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- Medical Uses
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In the United States vaccination is recommended for nearly all babies at birth. Many countries now routinely vaccinate infants against hepatitis B. In countries with high rates of hepatitis B infection, vaccination of newborns has not only reduced the risk of infection, but has also led to a marked reduction in liver cancer. This was reported in Taiwan where the implementation of a nationwide hepatitis B vaccination program in 1984 was associated with a decline in the incidence of childhood hepatocellular carcinoma. In the UK, the vaccine is offered to men who have sex with men(MSM), usually as part of a sexual health check-up. A similar situation is in operation in Ireland. In many areas, vaccination against hepatitis B is also required for all health-care and laboratory staff.Both types of the vaccine, the plasma-derived vaccine (PDV) and recombinant vaccine (RV), seems to be able to elicit similar protective anti-HBs levels. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is...
Serious side effects from the hepatitis B vaccine are very rare. Pain may occur at the site of injection. It is generally considered safe for use, during pregnancy or while breastfeeding. It has not been linked to Guillain–Barré syndrome.
The following is a list of countries by the percentage of infants receiving three doses of hepatitis B vaccine as published by the World Health Organization(WHO) in 2017.
In 1963, the American physician/geneticist Baruch Blumberg, working at the Fox Chase Cancer Center, discovered what he called the "Australia Antigen" (now called HBsAg) in the serum of an Australian Aboriginal person. In 1968, this protein was found to be part of the virus that causes "serum hepatitis" (hepatitis B) by virologist Alfred Prince. In 1976, Blumberg won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on hepatitis B (sharing it with Daniel Carleton Gajdusek for his work on...
During the next few years, a series of human and primate observations by scientists including Maurice Hilleman(who was responsible for vaccines at Merck), S. Krugman, R. Purcell, P. Maupas, and others provided additional support for the vaccine. In 1980, the results of the first field trial were published by W. Szmuness and his colleagues in New York City." The American microbiologist/vaccinologist Maurice Hilleman at Merck used three treatments (pepsin, urea and formaldehyde) of blood serum...
The blood-derived hepatitis B vaccine was withdrawn from the marketplace in 1986, replaced by Maurice Hilleman's improved recombinant hepatitis B vaccine which was approved by the FDA on July 23, 1986. It was the first human vaccine produced by recombinant DNA methods. For this work, scientists at Merck & Co. collaborated with William J. Rutter and colleagues at the University of California at San Francisco, as well as Benjamin Hall and colleagues at the University of Washington. In 1981, Wil...
The vaccine contains one of the viral envelope proteins, Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). It is produced by yeast cells, into which the gene for HBsAg has been inserted. Afterward an immune system antibody to HBsAg is established in the bloodstream. The antibody is known as anti-HBs. This antibody and immune system memory then provide immunity to Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)infection.
On 10 December 2020, the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) adopted a positive opinion, recommending the granting of a marketing authorization for the medicinal product HeplisavB, intended for the active immunisation against hepatitisB virus infection (HBV).The applicant for this medicinal product is Dynavax GmbH.
The common brands available are Recombivax HB (Merck), Engerix-B (GSK), Elovac B (Human Biologicals Institute, a division of Indian Immunologicals Limited), Genevac B (Serum Institute), Shanvac B, Heplisav-B,etc. These vaccines are given by the intramuscular route. Twinrix (GSK) is a vaccine against hepatitis Aand hepatitis B. Pediarix is a vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and poliomyelitis. Vaxelis is a vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis...
Ramsay M, ed. (2019). "Chapter 18: Hepatitis B". Immunisation against infectious disease. Public Health England."Hepatitis B Vaccine Information Statement". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).Hepatitis B Vaccines at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings(MeSH)
An antibiotic is a type of antimicrobial substance active against bacteria.It is the most important type of antibacterial agent for fighting bacterial infections, and antibiotic medications are widely used in the treatment and prevention of such ...
Israel (/ ˈ ɪ z r i ə l, ˈ ɪ z r eɪ ə l /; Hebrew: י ש ר א ל , romanized: Yisra'el; Arabic: إ س ر ائ يل , romanized: ʾIsrāʾīl), officially known as the State of Israel (Hebrew: מ ד ינ ת י ש ר א ל , Medinat Yisra'el), is a country in ...
Argentina (Spanish: [aɾxenˈtina]), officially the Argentine Republic [A] (Spanish: República Argentina), is a country in the southern half of South America.It shares the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, and is also bordered by ...
Twice ( Korean : 트와이스; Japanese: トゥワイス ), commonly stylized as TWICE, is a South Korean girl group formed by JYP Entertainment. The group is composed of nine members: Nayeon, Jeongyeon, Momo, Sana, Jihyo, Mina, Dahyun, Chaeyoung, and ...
- The Planning Process
- Best Practices
- See Also
- External Links
APICS defines S&OP as the "function of setting the overall level of manufacturing output (production plan) and other activities to best satisfy the current planned levels of sales (sales plan and/or forecasts), while meeting general business objectives of profitability, productivity, competitive customer lead times, etc., as expressed in the overall business plan." Institute for Supply Management defines it as "working cross-functionally with internal business units to forecast anticipated demand, inventory, supply and customer lead times based on the sales forecast, actual demand and capacity forecast." One of its primary purposes is to establish production rates that will achieve management’s objective of maintaining, raising, or lowering inventories or backlogs, while usually attempting to keep the workforce relatively stable. It must extend through a planning horizon sufficient to plan the labor, equipment, facilities, material, and finances required to accomplish the production...
S&OP is the result of monthly planning activities. It is usually based on an Annual Operations Plan (AOP) that acts as the company's annual target in terms of sales and supply. Therefore, the sales and operations plans are a means to gradually accomplish the AOP targets – by linking monthly sales and marketing planning directly to the operations side of a business.The process for deciding upon the monthly S&OP is illustrated in the figure below. 1. Monthly S&OP Process The planning horizon for a typical S&OP process is long term and extends over 18–36 months. The selection of a time horizon is an important decision and there are different factors that influence this decision including type of industry, product characteristics, and the time of the year when S&OP planning takes place.Additionally, the S&OP process is conducted at an aggregate level. The focus is commonly on product families and not every single product.
S&OP best practices share a common set of approaches: 1. Rely on a phased approach: S&OP is much more an integrated set of business processes and technologies than a single, all-encompassing process or technology. If you just focus on the implementation of a new technology and think that S&OP will miraculously take shape, you're wrong. 2. Develop an "outside-in" sequence of S&OP initiatives: typically, the events that will have the most profound and negative impact on your sales and operations planning are those outside of your control. For the most part, these are due to the decisions and actions of your customers, partners, and competitors, which have a direct impact on your revenue and your competitor's strategy. 3. Focus on more information, less data: another key to successful S&OP is clean, current, and accurate data. Plans are often slowed down by the effort of gathering data that has minimal importance to the overall project. It is important to ensure that you know exactly w...
- Design and Development
- Operational History
- See Also
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In 1942, the U.S. War Department needed to transport war materiel and personnel to Britain. Allied shipping in the Atlantic Ocean was suffering heavy losses to German U-boats, so a requirement was issued for an aircraft that could cross the Atlantic with a large payload. Wartime priorities meant the aircraft could not be made of strategic materials (e.g., aluminum). The aircraft was the brainchild of Henry J. Kaiser, a leading Liberty ship builder and manufacturer. Kaiser teamed with aircraft designer Howard Hughes to create what would become the largest aircraft yet built. It was designed to carry 150,000 pounds (68,000 kg), 750 fully equipped troops or two 30-ton M4 Sherman tanks.The original designation "HK-1" reflected the Hughes and Kaiser collaboration. The HK-1 aircraft contract was issued in 1942 as a development contract and called for three aircraft to be constructed in two years for the war effort. Seven configurations were considered, including twin-hull and single-hull...
Hughes returned to California during a break in the Senate hearings to run taxi tests on the H-4.On November 2, 1947, the taxi tests began with Hughes at the controls. His crew included Dave Grant as copilot, two flight engineers, Don Smith and Joe Petrali, 16 mechanics, and two other flight crew. The H-4 also carried seven invited guests from the press corps and an additional seven industry representatives. In total, thirty-six people were on board. Four reporters left to file stories after the first two taxi runs while the remaining press stayed for the final test run of the day. After picking up speed on the channel facing Cabrillo Beach, the Hercules lifted off, remaining airborne for 26 seconds at 70 ft (21 m) off the water at a speed of 135 miles per hour (217 km/h) for about one mile (1.6 km). At this altitude, the aircraft still experienced ground effect.Nevertheless, the brief flight proved to detractors that Hughes' (now unneeded) masterpiece was flight-worthy—thus vindica...
Ownership of the H-4 was disputed by the U.S. government, which had contracted for its construction. In the mid-1970s, an agreement was reached whereby the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum would receive the Hughes H-1 Racer and section of the H-4's wing, the Summa Corporationwould pay $700,000 and receive ownership of the H-4, the U.S. government would cede any rights, and the aircraft would be protected "from commercial exploitation." In 1980, the H-4 was acquired by the Aero Club of Southern California, which later put the aircraft on display in a very large geodesic dome next to the Queen Mary ship exhibit in Long Beach, California. The large dome facility became known as the Spruce Goose Dome. The very large enclosed indoor dome area around the H-4 consisted of meeting and special event space, elaborate audio-visual displays about Howard Hughes and the aircraft itself, and dining areas for tourists. Many convention groups held large dinners, sales meetings...
Performance specifications are projected. General characteristics 1. Crew:3 2. Length:218 ft 8 in (66.65 m) 3. Wingspan:320 ft 11 in (97.82 m) 4. Height:79 ft 4 in (24.18 m) 5. Fuselage height:30 ft (9.1 m) 6. Empty weight:250,000 lb (113,398 kg) 7. Powerplant: 8 × Pratt & Whitney R-4360 Wasp Major28-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engines, 3,000 hp (2,200 kW) each 8. Propellers: 4-bladed Hamilton Standard, 17 ft 2 in (5.23 m) diameter constant-speed propellers Performance 1. Cruise speed:250 mph (400 km/h, 220 kn) 2. Range:3,000 mi (4,800 km, 2,600 nmi) 3. Service ceiling:20,900 ft (6,400 m)
1. Francillon, René J. McDonnell Douglas Aircraft since 1920: Volume II. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1990. ISBN 1-55750-550-0. 2. McDonald, John J. Howard Hughes and the Spruce Goose. Blue Ridge Summit, Pennsylvania: Tab Books Inc., 1981. ISBN 0-8306-2320-5. 3. Odekirk, Glenn E. Spruce Goose (Title inside cover: HK-1 Hercules: A Pictorial History of the Fantastic Hughes Flying Boat). Long Beach, California: Glenn E. Odekirk and Frank Alcantr, Inc., 1982. No ISBN. 4. Parker, Da...Evergreen Aviation & Space Museum, home of the Spruce GooseVintage photos of Spruce Goose's construction