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  1. Soul (2020 film) - Wikipedia › wiki › Soul_(2020_film)

    Soul is a 2020 American computer-animated film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures.Directed by Pete Docter and co-directed by Kemp Powers, the film stars the voices of Jamie Foxx, Tina Fey, Graham Norton, ...

  2. The Courier (2020 film) - Wikipedia › wiki › The_Courier_(2020_film)
    • Plot
    • Production
    • Music
    • Release
    • Reception

    The Courier tells the "true story of the British businessman who helped MI6 penetrate the Soviet nuclear programme during the Cold War. Wynne and his Soviet source, Oleg Penkovsky (codenamed Ironbark), provided crucial intelligence that ended the Cuban Missile Crisis." Wynne is approached by a spy from MI6 and a spy from the CIA and asked to pose as a business partner of Oleg Penkovsky in order to gain intelligence relating to Soviet missiles being transported to Cuba. In the end, both Wynne and Penkovsky are caught and Penkovsky admits betraying his country while insisting Wynne as a courier knows nothing of the intelligence passed on, which supports Wynne's claim of no wrongdoings. Wynne makes sure Penkovsky knows his sacrifice is worth it. Penkovsky is executed and buried in an unmarked grave. Wynne is eventually released in a prisoner exchange for a Russian spy Konon Molody.

    On 1 May 2018, it was announced that FilmNation Entertainment was producing Ironbark, a film about British spy Greville Wynne from a script by Tom O’Connor. Dominic Cookewas set to direct the film and produce alongside O’Connor, Ben Pugh, Rory Aitken, Adam Ackland, Josh Varney, and Leah Clarke. Production companies involved with the film include SunnyMarch. Alongside the initial production announcement, it was confirmed that Benedict Cumberbatch had been cast as Greville Wynne. In October 2018, it was announced that Rachel Brosnahan, Jessie Buckley, Merab Ninidze, Angus Wright, and Kirill Pirogovhad joined the cast of the film. Principal photography for the film commenced in Londonon 15 October 2018 and it lasted until 7 December 2018.

    Abel Korzeniowski composed the score and Lakeshore Recordsreleased the soundtrack on 19 March 2021. Track listing and credits adapted from Soundtrack.Net.

    The film had its world premiere at the Sundance Film Festival on 24 January 2020, under the title Ironbark. Shortly after, Roadside Attractions and Lionsgate acquired U.S. distribution rights to the film. Under the new name The Courier, the film was given an original 28 August 2020 theatrical release in the United States. However, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, it was delayed to 16 October 2020. It was scheduled to be released in the United Kingdom on 30 October 2020. It was delayed again to 19 March 2021,and was eventually released on 13 August 2021.

    Box office

    The Couriergrossed $6.6 million in the United States and Canada, and $16 million in other territories, for a worldwide total of $22.6 million. In its domestic opening weekend, the film grossed $1.9 million from 1,433 theaters in its opening weekend, finishing third at the box office.The film made $1 million in its second weekend.

    Critical response

    On review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 87% based on 161 reviews, with an average rating of 6.9/10. The website's critics consensus reads: "The Courier delivers a rousingly effective old-school spy adventure elevated by a thrilling fact-based story and Benedict Cumberbatch's nervy central performance." According to Metacritic, which calculated a weighted average score of 64 out of 100 based on 33 critics, the film received "generally favorable reviews". Acco...

    • Adam Ackland, Ben Browning, Ben Pugh, Rory Aitken
    • 24 January 2020 (Sundance), 19 March 2021 (United States), 13 August 2021 (United Kingdom)
  3. Black Widow (2021 film) - Wikipedia › wiki › Black_Widow_(2021_film)

    Black Widow is a 2021 American superhero film based on Marvel Comics featuring the character of the same name. Produced by Marvel Studios and distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures, it is the 24th film in the Marvel Cinematic ...

  4. L'Orfeo - Wikipedia › wiki › L&
    • Historical Background
    • Creation
    • Roles
    • Synopsis
    • Reception and Performance History
    • Music
    • Recording History
    • editions
    • Notes and References
    • Further Reading

    Claudio Monteverdi, born in Cremona in 1567, was a musical prodigy who studied under Marc'Antonio Ingegneri, themaestro di cappella (head of music) at Cremona Cathedral. After training in singing, string playing and composition, Monteverdi worked as a musician in Verona and Milan until, in 1590 or 1591, he secured a post as suonatore di vivuola (viola player) at Duke Vincenzo Gonzaga's court at Mantua. Through ability and hard work Monteverdi rose to become Gonzaga's maestro della musica(master of music) in 1601. Vincenzo Gonzaga's particular passion for musical theatre and spectacle grew from his family connections with the court of Florence. Towards the end of the 16th century innovative Florentine musicians were developing the intermedio—a long-established form of musical interlude inserted between the acts of spoken dramas—into increasingly elaborate forms. Led by Jacopo Corsi, these successors to the renowned Camerata[n 1] were responsible for the first work generally recognise...


    Among those present at the Euridice performance in October 1600 was a young lawyer and career diplomat from Gonzaga's court, Alessandro Striggio, son of a well-known composer of the same name. The younger Striggio was himself a talented musician; as a 16-year-old, he had played the viol at the wedding festivities of Duke Ferdinando of Tuscany in 1589. Together with Duke Vincent's two young sons, Francesco and Fernandino, he was a member of Mantua's exclusive intellectual society, the Accademi...


    When Monteverdi composed L'Orfeo he had a thorough grounding in theatrical music. He had been employed at the Gonzaga court for 16 years, much of it as a performer or arranger of stage music, and in 1604 he had written the ballo Gli amori di Diane ed Endimone for the 1604–05 Mantua Carnival. The elements from which Monteverdi constructed his first opera score—the aria, the strophic song, recitative, choruses, dances, dramatic musical interludes—were, as conductor Nikolaus Harnoncourt has poin...


    For the purpose of analysis the music scholar Jane Glover has divided Monteverdi's list of instruments into three main groups: strings, brass and continuo, with a few further items not easily classifiable. The strings grouping is formed from ten members of the violin family (viole da brazzo), two double basses (contrabassi de viola), and two kit violins (violini piccoli alla francese). The viole da brazzo are in two five-part ensembles, each comprising two violins, two violas and a cello. The...

    In his personaggi listed in the 1609 score, Monteverdi unaccountably omits La messaggera (the Messenger), and indicates that the final chorus of shepherds who perform the moresca (Moorish dance) at the opera's end are a separate group (che fecero la moresca nel fine). Little information is available about who sang the various roles in the first performance. A letter published at Mantua in 1612 records that the distinguished tenor and composer Francesco Rasi took part, and it is generally assumed that he sang the title role. Rasi could sing in both the tenor and bass ranges "with exquisite style ... and extraordinary feeling". The involvement in the premiere of a Florentine castrato, Giovanni Gualberto Magli, is confirmed by correspondence between the Gonzaga princes. Magli sang the prologue, Proserpina and possibly one other role, either La messaggera or Speranza. The musicologist and historian Hans Redlichmistakenly allocates Magli to the role of Orfeo. A clue about who played Euri...

    The action takes place in two contrasting locations: the fields of Thrace (acts 1, 2 and 5) and the Underworld (acts 3 and 4). An instrumental toccata (English: "tucket", meaning a flourish on trumpets) precedes the entrance of La musica, representing the "spirit of music", who sings a prologue of five stanzas of verse. After a gracious welcome to the audience she announces that she can, through sweet sounds, "calm every troubled heart". She sings a further paean to the power of music, before introducing the drama's main protagonist, Orfeo, who "held the wild beasts spellbound with his song".[n 3]

    Premiere and early performances

    The date for the first performance of L'Orfeo, 24 February 1607, is evidenced by two letters, both dated 23 February. In the first, Francesco Gonzaga informs his brother that the "musical play" will be performed tomorrow; it is clear from earlier correspondence that this refers to L'Orfeo. The second letter is from a Gonzaga court official, Carlo Magno, and gives more details: "Tomorrow evening the Most Serene Lord the Prince is to sponsor a [play] in a room in the apartments which the Most S...

    20th-century revivals

    After years of neglect, Monteverdi's music began to attract the interest of pioneer music historians in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, and from the second quarter of the 19th century onwards he is discussed increasingly in scholarly works. In 1881 a truncated version of the L'Orfeo score, intended for study rather than performance, was published in Berlin by Robert Eitner. In 1904 the composer Vincent d'Indy produced an edition in French, which comprised only act 2, a shortened act 3...

    L'Orfeo is, in Redlich's analysis, the product of two musical epochs. It combines elements of the traditional madrigal style of the 16th century with those of the emerging Florentine mode, in particular the use of recitative and monodic singing as developed by the Camerata and their successors. In this new style, the text dominates the music; while sinfonias and instrumental ritornelliillustrate the action, the audience's attention is always drawn primarily to the words. The singers are required to do more than produce pleasant vocal sounds; they must represent their characters in depth and convey appropriate emotions. Monterverdi's recitative style was influenced by Peri's, in Euridice, although in L'Orfeorecitative is less preponderant than was usual in dramatic music at this time. It accounts for less than a quarter of the first act's music, around a third of the second and third acts, and a little under half in the final two acts. The importance of L'Orfeo is not that it was the...

    The first recording of L'Orfeo was issued in 1939, a freely adapted version of Monteverdi's music by Giacomo Benvenuti, given by the orchestra of La Scala Milan conducted by Ferrucio Calusio. In 1949, for the recording of the complete opera by the Berlin Radio Orchestra conducted by Helmut Koch, the new medium of long-playing records (LPs) was used. The advent of LP recordings was, as Harold C. Schonberg later wrote, an important factor in the postwar revival of interest in Renaissance and Baroque music, and from the mid-1950s recordings of L'Orfeo have been issued on many labels. The 1969 recording by Nikolaus Harnoncourt and the Vienna Concentus Musicus, using Harnoncourt's edition based on period instruments, was praised for "making Monteverdi's music sound something like the way he imagined". In 1981 Siegfried Heinrich, with the Early Music Studio of the Hesse Chamber Orchestra, recorded a version which re-created the original Striggio libretto ending, adding music from Montever...

    After the publication of the L'Orfeo score in 1609, the same publisher (Ricciardo Amadino of Venice) brought it out again in 1615. Facsimiles of these editions were printed in 1927 and 1972 respectively. Since Eitner's first "modern" edition of L'Orfeo in 1884, and d'Indy's performing edition 20 years later—both of which were abridged and adapted versions of the 1609 score—there have been many attempts to edit and present the work, not all of them published. Most of the editions that followed d'Indy up to the time of the Second World War were arrangements, usually heavily truncated, that provided a basis for performances in the modern opera idiom. Many of these were the work of composers, including Carl Orff (1923 and 1939) and Ottorino Respighi in 1935.Orff's 1923 score, using a German text, included some period instrumentation, an experiment he abandoned when producing his later version. In the post-war period, editions have moved increasingly to reflect the performance convention...


    1. Beat, Janet E. (1968). ""Monteverdi and the Opera Orchestra of his Time"". In Arnold, Denis; Fortune, Nigel (eds.). The Monteverdi Companion. London: Faber and Faber. 2. Carter, Tim (2002). Monteverdi's Musical Theatre. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-09676-3. 3. Donington, Robert (1968). "Monteverdi's First Opera" in Arnold, Denis and Fortune, Nigel (eds):The Monteverdi Companion. London: Faber and Faber. 4. Fenlon, Ian (1986a). "The Mantuan Orfeo" in Whenham, Jo...

    Fabbri, Paolo (1994). Monteverdi. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-35133-2.
    Golomb, Uri (April 2007). "Ars Polemica: Monteverdi's Orfeo as artistic creed". Goldberg: Early Music Magazine(45): 44–57.
    Newby, Elizabeth (1987). A Portrait of the Artist: The Legends of Orpheus and Their Use in Medieval and Renaissance Aesthetics. New York: Garland. ISBN 978-0-8240-8431-8.
    Neef, Sigrid, ed. (2000). Opera: Composers, Works, Performers (English ed.). Cologne: Könemann. ISBN 3-8290-3571-3.
  5. China - Wikipedia › wiki › China

    China was one of the world's foremost economic powers for most of the two millennia from the 1st until the 19th century. For millennia, China's political system was based on absolute hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with ...

  6. Spain - Wikipedia › wiki › Spain

    Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state. It is a highly developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth-largest economy by nominal GDP and the ...

  7. Russia - Wikipedia › wiki › Russia

    Russia (Russian: Россия, Rossiya, Russian pronunciation: [rɐˈsʲijə]), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia.It is the largest country in the world by area, covering over 17 million square kilometres ...

  8. The 355 - Wikipedia › wiki › The_355
    • Premise
    • Cast
    • Production
    • Release
    • External Links

    A CIA agent teams up with other international agents to recover a top-secret weapon. The title is derived from Agent 355, a female spy for the Patriots during the American Revolution.

    Jessica Chastain as Mason "Mace" Brown, a wild card CIAagent.
    Lupita Nyong'o as Khadijah, a former MI6ally and cutting-edge computer specialist.
    Diane Kruger as Marie, a rival German BNDagent.
    Penélope Cruz as Graciela, a skilled Colombian DNIagent and psychologist.

    Jessica Chastain proposed the idea for a female-led spy film in the same spirit as the Mission: Impossible and James Bond series to her Dark Phoenix director Simon Kinberg while in production on that film. The concept was built upon and in May 2018, it was announced that Kinberg would direct the film with Chastain producing, in addition to her starring alongside Marion Cotillard, Penélope Cruz, Fan Bingbing and Lupita Nyong'o. The project was pitched to buyers during the 2018 Cannes Film Festival, with Global Road Entertainment and Amazon Studios bidding for the distribution rights, and Universal Picturesultimately winning the US and UK distribution rights with a $20 million plus bid. In February 2019, Chastain put out a request for suggestions in regards to the casting of male actors. In May 2019, it was announced Sebastian Stan and Édgar Ramírez had joined the cast of the film, with Cotillard dropping out. Diane Krugerwas added in June. Filming began in July 2019, shooting between...

    It is scheduled to be released by Universal Pictures on January 7, 2022. It was originally scheduled to be released on January 15, 2021, but was delayed to January 14, 2022, due to the COVID-19 pandemic,before moving up by a week to January 7.

  9. Start-Up (South Korean TV series) - Wikipedia › wiki › Start-Up_(South_Korean_TV_series)
    • Synopsis
    • Cast
    • Reception
    • External Links

    Set in South Korea's fictional Silicon Valley called Sandbox, Start-Up tells the story of people in the world of startup companies. Seo Dal-mi (Bae Suzy) is a bright and ambitious young woman who dreams of becoming Korea's Steve Jobs. Dal-mi doesn't have a fancy background but she's passionate about her work. She has bright energy and is a person of great vitality, having experience in a wide range of part-time jobs. Nam Do-san (Nam Joo-hyuk), is the founder of Samsan Tech. A ‘math genius’ as a young boy, Do-san was once the pride of his family but became their shame now, as his business has been going down for the past two years. He finds out that Dal-mi mistakenly remembers him as her first love, so he decides to work his way up in hopes of turning that misunderstanding into reality.


    1. Bae Suzy as Seo Dal-mi 1.1. Heo Jung-eunas young Seo Dal-mi 1. She dreams of becoming Korea's Steve Jobs. She was born to a humble family and does not own much. However, she's also an adventurer who has a grand plan for herself. Her drive also came from being abandoned by her mother and sister at a young age. She also has experience in a wide range of part-time jobsand is a person of great vitality. 1. Nam Joo-hyuk as Nam Do-san 1.1. Kim Kang-hoonas young Nam Do-san 1. Do-san is the founde...

    Nam Do-san's family

    1. Kim Hee-jungas Park Geum-jung, Do-san's mother 2. Kim Won-haeas Nam Sung-hwan, Nam Do-san's father 3. Jang Se-hyun as Nam Chun-ho, Nam Do-san's cousin

    SH Venture Capital

    1. Seo Yi-sook as Yoon Seon-hak, the CEO of Sandbox and SH Venture Capital. 2. Kim Min-seok as Park Dong-cheon, the assistant or secretary of Ji-pyeong and mentoring manager of Sandbox's 12th batch.

    Critical response

    Start-Up was included on the Forbes' list of "The 13 Best Korean Dramas Of 2020"; Joan MacDonald writing for Forbes said that "[t]he story of how the start-up gets started is interesting. Each of the actors—from the leads to the supporting cast— is imperfectly endearing and Kim [Seon-ho] wins this year's unofficial prize for being the most appealing second lead." The South China Morning Post ranked it #10 on its list of "The top 10 K-dramas of 2020". Kim Jae-ha of Teen Vogue including it on t...


    The series logged 4.5% in viewership rating for its first episode.

  10. Coca-Cola - Wikipedia › wiki › Coca-Cola

    Coca-Cola, or Coke, is a carbonated soft drink manufactured by The Coca-Cola Company.Originally marketed as a temperance drink and intended as a patent medicine, it was invented in the late 19th century by John Stith Pemberton and was bought out ...

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