslim holiday of Eid-al-Adha. The public holiday had closed schools, some businesses, and offices which helped reduce the number of casualties. A total of ₱2.25 billion worth of damage to public buildings, roads, bridges, and flood controls was reported in Bohol and Cebu. A total of 671,103 families or more than 3.2 million people were affected by the quake. Out of the total number of affected, 71,822 families or more than 348,000 people were displaced.
Several flights from Cebu and Bohol airports and the airport operations itself were put on hold as response to check the safety status of the airport buildings. Mactan International Airport in Mactan was later opened before midday, flights between Manila and Bohol were delayed due to temporary suspension of operations in Tagbilaran Airport for about 3 hours.By October 17, all operations of seaports in Bohol and Cebu were back to normal.
Many Bohol residents were left without adequate safe drinking water and sanitary facilities after the quake. Consequently, serious public health issues arose such as cases of diarrhea and water-borne diseases. Worst affected were the municipalities closest to the epicenter, such as Sagbayan, San Isidro, Calape, Tubigon, Clarin and Catigbian. There were also threats to public health. Community health centers and hospitals were rendered useless, resulting in the use of makeshift wards outside t...
Power and water supply
One in every five households in Bohol had electrical power disruption a week after the earthquake hit. In terms of number of barangays, according to the Department of Energy, 91 percent of 602 villages had their power restored. On October 24, TagbilaranCity was the only town in the province where energy was fully restored. By November 3 nearly all electrical power had been restored. By October 20, the water supply in 42 towns of Bohol was restored but the towns of Calape, Cortes, Loon, Maribo...
Government response and aid
States of calamity were issued by Cebu and Bohol provincial governments on October 15. The National Commission for Culture and the Arts, National Historical Commission of the Philippines, and the National Museum have expressed their commitment to rehabilitate the ten heritage churches damaged by the quake. Many of the churches destroyed are iconic and are historical landmarks. One was the Basilica Minore del Santo Niño which is the oldest church in the Philippines. PHIVOLCS continuously monit...
International response and aid
The Spanish government sent messages of sympathy and solidarity to the Philippine government. Spain also cited the damage and destruction of the churches, which they consider as part of their historical heritage during the Spanish colonial period. New Zealand's Prime Minister John Key also sent a letter to President Aquino expressing their heartfelt sympathies to the people affected by the disaster. Canada, through Foreign Minister John Baird, also offered sympathies and stated that his count...
Aid from organizations
The United Nations' World Food Program has prepositioned a thousand metric tons of rice, 15 metric tons of high energy biscuits and other non-food items to the affected areas in the provinces of Bohol and Cebu. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations' Coordinating Center for Humanitarian Assistance has also delivered relief supplies to Bohol. Philippine Red Cross (PRC) donated relief operations, and deployed volunteers and rescue teams to the depressed areas. Singapore Red Cross (SRC) dona...The International Seismological Centre has a bibliography and/or authoritative datafor this event.ReliefWeb's main pagefor this event.
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The earthquake, which measured 6.1 on the moment magnitude scale, occurred on July 26, 1963, at 04:17 UTC (5:17 am local time) in Skopje, Socialist Republic of Macedonia, then part of SFR Yugoslavia (present-day North Macedonia). The tremor lasted for 20 seconds and was felt mostly along the Vardar River Valley.There were also smaller aftershocks until 5:43.
Within a few days after the earthquake took place, 35 nations requested that the United Nations General Assemblyplace relief for Skopje on their list of agendas. Relief, in the form of money, medical, engineering and building teams and supplies was offered from 78 countries throughout the world. United States president John F. Kennedy ordered the Department of Defense and the Agency for International Development (USAID) to take actions for disaster assistance in Skopje by sending personnel, prefabricated houses, tent cities and other forms of relief. Substantial relief also arrived from the Soviet Union. Its leader, Nikita Khrushchev, visited Skopje personally. As the SFR Yugoslavia was a member of the Non Aligned Movement during the Cold War, the American and Soviet troops stationed in Skopje could freely shake hands for the first time since their encounter on Elbe in 1945. The first foreign journalist who arrived in Skopje to report on the earthquake was David Binder of The New Yo...
Following the earthquake, Josip Broz Tito, then-president of SFR Yugoslavia, sent a message of condolences to the Socialist Republic of Macedoniabefore visiting the city personally: Alberto Moravia, the major Italian novelist: The philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre: .
The Skopje earthquake is referenced in many works of art including literature, music, theatre and films. An example is the Macedonian feature film Memento, directed by Dimitrie Osmanli in 1967. An example from the field of literature is the poem Skoplje 1963 by the Austrian poet Christine Busta.Symbol of the earthquake: The Old Railway Station in Skopje. The clock stopped at 5.17 on July 26, 1963. Today the building is used by the Museum of the City of Skopje (Muzej na grad Skopje).Monument dedicated to the victims of the earthquake, near the Old Railway StationNew settlements in Skopje donated by: USA, UK, West Germany, Mexico, the Scandinavian countries, Switzerland, ČSSR, Poland, the World Council of Churchesetc.Charity concert by Henryk Szeryng for the victims of the Skopje earthquake, Reims, France, November 26, 1963The International Seismological Centre has a bibliography and/or authoritative datafor this event.
- 1,000–1,100 killed, 3,000–4,000 injured, 200,000 left homeless, 75–80% of city destroyed
- 1963-07-26 04:17:17
- July 26, 1963
- 6.1 M
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The Sea of Marmara is a pull-apart basin formed at a releasing bend in the North Anatolian Fault, a right-lateral strike-slip fault. This local zone of extension occurs where this transform boundary between the Anatolian Plate and the Eurasian Plate steps northwards to the west of Izmit from the Izmit Fault to the Ganos Fault. The pattern of faults within the Sea of Marmara basin is complex but near Istanbul there is a single main fault segment with a sharp bend. To the west, the fault trends west–east and is pure strike-slip in type. To the east, the fault is NW-SE trending and shows evidence of both normal and strike-slip motion. Movement on this fault, which bounds the Çınarcık Basin, was the most likely cause of the 1509 event.
The area of significant damage (greater than VII (Very strong)) extended from Çorlu in the west to Izmit in the east. Galata and Büyükçekmece also suffered severe damage. In Constantinople 109 mosques were utterly destroyed, while most of those left standing suffered damage to their minarets. While 1070 homes collapsed, 49 towers along the Walls of Constantinople also collapsed or were damaged. The newly built Bayezid II Mosque was badly damaged; the main dome was destroyed and a minaret collapsed. The Fatih Mosque suffered damage to its four great columns and the dome was split. The quake also damaged the Rumeli Fortress, Anadolu Fortress, the Yoros Castle in Anadolu Kavağı, and the Maiden's Tower. The Grand Mosque of Hagia Sophia survived almost unscathed, although a minaret collapsed. Inside the mosque, the plaster that had been used to cover up the Byzantine mosaicsinside the dome fell off, revealing the Christian images. The number of dead and injured is hard to estimate, with...
The earthquake was allegedly predicted by an unnamed Greek monk from Saint Catherine's Monastery in Sinai while present in the Sultan's court. European interpretations at the time viewed the earthquake as a sort of punishment, a punishment from God set upon the Turks for taking up arms against European Christians. Similarly, Bayezid II saw it as a punishment from God, however he attributed the punishment to the wrongdoings of his ministers. The sultan’s residence Topkapı Palace was not damaged but Bayezid II’s bedroom collapsed at the tremor, with the sultan only saved by the fact he had left his chambers only hours earlier. After staying for ten days in a tent set up in the palace garden, Bayezid II went to stay in former capital of Edirne. The Ottoman Imperial Council (Divan-ı Hümayun) convened after the quake and made decisions to deal with the effects of the disaster. Constantinople had to be reconstructed and an additional tax of 22 akçe would be taken from each household for t...
From the area and intensity of shaking, a 70 km (43 mi) fault rupture has been estimated. Major shocks occurred at half hour intervals and was violent and protracted in nature, forcing residents to seek refuge in open parks and squares.Aftershocks were said to have continued for 18 days without causing any further damage, however it did delay reconstruction in some areas.
A tsunami is mentioned in some sources with a run-up of greater than 6.0 m (19.7 ft), but discounted in others. A turbidite bed whose deposition matches the date of the earthquake has been recognised in the ÇınarcıkBasin.
Earthquake prediction is a branch of the science of seismology concerned with the specification of the time, location, and magnitude of future earthquakes within stated limits, and particularly "the determination of parameters for the next ...