- See Also
Many implementations of mass customization are operational today, such as software-based product configurators that make it possible to add and/or change functionalities of a core product or to build fully custom enclosures from scratch. This degree of mass customization, however, has only seen limited adoption. If an enterprise's marketing department offers individual products (atomic market fragmentation), it doesn't often mean that a product is produced individually, but rather that similar variants of the same mass-produceditem are available. Additionally, in a fashion context, existing technologies to predict clothing size from user input data have been shown to be not yet of high enough suitability for mass customisation purposes. Companies that have succeeded with mass-customization business models tend to supply purely electronic products.However, these are not true "mass customizers" in the original sense, since they do not offer an alternative to mass production of materia...
Pine (1992)harvtxt error: no target: CITEREFPine1992 (help)described four types of mass customization: 1. Collaborative customization (also considered co-creation) – Firms talk to individual customers to determine the precise product offering that best serves the customer's needs (see personalized marketing and personal marketing orientation). This information is then used to specify and manufacture a product that suits that specific customer. For example, some clothing companies will manufacture pants or jackets to fit an individual customer. This is also being taken into deeper customization via 3D printing with companies like Shapeways. Examples: Tailored suits; Converselets consumers chose the color or pattern of every element of certain types of shoes, either in-store or online. 2. Adaptive customization – Firms produce a standardized product, but this product is customizable in the hands of the end-user (the customers alter the product themselves). Example: Lutronlights, which...Tseng, M.M.; Jiao, J. (2001). Mass Customization, in: Handbook of Industrial Engineering, Technology and Operation Management (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-33057-8.Kaplan, A.M; Haenlein, M (2006). "Toward a parsimonious definition of traditional and electronic mass customization". Journal of Product Innovation Management. 23 (2): 168–182. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5...McCarthy, Ian P. (21 February 2007). "Special issue editorial: the what, why and how of mass customization". Production Planning & Control. 15 (4): 347–351. doi:10.1080/0953728042000238854.
- Bokeh and Lens Design
- Other Applications
- See Also
The term comes from the Japanese word boke (暈け or ボケ), which means "blur" or "haze", or boke-aji (ボケ味), the "blur quality". This is derived as a noun form of the verb bokeru, which is written in several ways, with additional meanings and nuances: 暈ける refers to being blurry, hazy or out-of-focus, whereas the 惚ける and 呆ける spellings refer to being mentally hazy, befuddled, childish, senile, or playing stupid. Jisaboke (時差ボケ) (literally, "time difference fog") is the term for jet lag. Nebokeru (寝ぼける) is a verb denoting the actions or condition of someone who is half-asleep, or nodding off. Tobokeru means playing dumb, and toboketa kao refers to a poker face. The related verb hōkeru shares spelling with these and has the same meanings; in addition, that form acts as compound verb suffix, indicating that the subject is absorbed into the action denoted by the main verb: for instance, asobihōkeru (遊び呆ける), combining asobu and hōkeru, expresses being absorbed in play. The related term bokashi...
Though difficult to quantify, some lenses have subjectively more pleasing out-of-focus areas. "Good" bokeh is especially important for macro lenses and long telephoto lenses, because they are typically used in situations that produce shallow depth of field. Good bokeh is also important for medium telephoto lenses (typically 85–150 mm on 35 mm format). When used in portrait photography (for their "natural" perspective), the photographer usually wants a shallow depth of field, so that the subject stands out sharply against a blurred background. Bokeh characteristics may be quantified by examining the image's circle of confusion. In out-of-focus areas, each point of light becomes an image of the aperture, generally a more or less round disc. Depending on how a lens is corrected for spherical aberration, the disc may be uniformly illuminated, brighter near the edge, or brighter near the center. A well-known lens that exhibited the latter "soap-bubble" characteristic was that produced by...
Bokeh can be simulated by convolving the image with a kernel that corresponds to the image of an out-of-focus point source taken with a real camera. Unlike conventional convolution, this convolution has a kernel that depends on the distance of each image point and – at least in principle – has to include image points that are occluded by objects in the foreground. Also, bokeh is not just any blur. To a first approximation, defocus blur is convolution by a uniform disk, a more computationally intensive operation than the "standard" Gaussian blur; the former produces sharp circles around highlights whereas the latter is a much softer effect. Diffractionmay alter the effective shape of the blur. Some graphics editors have a filter to do this, usually called "Lens Blur". An alternative mechanical mechanism has been proposed for generating bokeh in small aperture cameras such as compacts or cellphone cameras, called image destabilisation,in which both the lens and sensor are moved in ord...
In 2009, a research group at MIT Media Lab showed that the bokeh effect can be used to make imperceptibly small barcodes, or bokodes. By using barcodes as small as 3 mm with a small lens over them, if the barcode is viewed out of focus through an ordinary camera focused at infinity, the resulting image is large enough to scan the information in the barcode.
GLOBALG.A.P. is a farm assurance program, translating consumer requirements into Good Agricultural Practice. EurepGAP is a common standard for farm management practice created in the late 1990s by several European supermarket chains and their ...
A hardware board for embedded devices, enable the equivalent functions on VOCALOID singing synthesizer software] (in Japanese). Yamaha Corporation. October 10, 2010. Archived from the original (Press Release) on May 5, 2016.
- External Links
Calvin Weir-Fields is a novelist who found incredible success at an early age but is struggling to recreate the success of his first book, as well as to forge relationships. His therapist tasks him to write a page about someone who likes his dog, Scotty. After a dream in which he meets a strange young woman, Calvin is inspired to write about her, admitting to Dr. Rosenthal that he is falling in love with this character and telling him all about "Ruby Sparks". Calvin's brother Harry and sister-in-law Susie come to visit, and Susie finds women's clothing around the house. Harry reads some of Calvin's new writing and criticizes it, saying that his version of a woman is overly idealized and unrealistic. Calvin writes a passage about Ruby falling in love with him, before falling asleep at his typewriter. The next day, he is stunned to find Ruby in his kitchen, a living person. He calls Harry, who does not believe him and advises him to meet with someone to take his mind off things. Ruby...
The film was written by Zoe Kazan, who plays the eponymous character. Kazan was initially inspired by a discarded mannequin and the myth of Pygmalion, quickly writing twenty pages, before putting the script aside for six months. She returned to the writing when she was clear on the central concept of comparing the idea of love to the actuality of it. During the writing, Kazan thought of Woody Allen's The Purple Rose of Cairo and Groundhog Day, wanting to present a slanted version of our own r...
Kazan shopped the script around and got the attention of Albert Berger and Ron Yerxa, the producers of Little Miss Sunshine, who sent it to directing couple Jonathan Dayton and Valerie Faris, who took it on as the first project since Little Miss Sunshinein 2006. Faris blamed their delay between films on their own need to be ready for the right project.
Kazan talked about the importance of Los Angeles as the location for the film, comparing it to a character as much as a setting. She sees Los Angeles as a place where it is easy to feel alone and isolated and that fits in with the isolation of Calvin in the story.Directors Dayton and Faris said it was great to show Los Angeles itself, rather than pretending to be another place. Filming took place largely around the Silver Lake and Los Feliz neighborhoods. Other locations include Grauman's Egy...
On Rotten Tomatoes, the film received a "Certified Fresh" score of 79% based on 178 reviews, with an average rating of 7.08 out of 10. The website's critical consensus states "Cleverly written and wonderfully acted, Ruby Sparks overcomes its occasional lags in pace with an abundance of charm and wit". On Metacriticthe film has a score of 67 out of 100 based on reviews from 40 critics, indicating "Generally favorable reviews." Stephen Holden from The New York Times wrote, "Ruby Sparks doesn't...
Ruby Sparks opened in a limited releasein 13 theaters and grossed $140,822, with an average of $10,832 per theater and ranking #28 at the box office. The film's widest release in the U.S. was 261 theaters, and it ultimately earned $2,540,106 domestically and $6,588,157 internationally for a worldwide total of $9,128,263.Ruby Sparks at IMDbRuby Sparks at Metacritic
This list of the oldest companies in the world includes brands and companies, excluding associations and educational, government, or religious organizations.To be listed, a brand or company name must remain operating, either in whole or in part, ...
- Video Games
- See Also
VY1 was created to act as a standard Vocaloid product able to produce notable high quality results. Its name of "VY1" stands for "Vocaloid Yamaha 1", its codename of "Mizki" refers to the flower hanamizuki. Its creation echoed the development of Meikoa number of years earlier. It was originally released as a "Standard" and "Deluxe" version. Compared to many other Vocal releases for the software, it lacks an avatar, though a number of concepts have appeared over time to show individual producer interpretations of the Vocaloid. VY1 also had an overhauled version of the Japanese vocal library system for Vocaloid 2 without the need of an engine update that resulted in "improved" performance over past Japanese vocals. A male counterpart vocal called VY2was also later released for this vocal. VY1 was also used for VOCALO Revolution, a Vocaloid related TV program that aired in Japan in January 2011, and was used as the singing vocal for the shows mascot "Cul.
VY1 appeared in an iOS game called "Vocadol" under its codename of "Mizki" along with Vocals Anon & Kanon, Lily, Aoki Lapis, Merli, Cul and Kokone. VY1 was also used for the iOS game Vocalodama(ボカロダマ), which was powered by a lite version of the Vocaloid engine.
- External Links
In a strange magical world of Little Fairilu live the Fairilus: small magical fairies representing flowers, insects and other entities who are all born from the Fairilu Seed. Each Fairilu is born with its own key, the Fairilu Key, that can open magical doors, casting magic spells. If the Fairilu finds the right door, it can finally mature into a full-fledged fairy. The doors also link to the human world. Fairilus must study and go to school to learn about the world in which they live, while meeting new friends.
Lip(りっぷ, Rippu) 1. Voiced by: Yumiri Hanamori 2. A pink tulipFairilu. She cries easily, but has a kind heart and does not give up. When she was about to be born from her Fairilu Seed, she couldn't open the Door of Birth but was encouraged by Nozomu. She then eventually born into the world. From then on, she always think of him. 3. In season 3, she acts like Spica's younger sister. She is also in love with Drop (Nozomu's Fairilu form, but not the same person from season 1 & 2). Himawari(ひまわり,...
Akoya(あこや, Akoya) 1. Voiced by: Megumi Toyoguchi 2. A mermaid Fairilu, with her name comes from the Akoya pearl. Sango(サンゴ, Sango) 1. Voiced by: Chiaki Shimogama 2. A mermaid Fairilu, with her name comes from coral. Wakame(わかめ, Wakame) 1. Voiced by: Hitomi Ōwada 2. A mermaid Fairilu, with her name comes from seaweed. Fish(フィッシュ, Fisshu) 1. Voiced by: Atsushi Abe 2. A mermaid Fairilu, with his name comes from fish. Mesh(メッシュ, Messhu) 1. Voiced by: Yusuke Shirai 2. A mermaid Fairilu. Ruka(ルカ, R...
Kabuto(カブト, Kabuto) 1. Voiced by: Yui Watanabe 2. A rhinoceros beetleFairilu. Kuwa(クワ, Kuwa) 1. Voiced by: Yui Watanabe 2. A stag beetleFairilu. Akiakane(アキアカネ, Akiakane) 1. Voiced by: Aya Uchida 2. An autumn darterFairilu. Miruru(みるる, Miruru) 1. Voiced by: Yui Watanabe 2. A honeybeeFairilu. Hotaru(ホタル, Hotaru) 1. Voiced by: Misaki Kuno 2. A fireflyFairilu. Shiro(シロ, Shiro) 1. Voiced by: Atsushi Abe 2. A small cabbage whiteFairilu. Kamakiri(カマキリ, Kamakiri) 1. Voiced by: Yusuke Shirai 2. A man...
The franchise was first announced in Press Conference on December 11, 2015 as the second collaboration work between Sanrio and Sega Sammy Holdings, meant for the younger female demographic. It was revealed also that the series will have themes relating to flowers and keys, as well as mermaids and insects with characters officially based on the said themes. Merchandise of the series is officially planned, including stationary, toys, raincoats, clothing and more and was released in March 2016....
An anime adaptation of the series, titled Rilu Rilu Fairilu ~ Yousei no Door ~(Japanese: リルリルフェアリル～妖精のドア～, Hepburn: Riru Riru Feariru ~ Yōsei no doa ~, "Rilu Rilu Fairilu ~ The Fairy's Door ~") is officially animated by Studio DEEN and began airing in all TXN stations in Japan on February 6, 2016, replacing Jewelpet Magical Change: Dream Selection on its initial timeslot, and ended on March 25, 2017. It is directed by Sakura Gojō and written by Aya Matsui (Boys Over Flowers, Marmalade Boy, Ta...(in Japanese) Sega's Official Website(in Japanese) Sanrio's Official Website(in Japanese) Official Anime Website of Rilu Rilu Fairilu ~Yousei no Door~(in Japanese) Official Anime Website of Rilu Rilu Fairilu ~Mahou no Kagami~
- Applications and Limitations
- List of The 1,850 Tōyō Kanji
- See Also
- External Links
Thousands of kanji characters were in use in various writing systems, leading to great difficulties for those learning written Japanese. Additionally, several characters had identical meanings but were written differently from each other, further increasing complexity. After World War II, the Ministry of Education decided to minimize the number of kanji by choosing the most commonly used kanji, along with simplified kanji (see Shinjitai) commonly appearing in contemporary literature, to form the tōyō kanji. This was an integral part of the postwar reform of Japanese national writing. This was meant as a preparation for re-introducing their previous unsuccessful reform abolishing Chinese characters. Although the postwar timing meant no public debate was held on the future of the Japanese written language, the defenders of the original kanji system considered and accepted the tōyō kanji as a reasonable compromise. Since this compromise could not then be withdrawn in favour of more rad...
In addition to a list of the standardized tōyō kanji, the reform published by the Ministry for Education in 1946 also contains a set of guidelines for their use. Regarding provenance and scope, the foreword of the document states that: 1. The table of tōyō kanji put forth therein, are the selection of kanji recommended for use by the general public, including legal and governmental documents, newspapers, and magazines. 2. The presented kanji are selected as an approximate set of those characters found to be of no insignificant utility in the lives of today's Japanese citizens. 3. Concerning proper nouns, there is a wide range of usage beyond what may be formulated as rules, and consequently they are treated as outside the scope of this standard. 4. The simplified character forms from modern custom are taken as the proper form, and their original forms are provided alongside them for reference. 5. A systemization of the character forms and their readings is still under consideration...
Because the majority of character-based words are composed of two (or more) kanji, many words were left with one character included in the Tōyō kanji, and the other character missing. In this case, the recommendation was to write the included part in kanji and the excluded part in kana, e.g. ふ頭 for 埠頭 and 危ぐ for 危惧. These words were called mazegaki(交ぜ書き, "mixed characters").
Bold in 1981 and 2010 year added kanji 一 丁 七 丈 三 上 下 不 且 世 丘 丙 中 丸 丹 主 久 乏 乗 乙 九 乳 乾 乱 了 事 二 互 五 井 亜 亡 交 享 京 人 仁 今 介 仕 他 付 代 令 以 仰 仲 件 任 企 伏 伐 休 伯 伴 伸 伺 似 但 位 低 住 佐 何 仏 作 佳 使 来 例 侍 供 依 侮 侯 侵 便 係 促 俊 俗 保 信 修 俳 俵 併 倉 個 倍 倒 候 借 倣 値 倫 仮 偉 偏 停 健 側 偶 傍 傑 備 催 伝 債 傷 傾 働 像 僚 偽 僧 価 儀 億 倹 儒 償 優 元 兄 充 兆 先 光 克 免 児 入 内 全 両 八 公 六 共 兵 具 典 兼 冊 再 冒 冗 冠 冬 冷 准 凍 凝 凡 凶 出 刀 刃 分 切 刈 刊 刑 列 初 判 別 利 到 制 刷 券 刺 刻 則 削 前 剖 剛 剰 副 割 創 劇 剤 剣 力 功 加 劣 助 努 効 劾 勅 勇 勉 動 勘 務 勝 労 募 勢 勤 勲 励 勧 勺 匁 包 化 北 匠 匹 匿 区 十 千 升 午 半 卑 卒 卓 協 南 博 占 印 危 却 卵 巻 卸 即 厘 厚 原 去 参 又 及 友 反 叔 取 受 口 古 句 叫 召 可 史 右 司 各 合 吉 同 名 后 吏 吐 向 君 吟 否 含 呈 呉 吸 吹 告 周 味 呼 命 和 咲 哀 品 員 哲 唆 唐 唯 唱 商 問 啓 善 喚 喜 喪 喫 単 嗣 嘆 器 噴 嚇 厳 嘱 囚 四 回 因 困 固 圏 国 囲 園 円 図 団 土 在 地 坂 均 坊 坑 坪 垂 型 埋 城 域 執 培 基 堂 堅 堤 堪 報 場 塊 塑 塔 塗 境 墓 墜 増 墨 堕 墳 墾 壁 壇 圧 塁 壊 士 壮 壱 寿 夏 夕 外 多 夜 夢 大 天 太 夫 央 失 奇 奉 奏 契 奔 奥 奪 奨 奮 女 奴 好 如 妃 妊 妙 妥 妨 妹 妻 姉 始 姓 委 姫 姻 姿 威 娘 娯 娠 婆 婚 婦 婿 媒 嫁 嫡 嬢 子 孔 字 存 孝 季 孤 孫 学 宅 宇 守 安 完 宗 官 宙 定 宜 客 宣 室 宮 宰 害 宴 家 容 宿 寂 寄 密 富 寒 察 寡 寝 実 寧 審 写 寛 寮 宝 寸 寺 封 射 将 専 尉 尊 尋 対 導 小 少 就 尺 尼 尾 尿 局 居 届 屈...Pronunciation of the Kanji (in Japanese)[dead link]
- List of Different Simplifications
- Traditional Characters That May Cause Problems Displaying
- Different Stroke Orders in Chinese and Japanese
The old and new forms of the Kyōiku Kanji and their Hànzì equivalents are listed below. In the following lists, the characters are sorted by the radicals of the Japanese kanji. The two Kokuji働 and 畑 in the Kyōiku Kanji List, which have no Chinese equivalents, are not listed here; in Japanese, neither character was affected by the simplifications. Note that 弁 is used to simplify three different Traditional characters (辨, 瓣, and 辯) in Japan. 1. No simplificationin either language (The following characters were simplified neither in Japanese nor in Chinese.) 1. 一 丁 下 三 不 天 五 民 正 平 可 再 百 否 武 夏 中 内 出 本 世 申 由 史 冊 央 向 曲 印 州 表 果 半 必 永 求 九 丸 千 久 少 夫 午 失 末 未 包 年 危 后 兵 我 束 卵 承 垂 刷 重 省 看 勉 七 乳 才 予 事 二 元 亡 六 主 市 交 忘 夜 育 京 卒 商 率 就 人 化 今 仁 付 代 仕 他 令 以 合 全 任 休 件 仲 作 何 位 住 余 低 似 命 使 念 例 供 信 保 便 値 修 借 候 倍 俳 俵 健 停 働 像 先 入 八 分 公 共 弟 並 典 前 益 善 尊 同 周 次 兆 冷 弱 刀 切 別 判 制 券 刻 副 割 力 加 助 努 勇 勤 句 北 疑 十 古 孝 直 南 真 裁 博 上 反 灰 厚 原 台 能 友 収 口 司 右 兄 吸 告 君 味 呼 品 唱 器 四 回 因 困 固 土 去 地 在 寺 均 志 坂 幸 型 城 基 域 喜 境 士 冬 各 夕 外 名 多...
Some of the traditional Kanji are not included in the Japanese font of Windows XP/2000, and only rectangles are shown. Downloading the Meiryo font from the Microsoft website (VistaFont_JPN.EXE) and installing it will solve this problem. Note that within the Jōyō Kanji there are 62 characters the old forms of which may cause problems displaying: Kyōiku Kanji (26): Grade 2 (2 Kanji): 海 社 Grade 3 (8 Kanji): 勉 暑 漢 神 福 練 者 都 Grade 4 (6 Kanji): 器 殺 祝 節 梅 類 Grade 5 (1 Kanji): 祖 Grade 6 (9 Kanji): 勤 穀 視 署 層 著 諸 難 朗 Secondary-School Kanji (36): 欄 廊 虜 隆 塚 祥 侮 僧 免 卑 喝 嘆 塀 墨 悔 慨 憎 懲 敏 既 煮 碑 祉 祈 禍 突 繁 臭 褐 謁 謹 賓 贈 逸 響 頻 These characters are Unicode CJK Unified Ideographs for which the old form (kyūjitai) and the new form (shinjitai) have been unified under the Unicode standard. Although the old and new forms are distinguished under the JIS X 0213 standard, the old forms map to Unicode CJK Compatibility Ideographs which are considered by Unicode to be canonically equivalent to the new forms and ma...
Some characters, whether simplified or not, look the same in Chinese and Japanese, but have different stroke orders. For example, in Japan, 必 is written with the top dot first, while the Traditional stroke order writes the 丿 first. In the characters 王 and 玉, the vertical stroke is the third stroke in Chinese, but the second stroke in Japanese.Taiwan and Hong Kong use Traditional characters, though with an altered stroke order.