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  1. 學測自然圖表 相關
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  1. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › PolygraphPolygraph - Wikipedia

    A polygraph, popularly referred to as a lie detector test, is a device or procedure that measures and records several physiological indicators such as blood pressure, pulse, respiration, and skin conductivity while a person is asked and answers a series of questions. [1] The belief underpinning the use of the polygraph is that deceptive answers ...

  2. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › PlyometricsPlyometrics - Wikipedia

    • Overview
    • Etymology
    • History
    • Exercises
    • Method
    • as Simple Jumping
    • Safety Considerations
    • Benefits
    • Loaded Plyometrics
    • Further Reading

    Plyometrics include explosive exercises to activate the quick response and elastic properties of the major muscles. It was initially adopted by Soviet Olympians in the 1950s, and then by sportspeople worldwide. Sports using plyometrics include basketball, tennis, badminton, squash and volleyball as well as the various codes of football. The term "p...

    The term plyometric is a combination of Greek roots that means to increase measurement—plio- means "more" and metricmeans "length". Plyo- comes from the Greek word plythein, which means “to increase.” Pliois the Greek word for “more,” and metric literally means “to measure.”

    Fred Wilt, a former US Olympic long-distance runner, is credited with coining the term plyometrics. He admits that it is not a very good term, but it was the best he could come up with after watching the Russians execute jumps in their warm-ups prior to their event in track and field. He could not understand why the Russians were doing all of these...

    Squat jump (jumping squat, jump squat): combination of jump (not to be confused with tuck jump) and squat. Squat down then jump off the ground as high as possible, with extended and vertical legs.
    Tuck jump (tucked jump, tucked knee jump): with feet shoulder width apart, jump, tuck the legs in, extend them, and land.
    Tuck squat jump: combination of tuck jump and squat jump. Squat down, jump, bring knees up before landing again.
    Lateral jump: from a standing position, jump side to side.

    In the depth jump, the athlete experiences a shock on landing in which the hip, knee, and ankle extensor muscles undergo a powerful eccentric contraction. For the muscles to respond explosively, the eccentric contraction is then quickly switched to the isometric (when the downward movement stops) and then the concentric contraction, in a minimum am...

    The most common type of plyometrics used in the United States is simple and relatively easy jump exercises executed with little regard to execution time. These jumps are effective for athletes who execute skills in their sport that do not require explosive type muscular contractions. An example is long-distance running in which the runners execute ...

    Plyometrics have been shown to have benefits for reducing lower extremity injuries in team sports while combined with other neuromuscular training (i.e. strength training, balance training, and stretching). Plyometric exercises involve an increased risk of injury due to the large force generated during training and performance, and should only be p...

    Many professional and Olympic athletes use plyometrics training to improve muscular strength and jumping abilities which therefore increases their power. There are varying levels of intensity to plyometrics. Another benefit of plyometrics is that you can vary your level of intensity which means anyone looking to improve strength and jumping trainin...

    Plyometric exercises are sometimes performed with an additional load, or weight added. In such cases, they are referred to as loaded plyometrics or weighted jumps. The weight is held or worn. It may be in the form of a barbell, trap bar, dumbbells, or weighted vest. For instance, a vertical jump whilst holding a trap baror jumping split squats whil...

    Brooks, G.A; Fahey, T.D. & White, T.P. (1996). Exercise Physiology: Human Bioenergetics and Its Applications. 2nd ed. Mountain View, California: Mayfield Publishing Co.

  3. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › AxonometryAxonometry - Wikipedia

    • Principle of Axonometry
    • The Choice of The Images of The Axes and The Forshortenings
    • Special Axonometries
    • Circles in Axonometry
    • Spheres in Axonometry
    • References

    Pohlke's theoremis the basis for the following procedure to construct a scaled parallel projection of a three-dimensional object: 1. Select projections of the coordinate axes, such that all three coordinate axes are not collapsed to a single point or line. Usually the z-axis is vertical. 2. Select for these projections the foreshortenings, v x {\\di...

    Notation: 1. α : {\\displaystyle \\alpha :} angle between z ¯ {\\displaystyle {\\overline {z}}} -axis and x ¯ {\\displaystyle {\\overline {x}}} -axis 2. β : {\\displaystyle \\beta :} angle between z ¯ {\\displaystyle {\\overline {z}}} -axis and y ¯ {\\displaystyle {\\overline {y}}} -axis 3. γ : {\\displaystyle \\gamma :} angle between x ¯ {\\displaystyle {\\overli...

    Engineer projection

    In this case 1. the forshortenings are: v x = 0.5 , v y = v z = 1 {\\displaystyle v_{x}=0.5,\\ v_{y}=v_{z}=1\\ } (dimetric axonometry) and 2. the angles between the axes are: α = 132 ∘ , β = 97 ∘ . {\\displaystyle \\alpha =132^{\\circ },\\ \\beta =97^{\\circ }\\ .} These angles are marked on many German set squares. Advantages of an engineer projection: 1. simple forshortenings, 2. a uniformly scaled orthographic projection with scaling factor 1.06, 3. the contour of a sphere is a circle (in general, a...

    Cavalier perspective, cabinet perspective

    1. image plane parallel to y-z-plane. In the literature the terms "cavalier perspective" and "cabinet perspective" are not uniformly defined. The above definition is the most general one. Often, further restrictions are applied.For example: 1. cabinet perspective: additionally choose α = 135 ∘ {\\displaystyle \\alpha =135^{\\circ }} (oblique) and v x = 0.5 {\\displaystyle v_{x}=0.5} (dimetric), 2. cavalier perspective: additionally choose α = 135 ∘ {\\displaystyle \\alpha =135^{\\circ }} (oblique) a...

    Birds eye view, military projection

    1. image plane parallel to x-y-plane. 1. military projection: additionally choose v z = 1 {\\displaystyle v_{z}=1} (isometric). Such axonometries are often used for city maps, in order to keep horizontal figures undistorted.

    A parallel projection of a circle is in general an ellipse. An important special case occurs, if the circle's plane is parallel to the image plane–the image of the circle is then a congruent circle. In the diagram, the circle contained in the front face is undistorted. If the image of a circle is an ellipse, one can map four points on orthogonal di...

    In a general axonometry of a sphere the image contour is an ellipse. The contour of a sphere is a circle only in an orthogonalaxonometry. But, as the engineer projection and the standard isometry are scaled orthographic projections, the contour of a sphere is a circle in these cases, as well. As the diagram shows, an ellipse as the contour of a sph...

    Graf, Ulrich; Barner, Martin (1961). Darstellende Geometrie. Heidelberg: Quelle & Meyer. ISBN 3-494-00488-9.
    Fucke, Kirch Nickel (1998). Darstellende Geometrie. Leipzig: Fachbuch-Verlag. ISBN 3-446-00778-4.
    Leopold, Cornelie (2005). Geometrische Grundlagen der Architekturdarstellung. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer Verlag. ISBN 3-17-018489-X.
    Brailov, Aleksandr Yurievich (2016). Engineering Graphics: Theoretical Foundations of Engineering Geometry for Design. Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-29717-0.
    • NGS Platforms
    • Template Preparation Methods For NGS
    • Sequencing Approaches
    • See Also

    DNA sequencing with commercially available NGS platforms is generally conducted with the following steps. First, DNA sequencing libraries are generated by clonal amplification by PCR in vitro. Second, the DNA is sequenced by synthesis, such that the DNA sequence is determined by the addition of nucleotidesto the complementary strand rather than thr...

    Two methods are used in preparing templates for NGS reactions: amplified templates originating from single DNA molecules, and single DNA molecule templates.For imaging systems which cannot detect single fluorescence events, amplification of DNA templates is required. The three most common amplification methods are emulsion PCR (emPCR), rolling circ...

    Pyrosequencing

    In 1996, Pål Nyrén and his student Mostafa Ronaghi at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm published their method of pyrosequencing. Pyrosequencing is a non-electrophoretic, bioluminescence method that measures the release of inorganic pyrophosphate by proportionally converting it into visible light using a series of enzymatic reactions. Unlike other sequencing approaches that use modified nucleotides to terminate DNA synthesis, the pyrosequencing method manipulates DNA polymerase b...

    Sequencing by reversible terminator chemistry

    This approach uses reversible terminator-bound dNTPs in a cyclic method that comprises nucleotide incorporation, fluorescence imaging and cleavage.A fluorescently-labeled terminator is imaged as each dNTP is added and then cleaved to allow incorporation of the next base.These nucleotides are chemically blocked such that each incorporation is a unique event. An imaging step follows each base incorporation step, then the blocked group is chemically removed to prepare each strand for the next in...

    Sequencing-by-ligation mediated by ligase enzymes

    In this approach, the sequence extension reaction is not carried out by polymerases but rather by DNA ligase and either one-base-encoded probes or two-base-encoded probes. In its simplest form, a fluorescently labelled probe hybridizes to its complementary sequence adjacent to the primed template. DNA ligase is then added to join the dye-labelled probe to the primer. Non-ligated probes are washed away, followed by fluorescence imaging to determine the identity of the ligated probe.The cycle c...

    • Formal Definition
    • Term Usage Variations
    • Notable Classes of Measurable Functions
    • Properties of Measurable Functions
    • Non-Measurable Functions
    • See Also
    • External Links

    Let ( X , Σ ) {\\displaystyle (X,\\Sigma )} and ( Y , T ) {\\displaystyle (Y,\\mathrm {T} )} be measurable spaces, meaning that X {\\displaystyle X} and Y {\\displaystyle Y} are sets equipped with respective σ {\\displaystyle \\sigma } -algebras Σ {\\displaystyle \\Sigma } and T . {\\displaystyle \\mathrm {T} .} A function f : X → Y {\\displaystyle f:X\\to Y} is...

    The choice of σ {\\displaystyle \\sigma } -algebras in the definition above is sometimes implicit and left up to the context. For example, for R , {\\displaystyle \\mathbb {R} ,} C , {\\displaystyle \\mathbb {C} ,} or other topological spaces, the Borel algebra (containing all the open sets) is a common choice. Some authors define measurable functionsas ...

    Random variables are by definition measurable functions defined on probability spaces.
    If ( X , Σ ) {\\displaystyle (X,\\Sigma )} and ( Y , T ) {\\displaystyle (Y,T)} are Borel spaces, a measurable function f : ( X , Σ ) → ( Y , T ) {\\displaystyle f:(X,\\Sigma )\\to (Y,T)} is also called...
    A Lebesgue measurable function is a measurable function f : ( R , L ) → ( C , B C ) , {\\displaystyle f:(\\mathbb {R} ,{\\mathcal {L}})\\to (\\mathbb {C} ,{\\mathcal {B}}_{\\mathbb {C} }),} where L {\\disp...
    The sum and product of two complex-valued measurable functions are measurable.So is the quotient, so long as there is no division by zero.
    If f : ( X , Σ 1 ) → ( Y , Σ 2 ) {\\displaystyle f:(X,\\Sigma _{1})\\to (Y,\\Sigma _{2})} and g : ( Y , Σ 2 ) → ( Z , Σ 3 ) {\\displaystyle g:(Y,\\Sigma _{2})\\to (Z,\\Sigma _{3})} are measurable functions...
    If f : ( X , Σ 1 ) → ( Y , Σ 2 ) {\\displaystyle f:(X,\\Sigma _{1})\\to (Y,\\Sigma _{2})} and g : ( Y , Σ 3 ) → ( Z , Σ 4 ) {\\displaystyle g:(Y,\\Sigma _{3})\\to (Z,\\Sigma _{4})} are measurable functions...
    The (pointwise) supremum, infimum, limit superior, and limit inferiorof a sequence (viz., countably many) of real-valued measurable functions are all measurable as well.

    Real-valued functions encountered in applications tend to be measurable; however, it is not difficult to prove the existence of non-measurable functions. Such proofs rely on the axiom of choice in an essential way, in the sense that Zermelo–Fraenkel set theorywithout the axiom of choice does not prove the existence of such functions. In any measure...

    Lp space – Function spaces generalizing finite-dimensional p norm spaces - Vector spaces of measurable functions: the L p {\\displaystyle L^{p}} spaces
    Measurable function at Encyclopedia of Mathematics
    Borel function at Encyclopedia of Mathematics
  4. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › LensmeterLensmeter - Wikipedia

    13 – Prism scale knob. A lensmeter or lensometer, [1] [2] is an ophthalmic instrument. It is mainly used by optometrists and opticians to verify the correct prescription in a pair of eyeglasses, to properly orient and mark uncut lenses, and to confirm the correct mounting of lenses in spectacle frames. Lensmeters can also verify the power of ...

  5. A chassis dynamometer, informally referred to as a rolling road, is a mechanical device that uses one or more fixed roller assemblies to simulate different road conditions within a controlled environment, and is used for a wide variety of vehicle testing and development purposes. All Wheel Drive Chassis Dynamometer.

  1. 學測自然圖表 相關
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