Solar power is the conversion of energy from sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics (PV), indirectly using concentrated solar power, or a combination.Concentrated solar power systems use lenses or mirrors and solar ...
Photovoltaics ( PV) is the conversion of light into electricity using semiconducting materials that exhibit the photovoltaic effect, a phenomenon studied in physics, photochemistry, and electrochemistry. The photovoltaic effect is commercially ...
A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon. It is a form of photoelectric cell, defined as a ...
- Facility Construction Details
- Ownership, Funding, and Operations
- Comparison to Flat-Panel Photovoltaic Plants
- See Also
- External Links
The facility consists of 504 dual-axis Amonix 7700 solar tracking systems and Solectria grid-connected 70 kW inverters. Each system supports seven CPV "MegaModules" which are each rated to produce about 10 kWp. Each module contains 1,080 fresnel lenses to concentrate sunlight 500 times onto multi-junction solar cells, allowing a greater efficiency than conventional photovoltaic power plants. The facility is sited on 225 acres at an elevation of 7,500 feet in the sunny and cool San Luis Valley, along with several other solar farms. It was built by Mortenson construction and is the world's largest assembly of Amonix CPV technology.
Construction was financed in September 2011 by a special purpose subsidiary of the Goldman Sachs Group's Cogentrix Energy Power Management with a US$90.6 million loan that is guaranteed by the U.S. Department of Energy. The facility became operational less than 9 months later in April 2012. In August 2016, Cogentrix sold the project for US$35 million to Korea Electric Power Corporation and its COPA pension fund, both of which are majority held by the South Korean government. Cogentrix Services continues to operate and maintain the facility.
Findings of a 2013 NREL land use report showed CPV as having the highest land-energy-density potential of any photovoltaic technology surveyed in the United States, requiring an average 2.8 acres/GW·h/yr for power plants larger than 20 MW. Flat-panel fixed and single-axis tracking plants of similar capacity typically used 3.7 and 3.3 acres/GW·h/yr, respectively.Based on current energy production statistics, land use for the 225 acre Alamosa CPV project averages 3.7 acres/GW·h/yr (= 270 MW·h/acre annual production).
Designated as an American National Standard, the Uniform Solar, Hydronics and Geothermal Code (USHGC) is a model code developed by the International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials to govern the installation and inspection of ...
- Hybrid System
- System Monitoring
- Performance Assessment
- Load Related Problems
- External Links
The two types of stand-alone photovoltaic power systems are direct-coupled system without batteries and stand alone system with batteries.
The hybrid power plant is a complete electrical power supply system that can be easily configured to meet a broad range of remote power needs. There are three basic elements to the system - the power source, the battery, and the power management center. Sources for hybrid power include wind turbines, diesel engine generators, thermoelectric generators and solar PV systems. The battery allows autonomous operation by compensating for the difference between power production and use. The power management center regulates power production from each of the sources, controls power use by classifying loads, and protects the battery from service extremes.
Monitoring photovoltaic systems can provide useful information about their operation and what should be done to improve performance, but if the data are not reported properly, the effort is wasted. To be helpful, a monitoring report must provide information on the relevant aspects of the operation in terms that are easily understood by a third party. Appropriate performance parameters need to be selected, and their values consistently updated with each new issue of the report. In some cases it may be beneficial to monitor the performance of individual components in order to refine and improve system performance, or be alerted to loss of performance in time for preventative action. For example, monitoring battery charge/discharge profiles will signal when replacement is due before downtime from system failure is experienced.
Performance assessment involves: 1. Data collection, which is a straightforward process of measuring parameters. 2. Evaluation of that data in a manner that provides useful information. 3. Dissemination of useful information to the end user.
The wide range of load related problems identified are classified into the following types: 1. Wrong selection: Some loads cannot be used with stand-alone PV systems. 2. House wiring: Inadequate or low quality wiring and protection devices can affect the system's response. 3. Low efficiency: Low efficiency loads may increase energy consumption. 4. Stand-by loads: Stand-by mode of some loads waste energy. 5. Start-up: High current drawn by some loads during start-up Current spikes during the start-up can overload the system temporarily. 6. Reactive power: The circulating current can differ from the current consumed when capacitive or inductive loads are used. 7. Harmonic distortion: Non-linear loads may create distortion of the inverter waveform. 8. Mismatch between load and inverter size: When a higher rated inverter is used for a lower capacity load, overall efficiency is reduced.
- Energy Storage
- Operations Issues
- See Also
- Further Reading
- External Links
The plant employs a proprietary concentrating solar power (CSP) trough technology developed by Abengoa, and covers an area of 1,920 acres (780 ha). Construction was expected to create about 1,500 construction jobs with the plant employing 85 full-time workers. Solar thermal plants use substantially more water for cooling than other solar generating technologies. Nevertheless, the Sierra Clubsupports the Solana plant, because it will be built on private land, and use "75 to 85 percent less water than the current agricultural use."
Arizona Public Service (APS) has contracted to purchase 100% of the power output generated from Solana, to meet the Arizona Corporation Commission's (ACC) mandate that the state's regulated utilities provide 15% of their electricity from renewable energy sources by 2025. APS will pay about 14 cents per kWh. The Solana plant was originally planned to open in 2011 and was estimated to cost $2 billion. In December 2010, Abengoa received a $1.45 billion loan guaranteeto support construction of the plant.
One of the principal advantages of concentrated solar thermal (CST) is that thermal energy storage can be provided efficiently, so that output can be provided after the sun goes down, and output can be scheduled to meet demand requirements.The Solana Generating Station is designed to provide six hours of energy storage. This allows the plant to generate about 38 percent of its rated capacity over the course of a year.
Solana Generating Station's production is as follows, averaging 742 GW·h annual, yielding about 390 MW·h/acre. Maximum annual electricity production was projected at 900,000 MW·h (900 GW·h), as calculated using the project's and NREL specific capacity factors.In 2020, Solana Generating Station has averaged 82.4% of the projected production value.
In the summer of 2017, the plant had two transformer fires. The plant also went through some other challenging issues. For example, Maricopa County environmental officials are looking into whether the plant violated air pollution standards. In 2016, Maricopa County fined the plant $1.5 million for violations of air quality standards. According to the Phoenix New Times, "The plant’s parent company, a subsidiary of Abengoacalled Atlantica Yield, downplayed the issues, and a company representative said that better times are likely ahead." The plant opened in 2014 and has suffered a number of problems since its opening. According to government documents, the plant is expected to produce 900,000 MWh every year. This amount of electricity could power about 65,000 typical homes in Arizona. However, the plant produced only 600,000 MWh in its first full year of operation, according to information from the Federal Energy Information Administration. In 2015, the output increased to 700,000 MWh...
Wald, Matthew L. Arizona Utility Tries Storing Solar Energy for Use in the Dark, The New York Times, October 18, 2013, p. B1 (New York edition); also published online at NYTimes.com on October 17,..."Solana Generating Station Project". Abengoa Solar Inc. Archived from the original on 2013-06-19. Retrieved 2008-12-04."APS :: Solana - Arizona's Largest Solar Power Plant". Arizona Public Service (APS). Retrieved 2008-12-04."Solana Generating Station". Concentrating Solar Power Projects. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). February 23, 2013. Retrieved 2019-09-12.
- December 2010
- United States
- US$2 billion
- Maricopa County
Working principle Electroluminescence Invented H. J. Round (1907) Oleg Losev (1927) James R. Biard (1961) Nick Holonyak (1962) First production October 1962 Pin configuration A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source that ...
The LCD Solarpower series are handheld electronic games powered by solar energy made by Bandai in 1982. The games in the Double Panel series feature two LCD panels stacked on top of each other. This allows these games to progress in 2 stages ...
- Ancient Monuments
- Modern Examples
- See Also
The Mesopotamians built the earliest pyramidal structures, called ziggurats. In ancient times, these were brightly painted in gold/bronze. Since they were constructed of sun-dried mud-brick, little remains of them. Ziggurats were built by the Sumerians, Babylonians, Elamites, Akkadians, and Assyrians for local religions. Each ziggurat was part of a temple complex which included other buildings. The precursors of the ziggurat were raised platforms that date from the Ubaid period during the fou...
The most famous pyramids are the Egyptian — huge structures built of brick or stone, some of which are among the world's largest constructions. They are shaped as a reference to the rays of the sun. Most pyramids had a polished, highly reflective white limestone surface, to give them a shining appearance when viewed from a distance. The capstone was usually made of hard stone – granite or basalt – and could be plated with gold, silver, or electrum and would also be highly reflective. The anci...
While pyramids are associated with Egypt, the nation of Sudan has 220 extant pyramids, the most numerous in the world.Nubian pyramids were constructed (roughly 240 of them) at three sites in Sudan to serve as tombs for the kings and queens of Napata and Meroë. The pyramids of Kush, also known as Nubian Pyramids, have different characteristics than the pyramids of Egypt. The Nubian pyramids were constructed at a steeper angle than Egyptian ones. Pyramids were still being built in Sudan as late...The Louvre Pyramid in Paris, France, in the court of the Louvre Museum, is a 20.6 metre (about 70 foot) glass structure which acts as an entrance to the museum. It was designed by the American arch...The Tama-Revillage was an Egyptian-themed set of buildings and monuments established near Eatonton, Georgia by Nuwaubians in 1993 that was mostly demolished after being sold under government forfei...The Luxor Hotel in Las Vegas, United States, is a 30-story true pyramid with light beaming from the top.The 32-story Pyramid Arena in Memphis, Tennessee (a city named after the ancient Egyptian capital whose name itself was derived from the name of one of its pyramids). Built in 1991, it was the home...Chogha Zanbil is an ancient Elamite complex in the Khuzestan province of Iran.Nubian pyramids at Archaeological Sites of the Island of MeroeShaohao Tomb, Qufu, ChinaEl Castillo at Chichen Itza