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  1. 外牆拉皮 相關
  1. Outside the Wall (song) - Wikipedia › wiki › Outside_the_Wall_(song)

    This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Outside the Wall" (working titles "Bleeding ...

    • 1:41
    • 30 November 1979 (UK), 8 December 1979 (US)
  2. Great Wall of China - Wikipedia › wiki › Long_Wall_of_China
    • Names
    • History
    • Course
    • Characteristics
    • Condition
    • Visibility from Space
    • Gallery
    • External Links

    The collection of fortifications known as the Great Wall of China has historically had a number of different names in both Chinese and English. In Chinese histories, the term "Long Wall(s)" (t 長城, s 长城, Chángchéng) appears in Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian, where it referred both to the separate great walls built between and north of the Warring States and to the more unified construction of the First Emperor. The Chinese character 城, meaning city or fortress, is a phono-semantic compound of the "earth" radical 土 and phonetic 成, whose Old Chinese pronunciation has been reconstructed as *deŋ. It originally referred to the rampart which surrounded traditional Chinese cities and was used by extension for these walls around their respective states; today, however, it is much more often the Chinese word for "city". The longer Chinese name "Ten-Thousand Mile Long Wall" (t 萬里長城, s 万里长城, Wànlǐ Chángchéng) came from Sima Qian's description of it in the Records, though he did not...

    Early walls

    The Chinese were already familiar with the techniques of wall-building by the time of the Spring and Autumn period between the 8th and 5th centuries BC. During this time and the subsequent Warring States period, the states of Qin, Wei, Zhao, Qi, Han, Yan, and Zhongshanall constructed extensive fortifications to defend their own borders. Built to withstand the attack of small arms such as swords and spears, these walls were made mostly of stone or by stamping earth and gravel between board fra...

    Ming era

    The Great Wall concept was revived again under the Ming in the 14th century, and following the Ming army's defeat by the Oirats in the Battle of Tumu. The Ming had failed to gain a clear upper hand over the Mongolian tribes after successive battles, and the long-drawn conflict was taking a toll on the empire. The Ming adopted a new strategy to keep the nomadic tribes out by constructing walls along the northern border of China. Acknowledging the Mongol control established in the Ordos Desert,...

    Foreign accounts

    None of the Europeans who visited China or Mongolia in the 13th and 14th centuries, such as Giovanni da Pian del Carpine, William of Rubruck, Marco Polo, Odoric of Pordenone and Giovanni de' Marignolli, mentioned the Great Wall. The North African traveler Ibn Battuta, who also visited China during the Yuan dynasty c. 1346, had heard about China's Great Wall, possibly before he had arrived in China. He wrote that the wall is "sixty days' travel" from Zeitun (modern Quanzhou) in his travelogue...

    A formal definition of what constitutes a "Great Wall" has not been agreed upon, making the full course of the Great Wall difficult to describe in its entirety.The defensive lines contain multiple stretches of ramparts, trenches and ditches, as well as individual fortresses.

    Before the use of bricks, the Great Wall was mainly built from rammed earth, stones, and wood. During the Ming, however, bricks were heavily used in many areas of the wall, as were materials such as tiles, lime, and stone. The size and weight of the bricks made them easier to work with than earth and stone, so construction quickened. Additionally, bricks could bear more weight and endure better than rammed earth. Stone can hold under its own weight better than brick, but is more difficult to use. Consequently, stones cut in rectangular shapes were used for the foundation, inner and outer brims, and gateways of the wall. Battlements line the uppermost portion of the vast majority of the wall, with defensive gaps a little over 30 cm (12 in) tall, and about 23 cm (9.1 in) wide. From the parapets, guards could survey the surrounding land. Communication between the army units along the length of the Great Wall, including the ability to call reinforcements and warn garrisonsof enemy movem...

    While portions north of Beijing and near tourist centers have been preserved and even extensively renovated, in many other locations the Wall is in disrepair. The wall sometimes provided a source of stones to build houses and roads. Sections of the Wall are also prone to graffiti and vandalism, while inscribed bricks were pilfered and sold on the market for up to 50 renminbi. Parts have been destroyed to make way for construction or mining. A 2012 report by the National Cultural Heritage Administration states that 22% of the Ming Great Wall has disappeared, while 1,961 km (1,219 mi) of wall have vanished. More than 60 km (37 mi) of the wall in Gansu province may disappear in the next 20 years, due to erosion from sandstorms. In some places, the height of the wall has been reduced from more than 5 m (16 ft 5 in) to less than 2 m (6 ft 7 in). Various square lookout towers that characterize the most famous images of the wall have disappeared. Many western sections of the wall are const...

    From the Moon

    The notion that the Wall can be seen from the moon, (385,000 km, 239,000 miles) is a well-known but implausible myth. One of the earliest known references to the myth that the Great Wall can be seen from the moon appears in a letter written in 1754 by the English antiquary William Stukeley. Stukeley wrote that, "This mighty wall [Hadrian's wall] of four score miles [130 km] in length is only exceeded by the Chinese Wall, which makes a considerable figure upon the terrestrial globe, and may be...

    From low Earth orbit

    A more controversial question is whether the Wall is visible from low Earth orbit (an altitude of as little as 160 km (100 mi)). NASAclaims that it is barely visible, and only under nearly perfect conditions; it is no more conspicuous than many other man-made objects. Veteran U.S. astronaut Gene Cernan has stated: "At Earth orbit of 100 to 200 miles [160 to 320 km] high, the Great Wall of China is, indeed, visible to the naked eye." Ed Lu, Expedition 7 Science Officer aboard the International...

    "The First Mound" – at Jiayu Pass, the western terminus of the Ming wall
    The great wall near Jiayu Pass
    Ming wall remnant near Yinchuan
    The Great Wall remnant at Yulin
    • The Great Wall
    • Fortification
    • 21,196 km (13,171 mi)
    • China
  3. Façade - Wikipedia › wiki › Façade
    • Etymology
    • Façades Added to Earlier Buildings
    • High Rise Façades
    • Film Sets and Theme Parks
    • Examples
    • Further Reading

    The word is a loanword from the French façade, which in turn comes from the Italian facciata, from faccia meaning face, ultimately from post-classical Latin facia. The earliest usage recorded by the Oxford English Dictionaryis 1656.

    It was quite common in the Georgian period for existing houses in English towns to be given a fashionable new façade. For example, in the city of Bath, The Bunch of Grapes in Westgate Street appears to be a Georgian building, but the appearance is only skin deep and some of the interior rooms still have Jacobeanplasterwork ceilings. This new construction has happened also in other places: in Santiago de Compostela the 3-metres-deep Casa do Cabido was built to match the architectural order of the square, and the main Churrigueresque façade of the Santiago de Compostela Cathedral, facing the Praza do Obradoiro, is actually encasing and concealing the older Portico of Glory.

    In modern high rise building, the exterior walls are often suspended from the concrete floor slabs. Examples include curtain walls and precast concrete walls. The façade can at times be required to have a fire-resistance rating, for instance, if two buildings are very close together, to lower the likelihood of fire spreading from one building to another. In general, the façade systems that are suspended or attached to the precast concrete slabs will be made from aluminium (powder coated or anodized) or stainless steel. In recent years more lavish materials such as titanium have sometimes been used, but due to their cost and susceptibility to panel edge stainingthese have not been popular. Whether rated or not, fire protection is always a design consideration. The melting point of aluminium, 660 °C (1,220 °F), is typically reached within minutes of the start of a fire. Fire stops for such building joints can be qualified, too. Putting fire sprinkler systemson each floor has a profoun...

    On a film set and within most themed attractions, many of the buildings are only façade, which are far cheaper than actual buildings, and not subject to building codes (within film sets). In film sets, they are simply held up with supports from behind, and sometimes have boxes for actors to step in and out of from the front if necessary for a scene. Within theme parks, they are usually decoration for the interior ride or attraction, which is based on a simple building design.

    Façade of a 1st-century CE Roman domus in Pompeii
    Part of the Central University Library of Bucharest (Romania)
    The façade at Bletchley Park(UK) is a mix of architectural styles
    Detail of a façade from Prague (Czech Republic)

    Poole, Thomas (1909). "Façade" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. 5. New York: Robert Appleton Company.The article outlines the development of the facade in ecclesiastical archi...

  4. Berlin Wall - Wikipedia › wiki › Berlin_Wall

    The Berlin Wall (German: Berliner Mauer, pronounced [bɛʁˌliːnɐ ˈmaʊ ɐ] ()) was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989. Construction of the wall was commenced by the German Democratic ...

  5. Exterior insulation finishing system - Wikipedia › wiki › Exterior_insulation_finishing_system
    • History of EIFS
    • Terminology
    • EIFS Installation
    • EIFS Since Year 2000
    • Composition and Types of EIFS
    • Legal Issues
    • Marketing of EIFS and The EIFS Industry
    • EIFS Architectural Details

    EIFS was developed in Europe after World War II and was initially used to retrofit masonry walls. EIFS started to be used in North America in the 1960s, at first on commercial masonry buildings. EIFS became very popular in the mid- 1970s due to the oil embargo and the resultant surge in interest in insulating wall systems that conserve energy used for heating and cooling. The use of EIFS over stud-and-sheathing framing instead of over solid walls is a technique used primarily in North America. In the late 1980s problems started developing due to water leakage in EIFS-clad buildings. This created an international controversy and numerous lawsuits. Critics argue that, while not inherently more prone to water penetration than other exterior finishes, barrier-type EIFS systems (non-water-managed systems) do not allow water that penetrates the building envelope to escape. The EIFS industry has consistently maintained that the EIFS itself was not leaking, but rather poor craftsmanship and...

    In the United States the International Building Code and ASTM International define Exterior Insulation and Finish System(EIFS) as a nonload bearing, exterior wall cladding system that consists of an insulation board attached either adhesively or mechanically, or both, to the substrate; an integrally reinforced base coat; and a textured protective finish coat. EIFS with Drainage, another EIFS system, is the predominant method of EIFS applied today. As the name implies, EIFS with Drainage provides a way for moisture that may accumulate in the wall cavity to evacuate. Although often called "synthetic stucco", EIFS is not stucco. Traditional stucco is a centuries-old material which consists of aggregate, a binder, and water, and is a hard, dense, thick, non-insulating material. EIFS is a lightweight synthetic wall cladding that includes foam plastic insulation and thin synthetic coatings. There are also specialty stuccos that use synthetic materials but no insulation, and these are also...

    EIFS are typically attached to the outside face of exterior walls with an adhesive (cementitious or acrylic based) or mechanical fasteners. Adhesives are commonly used to attach EIFS to gypsum board, cement board, or concrete substrates. EIFS are attached with mechanical fasteners (specially designed for this application) when installed over housewraps(sheet-good weather barriers) such as are commonly used over wood sheathings. The supporting wall surface should be continuous (not "open framing") and flat.

    Research, conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and supported by the Department of Energy, has affirmed that EIFS are the "best performing cladding"in relation to thermal and moisture control when compared to brick, stucco, and cementitious fiberboard siding. EIFS are in compliance with modern building codes that emphasize energy conservation through the use of CI (continuous insulation) and a continuous air barrier. EIFS before 2000 were barrier systems, meaning that the EIFS itself was the weather barrier. After 2000 the EIFS industry introduced the air/moisture barrier that resides behind the foam. In a study done by the Department Of Energy's Office of Science - Oak Ridge National Laboratory it was found that the best air/moisture barrier was a fluid barrier. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory, ATLANTA, Oct. 28, 2006 — EIFS "outperformed all other walls in terms of moisture while maintaining superior thermal performance." The National Institute of Standards and Technolog...

    Types of EIFS are defined by their materials and the existence/absence of a drainage plane. The EIFS Industry Members Association (EIMA) defines two classes of EIFS, Class PB (polymer based) identified as PB EIFS and Class PM (polymer modified) identified as PM EIFS. PB EIFS is the most common type in North America and historically used expanded polystyrene (EPS) insulation adhered to the substrate with fiberglass mesh embedded in a nominal 1/16 inch (1.6 mm) base coat which can receive additional layers of mesh and base coat for stronger impact resistance. Other types of insulation board can include polyisocyanurate. PM EIFS use extruded polystyrene insulation (XEPS), and a thick, cementitious base coat applied over mechanically attached glass fiber reinforcing mesh. The system has joints similar to traditional stucco. PM EIFS have evolved to include different insulation materials and base coats. The most common type of EIFS used today is the system that includes a drainage cavity,...

    EIFS systems have been the subject of several lawsuits in the United States, mostly related to the installation process and failure of the system causing moisture buildups and subsequent mold growth. The most notable case concerned the former San Martin, Californiacourthouse. This case was settled for 12 million dollars. The basic underlying problem behind EIFS litigation was that EIFS was marketed as a cost-effective replacement for stucco. Stucco is expensive to install because it must be carefully applied by skilled craftsmen. General contractors switched to EIFS because they were supposed to be easy to install with unskilled or semi-skilled labor and would not crack like traditional stucco. Although EIFS if properly installed according to the manufacturer's directions should not have water intrusion problems, many installers cut corners by using insufficiently trained labor and also failed to supervise their work adequately. In turn, thousands of EIFS installations were noncompl...

    EIFS account for about 10% of the US commercial wall cladding market.[citation needed] There are several dozen EIFS manufacturers in North America. Some sell nationwide, and some are regional in their area of business operations. The EIFS manufacturers sell the various system components (adhesives, coatings, etc.) through specialty building product distributors, who in turn resell the components to local EIFS installers.[citation needed] The top five EIFS producers account for about 90% of the US market. These producers include Dryvit Systems, STO Corp., BASF Wall Systems, Master Wall, and Parex.[citation needed]

    Another benefit of EIFS is the option to add architectural details that are composed of the same materials. EIFS mouldings or as they are commonly referred to, stucco mouldings, come in a large variety of shapes and sizes. They are widely used on residential/commercial projects in North America and are gaining popularity worldwide. Production methods have come a long way since their inception which allow manufacturers to create with great efficiency in a cost-effective manner.

  6. Aluminium alloy - Wikipedia › wiki › Aluminium_alloy

    Aluminium alloys (or aluminum alloys; see spelling differences) are alloys in which aluminium (Al) is the predominant metal. The typical alloying elements are copper, magnesium, manganese, silicon, tin and zinc.There are two principal ...

  7. The S.O.U.L. S.Y.S.T.E.M. - Wikipedia › wiki › The_S

    The S.O.U.L. S.Y.S.T.E.M. was an American R&B and dance music group, assembled by Robert Clivillés and David Cole of C&C Music Factory, that was active in 1992.The group featured lead vocals by Michelle Visage, who was formerly a member ...

  8. Microsoft Edge - Wikipedia › wiki › Microsoft_Edge
    • Features
    • Development
    • Performance
    • Reception
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    Microsoft Edge is the default web browser on Windows 10, Windows 10 Mobile, Windows 11, Xbox One, and Xbox Series X and Series S consoles, replacing Internet Explorer 11 and Internet Explorer Mobile. As its development and release is dependent on the model of Windows as a service, it is not included in Windows 10 Enterprise Long-Term Servicing Channel (LTSC) builds. Microsoft initially announced that Edge would support the legacy Trident(MSHTML) layout engine for backwards compatibility, but later said that, due to "strong feedback," Edge would use a new engine, while Internet Explorer would continue to provide the legacy engine. Favorites, reading list, browsing history and downloads are viewed at the Hub, a sidebarproviding functionality similar to Internet Explorer's Downloads manager and Favorites Center. Edge features a PDF reader and supports asm.js. Until January 2021, Edge also featured an integrated Adobe Flash Player (with an internal whitelist allowing Flash applets on Fa...


    In December 2014, writing for ZDNet, technology writer Mary Jo Foley reported that Microsoft was developing a new web browser codenamed "Spartan" for Windows 10. She said that "Spartan" would be treated as a new product separate from Internet Explorer, with Internet Explorer 11 retained alongside it for compatibility. In early January 2015, The Verge obtained further details surrounding "Spartan" from sources close to Microsoft, including reports that it would replace Internet Explorer on bot...


    On December 6, 2018, Microsoft announced its intent to base Edge on the Chromium source code, using the same rendering engine as Google Chrome but with enhancements developed by Microsoft. It was also announced that there will be versions of Edge available for Windows 7, Windows 8 and macOS, plus that all versions will be updated on a more frequent basis. According to Microsoft executive Joe Belfiore, the decision for the change came after CEO Satya Nadellatold the team in 2017 that the produ...

    Early benchmarks of the EdgeHTML engine—included in the first beta release of Edge in Windows 10 Build 10049—had drastically better JavaScript performance than Trident 7 in Internet Explorer 11, with similar performance to Google Chrome 41 and Mozilla Firefox 37. In the SunSpider benchmark, Edge performed faster than other browsers, while in other benchmarks it operated slower than Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox and Opera. Later benchmarks conducted with the version included in 10122 showed significant performance improvement compared to both IE11 and Edge back in 10049. According to Microsoft's benchmark result, this iteration of Edge performed better than both Chrome and Firefox in Google's Octane 2.0 and Apple's Jetstream benchmark. In July 2015, Edge scored 377 out of 555 points on the HTML5test. Chrome 44 and Firefox 42 scored 479 and 434 respectively, while Internet Explorer 11 scored 312. In August 2015, Microsoft released Windows 10 Build 10532 to insiders, which included Ed...

    In an August 2015 review of Windows 10 by Dan Grabham of TechRadar, Microsoft Edge was praised for its performance, despite not being in a feature-complete state at launch. Andrew Cunningham of Ars Technica praised the browser for being "tremendously promising" and "a much better browser than Internet Explorer ever was" but criticized it for its lack of functionality on launch. Thom Holwerda of OSNewscriticized Edge in August 2015 for its hidden URL bar, lack of user friendliness, poor design and a tab system that is "so utterly broken it should never have shipped in a final release". He described the browser's implemented features as "some sort of cosmic joke", saying that "infuriating doesn't even begin to describe it". Data from August 2015, a few weeks after release, showed that user uptake of Edge was low, with only 2% of overall computer users using the new browser. Among Windows 10 users usage peaked at 20% and then dropped to 14% through August 2015. In October 2015, a secur...

    Weber, Jason (January 22, 2015). "Project Spartan and the Windows 10 January Preview Build". IEBlog. Microsoft.

    Microsoft Edge Team (April 22, 2020). "Microsoft Edge and Chromium Open Source: Our Intent".
    "Microsoft Edge open source projects - demos, tools, data". GitHub.
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