No Longer Human (人間失格, Ningen Shikkaku) is a 1948 Japanese novel by Osamu Dazai. It is considered Dazai's masterpiece and ranks as the second-best selling novel ever in Japan, behind Natsume Sōseki's Kokoro. The literal ...
- Osamu Dazai
- 1948 (English translation 1958)
- Early Life
- Other Ventures
- Impact and Influence
- Personal Life
Irene was born Bae Joo-hyun on March 29, 1991 in Daegu, South Korea. Her family consists of her parents and a younger sister. She attended Haknam High Schoolin Daegu.
She joined SM Entertainmentin 2009 and trained for five years. During her time as a trainee, in August 2013, she appeared in the music video of her then-labelmate Henry Lau's song "1-4-3". On December 9, 2013, Irene was one of the second batch of trainees introduced as a member of SM Rookies, a pre-debut team of trainees under SM Entertainment, alongside former trainee Lami and now-NCTmember Jaehyun. Various clips of Irene were released in SM Entertainment's official YouTube channel, "SMTOWN"...
2014: Debut with Red Velvet
On July 27, 2014, she was announced as a member and the leader of the girl group Red Velvet. They made her official debut with the single "Happiness". Since then, Red Velvet has released eleven EPs and two studio albums as well as two reissue albums. They have become regarded as one of the most popular K-pop groups in South Korea and worldwide. In November 2014, Irene appeared in the music video of Kyuhyun's ballad single "규현 '광화문에서 (At Gwanghwamun)".
2015–present: Solo activities and sub-unit
From May 2015 to June 2016, Irene hosted the music show Music Bank with actor Park Bo-gum. They both gained attention for their chemistry as well as singing and hosting skills.The press called them one of the best partnerships in the show's history. In July 2016, Irene made her acting debut in the web drama Women at a Game Company where she played the female lead. In the same month, Irene was cast in Hello! Our Language, a sitcom that was set on teaching viewers proper Korean, and she played...
Irene has been hailed a "CF Queen" due to her huge marketing power and numerous endorsement deals ranging from cosmetics, luxury apparel items, and up to basic commodities. Besides her endorsements with Red Velvet as a group, she also became a model for Ivy Club together with labelmates EXO in 2015. In 2016, she became an endorser of coffee brand Maxwell House. In January 2017, Irene became the new brand model for Nuovo Shoes. In August 2017, Irene was also chosen to be the promotional model...
In Gallup Korea's Idol Preference poll (before it was discontinued in 2020), Irene was named as one of the topmost loved idol celebrity in South Korea. In 2019, in a separate survey among soldiers doing mandatory military service in South Korea, Irene was ranked as the third most popular female K-pop idol.The popularity of Irene have led her to endorsing several brands, she also topped 'Individual Girl Group Members Brand Power Ranking' published by the Korean Corporate Reputation Research Institute placing within top 3 several times in 2018.
In February 2020, Irene donated 100 million won for the Community Chest of Korea to help support those affected by the COVID-19 pandemicin South Korea.
My Hero Academia is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Kōhei Horikoshi.The story is set in a world where most of the world population has superhuman abilities known as "Quirks". The protagonist Izuku Midoriya is a ...
- Stroke Order
- Eight Principles of Yong
- Use in Computing
- External Links
The study and classification of CJK strokes is used for: 1. understanding Chinese character calligraphy– the correct method of writing, shape formation and stroke order required for character legibility; 2. understanding stroke changes according to the style that is in use; 3. defining stroke naming and counting conventions; 4. identifying fundamental components of Han radicals; and 5. their use in computing.
When writing Han radicals, a single stroke includes all the motions necessary to produce a given part of a character before lifting the writing instrument from the writing surface; thus, a single stroke may have abrupt changes in direction within the line. For example: 1. (Vertical / shù) is classified as a basic stroke because it is a single stroke that forms a line moving in one direction. 2. (Vertical – Horizontal – Vertical / shù zhé zhé) is classified as a compound stroke because it is a single stroke that forms a line that includes one or more abrupt changes in direction. This example is a sequence of three basic strokes written without lifting the writing instrument such as the ink brushfrom the writing surface.
All strokes have direction. They are unidirectional and start from one entry point. As such, they are usually not written in the reverse direction by native users. Here are some examples:
CJK strokes are an attempt to identify and classify all single-stroke components that can be used to write Han radicals. There are some thirty distinct types of strokes recognized in Chinese characters, some of which are compound strokes made from basic strokes. The compound strokes comprise more than one movement of the writing instrument, and many of these have no agreed-upon name.
Organization systems used to describe and differentiate strokes may include the use of roman letters, Chinese characters, numbers, or a combination of these devices. Two methods of organizing CJK strokes are by: 1. Classification schemes that describe strokes by a naming convention or by conformity to a taxonomy; and 2. Categorization schemesthat differentiate strokes by numeric or topical grouping. In classification schemes, stroke forms are described, assigned a representative character or letterform, and may be arranged in a hierarchy. In categorization schemes, stroke forms are differentiated, sorted and grouped into like categories; categories may be topical, or assigned by a numeric or alpha-numeric nominal number according to a designed numbering scheme. Benefits Organizing strokes into a hierarchy aids a user's understanding by bringing order to an obtuse system of writing that has organically evolvedover the period of centuries. In addition, the process of recognizing and d...
Stroke order refers to the order in which the strokes of a Chinese character are written. A stroke is a movement of a writing instrument on a writing surface. Because most Chinese characters have many strokes, certain stroke orders guidelines are recommended to ensure speed, accuracy, and legibility in composition. Also, teachers enforce exactly one stroke order for each character, marking every deviation as a mistake, so everyone writes these characters the same way. The stroke order follows a few simple rules, though, which aids in memorizing these. To write CJK characters, one must know how to write CJK strokes, and thus, needs to identify the basic strokes that make up a character.
The Eight Principles of Yong explain how to write eight common strokes in regular script which are found all in the one character, 永 (pinyin: yǒng, "forever", "permanence"). It was traditionally believed that the frequent practice of these principles as a beginning calligrapher could ensure beautyin one's writing. Eight basic strokes 1. － the Diǎn點 / 点, is a dot, filled from the top, to the bottom, traditionally made by "couching" the brush on the page. 2. － the Héng横, is horizontal, filled from left to right, the same way the Latin letters A, B, C, D are written. 3. － the Shù豎 / 竖, is vertical-falling. The brush begins by a dot on top, then falls downward. 4. － the Gōu鈎(鉤) / 钩, ending another stroke, is a sharp change of direction either down (after a Heng) or left (after a Shù). 5. － the Tí 提 / Tiāo提, is a flick up and rightwards. 6. － the Wān彎 / 弯, follows a concave path on the left or on the right. 7. － the Piě撇, is a falling leftwards (with a slight curve). 8. － the Nà捺, is fal...
The stroke count methodis based on the order of strokes to input characters on Chinese mobile phones. As part of Chinese character encoding, there have been several proposals to encode the CJK strokes, most of time with a total around 35~40 entries. Most notable is the current Unicodeblock “CJK Strokes” (U+31C0..U+31EF), with 36 types of strokes:Proposal to add twenty strokes to Unicode; this proposal has been approved and is at Stage 6 of the Unicode Pipelineas of July 30, 2007.
- Applications and Limitations
- List of The 1,850 Tōyō Kanji
- See Also
- External Links
Thousands of kanji characters were in use in various writing systems, leading to great difficulties for those learning written Japanese. Additionally, several characters had identical meanings but were written differently from each other, further increasing complexity. After World War II, the Ministry of Education decided to minimize the number of kanji by choosing the most commonly used kanji, along with simplified kanji (see Shinjitai) commonly appearing in contemporary literature, to form the tōyō kanji. This was an integral part of the postwar reform of Japanese national writing. This was meant as a preparation for re-introducing their previous unsuccessful reform abolishing Chinese characters. Although the postwar timing meant no public debate was held on the future of the Japanese written language, the defenders of the original kanji system considered and accepted the tōyō kanji as a reasonable compromise. Since this compromise could not then be withdrawn in favour of more rad...
In addition to a list of the standardized tōyō kanji, the reform published by the Ministry for Education in 1946 also contains a set of guidelines for their use. Regarding provenance and scope, the foreword of the document states that: 1. The table of tōyō kanji put forth therein, are the selection of kanji recommended for use by the general public, including legal and governmental documents, newspapers, and magazines. 2. The presented kanji are selected as an approximate set of those characters found to be of no insignificant utility in the lives of today's Japanese citizens. 3. Concerning proper nouns, there is a wide range of usage beyond what may be formulated as rules, and consequently they are treated as outside the scope of this standard. 4. The simplified character forms from modern custom are taken as the proper form, and their original forms are provided alongside them for reference. 5. A systemization of the character forms and their readings is still under consideration...
Because the majority of character-based words are composed of two (or more) kanji, many words were left with one character included in the Tōyō kanji, and the other character missing. In this case, the recommendation was to write the included part in kanji and the excluded part in kana, e.g. ふ頭 for 埠頭 and 危ぐ for 危惧. These words were called mazegaki(交ぜ書き, "mixed characters").
Bold in 1981 and 2010 year added kanji 一 丁 七 丈 三 上 下 不 且 世 丘 丙 中 丸 丹 主 久 乏 乗 乙 九 乳 乾 乱 了 事 二 互 五 井 亜 亡 交 享 京 人 仁 今 介 仕 他 付 代 令 以 仰 仲 件 任 企 伏 伐 休 伯 伴 伸 伺 似 但 位 低 住 佐 何 仏 作 佳 使 来 例 侍 供 依 侮 侯 侵 便 係 促 俊 俗 保 信 修 俳 俵 併 倉 個 倍 倒 候 借 倣 値 倫 仮 偉 偏 停 健 側 偶 傍 傑 備 催 伝 債 傷 傾 働 像 僚 偽 僧 価 儀 億 倹 儒 償 優 元 兄 充 兆 先 光 克 免 児 入 内 全 両 八 公 六 共 兵 具 典 兼 冊 再 冒 冗 冠 冬 冷 准 凍 凝 凡 凶 出 刀 刃 分 切 刈 刊 刑 列 初 判 別 利 到 制 刷 券 刺 刻 則 削 前 剖 剛 剰 副 割 創 劇 剤 剣 力 功 加 劣 助 努 効 劾 勅 勇 勉 動 勘 務 勝 労 募 勢 勤 勲 励 勧 勺 匁 包 化 北 匠 匹 匿 区 十 千 升 午 半 卑 卒 卓 協 南 博 占 印 危 却 卵 巻 卸 即 厘 厚 原 去 参 又 及 友 反 叔 取 受 口 古 句 叫 召 可 史 右 司 各 合 吉 同 名 后 吏 吐 向 君 吟 否 含 呈 呉 吸 吹 告 周 味 呼 命 和 咲 哀 品 員 哲 唆 唐 唯 唱 商 問 啓 善 喚 喜 喪 喫 単 嗣 嘆 器 噴 嚇 厳 嘱 囚 四 回 因 困 固 圏 国 囲 園 円 図 団 土 在 地 坂 均 坊 坑 坪 垂 型 埋 城 域 執 培 基 堂 堅 堤 堪 報 場 塊 塑 塔 塗 境 墓 墜 増 墨 堕 墳 墾 壁 壇 圧 塁 壊 士 壮 壱 寿 夏 夕 外 多 夜 夢 大 天 太 夫 央 失 奇 奉 奏 契 奔 奥 奪 奨 奮 女 奴 好 如 妃 妊 妙 妥 妨 妹 妻 姉 始 姓 委 姫 姻 姿 威 娘 娯 娠 婆 婚 婦 婿 媒 嫁 嫡 嬢 子 孔 字 存 孝 季 孤 孫 学 宅 宇 守 安 完 宗 官 宙 定 宜 客 宣 室 宮 宰 害 宴 家 容 宿 寂 寄 密 富 寒 察 寡 寝 実 寧 審 写 寛 寮 宝 寸 寺 封 射 将 専 尉 尊 尋 対 導 小 少 就 尺 尼 尾 尿 局 居 届 屈...Pronunciation of the Kanji (in Japanese)[dead link]
- List of Different Simplifications
- Traditional Characters That May Cause Problems Displaying
- Different Stroke Orders in Chinese and Japanese
The old and new forms of the Kyōiku Kanji and their Hànzì equivalents are listed below. In the following lists, the characters are sorted by the radicals of the Japanese kanji. The two Kokuji働 and 畑 in the Kyōiku Kanji List, which have no Chinese equivalents, are not listed here; in Japanese, neither character was affected by the simplifications. Note that 弁 is used to simplify three different Traditional characters (辨, 瓣, and 辯) in Japan. 1. No simplificationin either language (The following characters were simplified neither in Japanese nor in Chinese.) 1. 一 丁 下 三 不 天 五 民 正 平 可 再 百 否 武 夏 中 内 出 本 世 申 由 史 冊 央 向 曲 印 州 表 果 半 必 永 求 九 丸 千 久 少 夫 午 失 末 未 包 年 危 后 兵 我 束 卵 承 垂 刷 重 省 看 勉 七 乳 才 予 事 二 元 亡 六 主 市 交 忘 夜 育 京 卒 商 率 就 人 化 今 仁 付 代 仕 他 令 以 合 全 任 休 件 仲 作 何 位 住 余 低 似 命 使 念 例 供 信 保 便 値 修 借 候 倍 俳 俵 健 停 働 像 先 入 八 分 公 共 弟 並 典 前 益 善 尊 同 周 次 兆 冷 弱 刀 切 別 判 制 券 刻 副 割 力 加 助 努 勇 勤 句 北 疑 十 古 孝 直 南 真 裁 博 上 反 灰 厚 原 台 能 友 収 口 司 右 兄 吸 告 君 味 呼 品 唱 器 四 回 因 困 固 土 去 地 在 寺 均 志 坂 幸 型 城 基 域 喜 境 士 冬 各 夕 外 名 多...
Some of the traditional Kanji are not included in the Japanese font of Windows XP/2000, and only rectangles are shown. Downloading the Meiryo font from the Microsoft website (VistaFont_JPN.EXE) and installing it will solve this problem. Note that within the Jōyō Kanji there are 62 characters the old forms of which may cause problems displaying: Kyōiku Kanji (26): Grade 2 (2 Kanji): 海 社 Grade 3 (8 Kanji): 勉 暑 漢 神 福 練 者 都 Grade 4 (6 Kanji): 器 殺 祝 節 梅 類 Grade 5 (1 Kanji): 祖 Grade 6 (9 Kanji): 勤 穀 視 署 層 著 諸 難 朗 Secondary-School Kanji (36): 欄 廊 虜 隆 塚 祥 侮 僧 免 卑 喝 嘆 塀 墨 悔 慨 憎 懲 敏 既 煮 碑 祉 祈 禍 突 繁 臭 褐 謁 謹 賓 贈 逸 響 頻 These characters are Unicode CJK Unified Ideographs for which the old form (kyūjitai) and the new form (shinjitai) have been unified under the Unicode standard. Although the old and new forms are distinguished under the JIS X 0213 standard, the old forms map to Unicode CJK Compatibility Ideographs which are considered by Unicode to be canonically equivalent to the new forms and ma...
Some characters, whether simplified or not, look the same in Chinese and Japanese, but have different stroke orders. For example, in Japan, 必 is written with the top dot first, while the Traditional stroke order writes the 丿 first. In the characters 王 and 玉, the vertical stroke is the third stroke in Chinese, but the second stroke in Japanese.Taiwan and Hong Kong use Traditional characters, though with an altered stroke order.
This Kanji index method groups together the kanji that are written with the same number of strokes. Currently, there are 2,205 individual kanji listed. Characters followed by an alternate in (parentheses) indicate a difference between the ...
He also had a secondary vowel *i, which occurred only in combination with other vowels. As with Middle Chinese, Karlgren viewed his reconstruction as a narrow transcription of the sounds of Old Chinese. Thus *e rhymed with *ĕ in the Shijing, *a ...
- Fusang Is Not Japan
- Was Hui-Sheng Really Chinese?
- Fusang as Part of North America?
- li ( Chinese Mile ) Values
- Hui Shen Was A Fusang Native Instead of A Chinese
- External Links Modified
Though the term Fusang refers to Japan in modern days, ancient Chinese literature such as Book of Liang (《梁書•五十四•列傳四十八》) described Wa(倭 Japan) and Fusang (扶桑) in the same chapter. That indicates Fusang is not Japan. (exerpt from the Book of Liang on Wa) (exerpt from the Book of Liang on Fusang) It is interesting that the last paragraph above describe a tribe of women, further east from Fusang. Could it be the Amazon tribe in Brazil? 1. Er, um, that's a really bad interpretation. WHICH tribe in the Amazon were you thinking of? Or is it because of the name Amazon you're presuming there was a tribe of women?Skookum121:39, 23 June 2006 (UTC) 1. 1.1. ... I think he(she) meant the Amazon tribe in Greek mythology. Lol. --Sumple (Talk) 05:19, 24 June 2006 (UTC) Regarding the above proposition "Fusang is not Japan"... the only thing that can be said in respect with the sources is that "Fusang is not Wa", Wa being described as a statelet in Western Japan centered in Kyushu. Fusang is said to...
Doubtless he was Buddhist, of course, but assuming he was Chinese Buddhist just because his budget was covered by the Son of Heaven is a stretch. As I recall from other write-ups, and missing here, is that he was from Jilin (sp?), the Chinese name for Kabul. He could have been Pashtun, Dari, Sassanid, Tokharian, even Greek; unless there's a bio which says he was born in China, and travelled to Jilin to become a monk, then came back to China inspired to travel to the west etc. then it's not really proven, although too often assumed, that he was Chinese. Much in the same way that it is forgotten by some that Columbus was Italian and not Castilian and Juan de Fuca was Greek and not Portuguese. One of the reasons I'm interested in the story, other than the side-issue of Hui-sheng's origins, is because of the traces of contact with Asia (not necessarily China) and various apocryphal legends in western North America; in the valley I'm from (http://www.cayoosh.net/seton.html and shalalth.h...
There seems to be evidence that Fusang was part of North America. Based on both interpretations of geographic distances and of observations. Two links follow: http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/ah/1972/5/1972_5_26.shtml http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi1028.htm. I have no way of knowing the "right" answer, but it seems there is enough of a case for the main article to acknowledge the possibility. Failing that, to acknowledge the claims. the article is wrong, there were horses in N.America way before Columbus time — Preceding unsigned comment added by 188.8.131.52 (talk) 03:23, 25 October 2013 (UTC) 1. Sure, but long before there was a China. Dougweller (talk) 05:11, 25 October 2013 (UTC)
The suggestions that the li appears to have been used as 77 meter in Liang times are removed. There is no reason to change the li to a standard that is 5-7 times less than normally, based on one or a few obscure passages. Really compelling evidence is needed for such a drastic, absurd change. There are enough passages in the Liang book and contemporary works to show that the li had the more regular values. About the passage (which was unsourced)where a sea was crossed and was used to give the li that new standard of 77 meters : It can be erroneous or a copyist error but more important, the given distances in journeys are rather travel distances. The sea /strait might be 100-150 km wide between certain points but that does not mean that it was crossed from these points and nobody said that crossing a sea needs to happen in a straight line. Its very easy to travel 300 km or more on the water to cross the sea between Korea and Japan. A. Post-Muller (talk) 12:11, 3 December 2008 (UTC) 1...
Long before Huiseng, fusang was mentioned in Chinese book such as Huainanzi(日出于旸谷，浴于咸池，拂于扶桑，是谓晨明), Shanhaijing(汤谷上有扶桑,十日所浴). And in Tang have a fusang county in Lingnan(扶桑县, 属岭南道禺州)KJ, And fusang also is the chinese name of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis.(talk) 09:17, 17 March 2009 (UTC)
I edited the page on Aug 21,2009 correcting the sentence "described by the Chinese Buddhist missionary Hui Shen".According to the original text from Book of Liang,the country of Fusang was described by "a Shramana from there called Hui Shen" who "came to Jingzhou"(“其國有沙門慧深来至荆州”,literal translation:"A Shramana from the country called Hui Shen came to Jingzhou",meaning Hui Shen is a Fusang Native instead of a Chinese. —Preceding unsigned comment added by 184.108.40.206 (talk) 13:58, 21 August 2009 (UTC) 220.127.116.11 (talk) 14:01, 21 August 2009 (UTC)Lin Jingqiu
Hello fellow Wikipedians, I have just modified one external link on Fusang. Please take a moment to review my edit. If you have any questions, or need the bot to ignore the links, or the page altogether, please visit this simple FaQfor additional information. I made the following changes: 1. Added archive https://web.archive.org/web/20050508001542/http://en.chinabroadcast.cn/1702/2005-2-18/14%40207573.htm to http://en.chinabroadcast.cn/1702/2005-2-18/14%40207573.htm When you have finished reviewing my changes, you may follow the instructions on the template below to fix any issues with the URLs. This message was posted before February 2018. After February 2018, "External links modified" talk page sections are no longer generated or monitored by InternetArchiveBot. No special action is required regarding these talk page notices, other than regular verification using the archive tool instructions below. Editors have permission to delete these "External links modified" talk page sectio...
Kyōiku kanji (教育漢字, literally "education kanji"), also known as Gakunenbetsu kanji haitōhyō (学年別漢字配当表, literally "list of kanji by school year") is a list of 1,026 kanji and associated readings developed and ...