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  1. Home network - Wikipedia
    • Origins
    • Infrastructure Devices
    • Physical Connectivity and Protocols
    • Endpoint Devices and Services
    • Network Management
    • Common Issues and Concerns
    • See Also
    • External Links

    Establishing this kind of network is often necessary for sharing residential Internet access to all networked devices.[citation needed] Based on techniques to mitigate IPv4 address exhaustion, most Internet service providers provide only a single wide area network-facing IP address for each residential customer. Therefore, such networks require network address translationin the network router. DHCP is used in a typical personal home local area network (LAN) to assign IP addresses within the home subnet. The DHCP server is a router while the clients are hosts (eg. personal computers, smart phones, printers, etc.). The router receives the configuration information through a modem from an internet service provider, which also operates DHCP servers with this router as one of the clients. The clients request configuration settings using the DHCP protocol such as an IP address, a default route and one or more DNS server addresses. Once the client implements these settings, the host is abl...

    A home network usually relies on one or more of the following equipment to establish physical layer, data link layer, and network layerconnectivity among internal devices, also known as the LAN, and external devices outside the LAN networks or the WAN. The following are examples of typical LAN devices: 1. A modem exposes an Ethernet interface to a service provider's native telecommunications infrastructure. In homes these usually come in the form of a DSL modem or cable modem. 2. A router manages network layer connectivity between a WAN and the HAN. It performs the key function of network address translation enabling multiple devices to share the home's single WAN address. Most home networks feature a particular class of small, passively cooled, table-top device with an integrated wireless access point and 4 port Ethernet switch. These devices aim to make the installation, configuration, and management of a home network as automated, user friendly, and "plug-and-play" as possible. 3...

    Home networks can use either wired or wireless technologies to connect endpoints. Wireless is the predominant option in homes due to the ease of installation, lack of unsightly cables, and network performance characteristics sufficient for residential activities.

    Traditionally, data-centric equipment such as computers and media players have been the primary tenants of a home network. However, due to the lowering cost of computing and the ubiquity of smartphone usage, many traditionally non-networked home equipment categories now include new variants capable of control or remote monitoring through an app on a smartphone. Newer startups and established home equipment manufacturers alike have begun to offer these products as part of a "Smart" or "Intelligent" or "Connected Home" portfolio. The control and/or monitoring interfaces for these products can be accessed through proprietary smartphone applications specific to that product line.

    Embedded devices

    Small standalone embedded home network devices typically require remote configuration from a PC on the same network. For example, broadband modems are often configured through a web browser running on a PC in the same network. These devices usually use a minimal Linux distribution with a lightweight HTTP server running in the background to allow the user to conveniently modify system variables from a GUI rendered in their browser. These pages use HTML formsextensively and make attempts to off...

    Apple ecosystem devices

    Apple devices aim to make networking as hidden and automatic as possible, utilizing a zero-configuration networking protocol called Bonjour embedded within their otherwise proprietary line of software and hardware products.

    Microsoft ecosystem devices

    Microsoft offers simple access control features built into their Windows operating system. Homegroup is a feature that allows shared disk access, shared printer access and shared scanner access among all computers and users (typically family members) in a home, in a similar fashion as in a small office workgroup, e.g., by means of distributed peer-to-peer networking (without a central server). Additionally, a home server may be added for increased functionality. The Windows HomeGroup feature...

    Wireless signal loss

    The wireless signal strength of the standard residential wireless router may not be powerful enough to cover the entire house or may not be able to get through to all floors of multiple floor residences. In such situations, the installation of one or more wireless repeatersmay be necessary.

    "Leaky" Wi-Fi

    Wi-Fi often extends beyond the boundaries of a home and can create coverage where it is least wanted, offering a channel through which non-residents could compromise a system and retrieve personal data. To prevent this it is usually sufficient to enforce the use of authentication, encryption, or VPNthat requires a password for network connectivity. However new Wi-Fi standards working at 60 GHz, such as 802.11ad, enable confidence that the LAN will not trespass physical barriers, as at such fr...

    Electrical grid noise

    For home networks relying on powerline communication technology, how to deal with electrical noise injected into the system from standard household appliances remains the largest challenge. Whenever any appliance is turned on or turned off it creates noise that could possibly disrupt data transfer through the wiring. IEEE products that are certified to be HomePlug 1.0 compliant have been engineered to no longer interfere with, or receive interference from other devices plugged into the same h...

  2. MiFi - Wikipedia
    • Mifi Brand Name
    • Devices
    • Alternatives
    • Awards
    • Mifi in The News

    Novatel Wireless owns a registered trademark on the "MiFi" brand name in the U.S. (including Puerto Rico), and a number of countries worldwide:Bahrain, Canada, Egypt, Germany, Ghana, Hungary, Japan, Kuwait, Mexico, Pakistan, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Singapore, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, and Thailand. The notable exception is in the UK where mobile operator 3owns the "MiFi" trademark. In India the Mi-Fi trademark is owned by Mi-Fi Networks Private Limited

    Novatel Wireless MiFi 2200

    1. Limited to five Wi-Fi clients such as laptops, cameras, gaming devices, and multimedia players; with the exception of manually editing the device’s config file to allow more clients. 2. May be connected to a computer via a Micro-USB connection, though doing so disables the Wi-Fi networking, converting the device into a traditional single-client modem. (However, CNET has introduced a tweakto charge the device over USB while maintaining its functionality.) 3. Includes GPS unit, which is usab...

    Novatel Wireless MiFi 23xx series

    Same functionality as 2200, plus: 1. Accepts SD cardfor in-device shared media storage. 2. Uses 3Gdata network (Mini 2352: SUPRA/PATHS 900/1900/2100 MHz, MiFi 2372: SUPRA/PATHS 850/1900/2100 MHz; both support GARS/EDGE 850/900/1800/1900 MHz).

    Novatel Wireless MiFi 33xx series

    Same functionality as 23xx series, plus: 1. Linux-based MiFi OS with widgets: 1.1. Messages: perform SMS-based messaging actions such as reading, writing, sending, and receiving SMS messages 1.2. Data usage: track MiFi data usage in home and roaming networks 1.3. GeoSearch: leverage the GPS functionality of the MiFi to display a map of the local area, search the local area, display the search results on the map 1.4. Weather: fetch weather data for the current and defined locations 1.5. MiFi D...

    Mobile phones with an Internet connection can often be turned into Wi-Fi hotspots using a process called "tethering", which is similar to using dedicated MiFi devices. The following phone families have built-in features to create Wi-Fi access point: 1. Androidphones running Android 2.2 or later 2. BlackBerrydevices running OS 7.1 or later 3. iPhone 3GS and iPhone 4 running iOS 4.3 or later, and all iPhones on Verizon Wireless (initially released with iOS 4.2.5) 4. Palm Pixi Plus and Pre Plus on Verizon Wireless,with a 5GB cap 5. Windows Phonedevices running OS 7.5 or later (and if allowed by operator) For other phones there are third-party applications to allow this: 1. Android running Android 2.1 or under – Wireless Tether 2. iPhone 3G and later – MyWi (requires jailbreak). 3. PiFi – Personal WiFi Device 4. S60 phones and Nokia N900 – JoikuSpot 5. Windows Mobile – WMWifiRouter

    Novatel MiFi 2200:
    Novatel MiFi 2352:
    Novatel 4G MiFi

    Security Issues

    In January 2010, two major security holes were discovered with the Novatel MiFi 2200 which, if properly exploited, could allow a malicious user to obtain the device's current GPS location and security keys. If the malicious user were physically close enough to use the device's Wi-Fi signal, this could give access to the MiFi's 3G connection as well as any other connected devices.Novatel responded that a security patch would be available in February 2010. The popularity of MiFi devices can als...


    In May 2010, the Mifi 2372 was recalled in Canada by Bell Mobility and Rogers Communications. In two documented cases, difficulty of opening the MiFi battery compartment had caused customers to use levels of force that caused physical damage to the batteries, which subsequently overheated. Novatel replaced the recalled units with a type that featured an easier-to-open battery compartment. Customers were sent prepaid courier envelopes and instructed to send back their MiFi units for replacemen...

    Radio interference at trade shows

    At two major trade shows in 2010—Google's first public demo of Google TV and the iPhone 4 demonstrations at the 2010 Apple Worldwide Developers Conference—keynote presentations using available Wi-Fi connectivity were disrupted by network unreliability. The problem was traced to massive radio interference, caused by the popularity of MiFi and similar devices for "liveblogging" from the trade show floor. In the case of the Apple conference, Apple CEO Steve Jobs stated that 570 different Wi-Fi n...

  3. Residential gateway - Wikipedia
    • Devices
    • Features
    • Security
    • External Links

    Multiple devices have been described as "residential gateways": 1. Cable modem 2. DSL modem 3. FTTxmodem 4. Wireless router 5. Network switch 6. Wireless access point 7. Wired router 8. Voice over internet protocol (VoIP) analog telephone adapter 9. IP-DECTtelephone (base station) 10. TV/VoD Set-top box or certain combinations of the above. A modem (e.g. DSL modem, Cable modem) by itself provides none of the functions of a router. It merely allows ATM or PPP or PPPoE traffic to be transmitted across telephone lines, cable wires, optical fibers, wireless radio frequencies, or other physical layers. On the receiving end is another modem that re-converts the transmission format back into digital data packets.This allows network bridging using telephone, cable, optical, and radio connection methods. The modem also provides handshake protocols, so that the devices on each end of the connection are able to recognize each other.However, a modem generally provides few other network function...

    A residential gateway usually provides 1. configuration via a web interface, 2. routingbetween the home network and the Internet, 3. connectivity within the home network like a network switch, hub, or WLANbase station, 4. network address translation(NAT), 5. DHCP for IPv4 and IPv6,and 6. firewallfunctions It may also provide other functions such as Dynamic DNS, and converged "triple play" services such as TV and telephony. Most gateways are self-contained components, using internally stored firmware. They are generally platform-independent, i.e., they can serve any operating system. Wireless routers perform the same functions as a wired router and base station, but allowing connectivity for wireless devices with the LAN, or as a bridge between the wireless router and another wireless router for a meshnet (the wireless router-wireless router connection can be within the LAN or can be between the LAN and WWAN).

    Low-cost production and requirement for user friendliness make gateways vulnerable to network attacks, which resulted in large clusters of such devices being taken over and used to launch DDoS attacks. A majority of the vulnerabilities were present in the web administration frontends of the routers, allowing unauthorized control either via default passwords, vendor backdoors, or web vulnerabilities.

  4. Internet in the United States - Wikipedia
    • Overview
    • Broadband Providers
    • Government Policy and Programs
    • See Also

    Access and speed

    Access to the Internet can be divided into dial-up and broadband access. Around the start of the 21st century, most residential access was by dial-up, while access from businesses was usually by higher speed connections. In subsequent years dial-up declined in favor of broadband access. Both types of access generally use a modem, which converts digital data to analog for transmission over a particular analog network (ex. the telephone or cablenetworks). Dial-up access is a connection to the I...


    A lack of competition and consumer choice in the broadband provider market has been cited as the primary reason Internet costs can be high and speeds and access can be poor even in urban areas. In the DSL market, the Telecommunications Act of 1996 required incumbent local exchange carriers to lease lines to consumers to competitive local exchange carriers, but changes to FCC regulations in 2005 significantly weakened these requirements. In the cable broadband market, the 1996 law also allowed...

    Internet taxes

    In 1998 the federal Internet Tax Freedom Act halted the expansion of direct taxation of the Internet that had begun in several states in the mid-1990s.The law, however, did not affect sales taxes applied to online purchases which continue to be taxed at varying rates depending on the jurisdiction, in the same way that phone and mail orders are taxed. The absence of direct taxation of the Internet does not mean that all transactions taking place online are free of tax, or even that the Interne...

    The broadband Internet access providers in the United States with more than one million subscribers at the end of Q2 2018 were: Mbit/s: Megabit per second Gbit/s: Gigabit per second (1 Gbit/s = 1000 Mbit/s) In 2010, four of these companies ranked among the ten largest ISPs in the world in terms of subscribers: Comcast (4th), AT&T (5th), Time Warner (7th), and Verizon (8th).

    With the advent of the World Wide Web, the commercialization of the Internet, and its spread beyond use within the government and the research and education communities in the 1990s, Internet access became an important public policy and political issue.

  5. Home automation - Wikipedia
    • History
    • Applications and Technologies
    • Implementations
    • Criticism and Controversies
    • Impact
    • Gallery
    • See Also

    Early home automation began with labor-saving machines. Self-contained electric or gas powered home appliances became viable in the 1900s with the introduction of electric power distribution and led to the introduction of washing machines (1904), water heaters (1889), refrigerators, sewing machines, dishwashers, and clothes dryers. In 1975, the first general purpose home automation network technology, X10, was developed. It is a communication protocol for electronic devices. It primarily uses electric power transmission wiring for signalling and control, where the signals involve brief radio frequency bursts of digital data, and remains the most widely available.By 1978, X10 products included a 16 channel command console, a lamp module, and an appliance module. Soon after came the wall switch module and the first X10 timer. By 2012, in the United States, according to ABI Research, 1.5 million home automation systems were installed.Per research firm Statistamore than 45 million smart...

    Home automation is prevalent in a variety of different realms, including: 1. Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC): it is possible to have remote control of all home energy monitorsover the internet incorporating a simple and friendly user interface. 2. Lighting control system: a "smart" network that incorporates communication between various lighting system inputs and outputs, using one or more central computing devices. 3. Occupancy-aware control system: it is possible to sense the occupancy of the home using smart meters and environmental sensors like CO2 sensors,which can be integrated into the building automation system to trigger automatic responses for energy efficiency and building comfort applications. 4. Appliance control and integration with the smart grid and a smart meter, taking advantage, for instance, of high solar panel output in the middle of the day to run washing machines. 5. Home robots and security: a household security system integrated with a home...

    In a review of home automation devices, Consumer Reportsfound two main concerns for consumers: 1. A Wi-Fi network connected to the internet can be vulnerable to hacking. 2. Technology is still in its infancy, and consumers could invest in a system that becomes abandonware. In 2014, Google bought the company selling the Revolv Hub home automation system, integrated it with Nestand in 2016 shut down the servers Revolv Hub depended on, rendering the hardware useless. In 2011, Microsoft Research found that home automation could involve high cost of ownership, inflexibility of interconnected devices, and poor manageability. When designing and creating a home automation system, engineers take into account several factors including scalability, how well the devices can be monitored and controlled, ease of installation and use for the consumer, affordability, speed, security, and ability to diagnose issues.Findings from iControl showed that consumers prioritize ease-of-use over technical in...

    Home automation suffers from platform fragmentation and lack of technical standards a situation where the variety of home automation devices, in terms of both hardware variations and differences in the software running on them, makes the task of developing applications that work consistently between different inconsistent technology ecosystems hard. Customers may hesitate to bet their IoT future on proprietary software or hardware devices that use proprietary protocolsthat may fade or become difficult to customize and interconnect. The nature of home automation devices can also be a problem for security, data security and data privacy, since patches to bugs found in the core operating system often do not reach users of older and lower-price devices.One set of researchers say that the failure of vendors to support older devices with patches and updates leaves more than 87% of active devices vulnerable. Concerns have been raised by tenants renting from landlords who decide to upgrade...

    Utilizing home automation could lead to more efficient and intelligent energy saving techniques. By integrating information and communication technologies (ICT) with renewable energy systems such as solar power or wind power, homes can autonomously make decisions about whether to store energy or expend it for a given appliance,leading to overall positive environmental impacts and lower electricity bills for the consumers using the system. In order to do this, researchers propose using data from sensors regarding consumer activity within the home to anticipate the consumer needs and balance that with energy consumption. Furthermore, home automation has large potential regarding family safety and security. According to a 2015 survey done by iControl, the primary drivers of the demand for smart and connected devices are first "personal and family security", and second "excitement about energy savings".Home automation includes a variety of smart security systems and surveillance setups....

    Domestic patch panel, unstructured.
    Well and booster pump automation
  6. Femtocell - Wikipedia
    • Overview and Benefits
    • Standardised Architectures
    • Air Interfaces
    • Issues
    • Controversy on Consumer Proposition
    • Deployment
    • See Also
    • References

    Operating mode

    Femtocells are sold or loaned by a mobile network operator (MNO) to its residential or enterprise customers. A femtocell is typically the size of a residential gateway or smaller, and connects to the user's broadband line. Integrated femtocells (which include both a DSL router and femtocell) also exist. Once plugged in, the femtocell connects to the MNO's mobile network, and provides extra coverage. From a user's perspective, it is plug and play, there is no specific installation or technical...

    Benefits for users

    The main benefits for an end user are the following: 1. "5 bar" coverage when there is no existing signal or poor coverage 2. Higher mobile data capacity, which is important if the end-user makes use of mobile data on their mobile phone (may not be relevant to a large number of subscribers who instead use WiFiwhere femtocell is located) 3. Depending on the pricing policy of the MNO, special tariffs at home can be applied for calls placed under femtocell coverage 4. For enterprise users, havin...

    The standards bodies have published formal specifications for femtocells for the most popular technologies, namely WCDMA, CDMA2000, LTE and WiMAX. These all broadly conform to an architecture with three major elements: 1. The femtocell access points themselves, which embody greater network functionality than found in macrocell basestations, such as the radio resource control functions. This allows much greater autonomy within the femtocell, enabling self-configuration and self-optimisation. Femtocells are connected using broadband IP, such as DSL or cable modems, to the network operator's core switching centres. 2. The femtocell gateway, comprising a security gateway that terminates large numbers of encrypted IP data connections from hundreds of thousands of femtocells, and a signalling gateway which aggregates and validates the signalling traffic, authenticates each femtocell and interfaces with the mobile network core switches using standard protocols, such as Iuh[expand acronym]....

    Although much of the commercial focus seems to have been on the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), the concept is equally applicable to all air-interfaces. Indeed, the first commercial deployment was the CDMA2000Airave in 2007 by Sprint. Femtocells are also under development or commercially available for GSM, TD-SCDMA, WiMAX and LTE. The H(e)NB functionality and interfaces are basically the same as for regular High Speed Packet Access(HSPA) or LTE base stations except few additional functions. The differences are mostly to support differences in access control to support closed access for residential deployment or open access for enterprise deployment, as well as handover functionality for active subscribers and cell selection procedures for idle subscribers. For LTE additional functionality was added in 3GPP Release 9 which is summarized in.


    The placement of a femtocell has a critical effect on the performance of the wider network, and this is the key issue to be addressed for successful deployment. Because femtocells can use the same frequency bands as the conventional cellular network, there has been the worry that rather than improving the situation they could potentially cause problems. Femtocells incorporate interference mitigation techniques—detecting macrocells, adjusting power and scrambling codes accordingly. Ralph de la...

    Lawful interception

    Access point base stations, in common with all other public communications systems, are required to comply with lawful interceptionrequirements in most countries.

    Equipment location

    Other regulatory issues relate to the requirement in most countries for the operator of a network to be able to show exactly where each base-station is located, and for E911 requirements to provide the registered location of the equipment to the emergency services. There are issues in this regard for access point base stations sold to consumers for home installation, for example. Further, a consumer might try to carry their base station with them to a country where it is not licensed. Some ma...

    The impact of a femtocell is most often to improve cellular coverage, without the cellular carrier needing to improve their infrastructure (cell towers, etc.). This is net gain for the cellular carrier. However, the user must provide and pay for an internet connection to route the femtocell traffic, and then (usually) pay an additional one-off or monthly fee to the cellular carrier. Some have objected to the idea that consumers are being asked to pay to help relieve network shortcomings.On the other hand, residential femtocells normally provide a ‘personal cell’ which provides benefits only to the owner's family and friends. The difference is also that while mobile coverage is provided through subscriptions from an operator with one business model, a fixed fibre or cable may work with a completely different business model. For example, mobile operators may imply restrictions on services which an operator on a fixed may not. Also, WiFi connects to a local network such as home servers...

    According to market research firm Informa and the Femto Forum,as of December 2010 18 operators have launched commercial femtocell services, with a total of 30 committed to deployment. At the end of 2011, femtocell shipments had reached roughly 2 million units deployed annually, and the market is expected to grow rapidly with distinct segments for consumer, enterprise, and carrier-grade femtocell deployments. Femtocell shipments are estimated to have reached almost 2 million at the end of 2010.Research firm Berg Insight estimates that the shipments will grow to 12 million units worldwide in 2014. Within the United States, Cellcom (Wisconsin), was the first CDMA carrier in the U.S. to be a member of the non-profit organization founded in 2007 to promote worldwide femtocell deployment. In 2009, Cellcom received the first Femtocell Industry Award for significant progress or commercial launch by a small carrier at the Femtocells World Summit in London. Additional significant deployments...

    Ref. 8 can be found at : a new release exists :

  7. Domestic robot - Wikipedia
    • History
    • Indoor Robots
    • Outdoor Robots
    • Toys
    • Social Robots
    • in Popular Culture

    People began to design the robots for processing materials and construct products, especially during the Industrial Revolutionin the period about 1760 to around 1840. This historical event marked a major turning point in history since people's living standard was greatly improved during that period. However, these robots cannot be considered as domestic robots. After the industrial robots were improved rapidly for over a hundred years since the Industrial Revolution, people started to consider the use of robots at home. One of the earliest domestic robots is called “HERO”, which was sold during the 1980s. “Of all the educational and personal robots created during the 1980s the Heathkit HERO robots were by far the most successful and most popular.” There were four types of Hero robots created by Heathkit. The first model is called HERO 1. This model was used for educational purpose, and in order to fit the customer's demand, the second model, which was called HERO JR was generated fo...

    This type of domestic robot does chores around and inside homes. Different kinds include: 1. Robotic vacuum cleaners and floor-washing robots that clean floors with sweeping and wet mopping functions. Some use Swifferor other disposable cleaning cloths to dry-sweep, or reusable microfiber cloths to wet-mop. 2. Within the ironing robots, Dressman is a mannequin to dry and iron shirts using hot air. Other ones also includes mannequin for down parts (pants, trousers and skirts). More advanced ones fold and organizes the clothes, as Laundroid (using image analysis and artificial intelligence), Effie (irons 12 items of clothing at once) and FoldiMate. 3. Cat litter robots are automatic self-cleaning litter boxesthat filter clumps out into a built-in waste receptacle that can be lined with an ordinary plastic bag. 4. Robotic kitchens include Rotimatic (which makes rotis, tortillas, puris out of flour in just a few minutes), Moley Robotics MK1 and Prometheus delta robot. Security robots su...

    A robotic lawn mower is a lawn mower that is able to mow a lawn by itself after being programmed. Once programmed, this invention repeats the operation by itself according to its programming. Robotic lawn mowers come with a power unit which may be an electric motor or internal combustion engine. This provides power to the robot and allows it to move itself and its cutting blades. There is also a control unit which helps the mower move. This unit also contains a memory unit which records and memorizes its operation programming. Its memorized route includes the length of travel in a given direction and turns angles. This allows the same lawn to be mowed repeatedly without having to reprogram. The steering unit acquires an operation signal and propels the lead wheel, which leads the mower, go guide along the programmed route. Some models can mow complicated and uneven lawns that are up to three-quarters of an acre in size. Others can mow a lawn as large as 40,000 square feet (3,700 m2)...

    Robotic toys, such as the well known Furby, have been popular since 1998. There are also small humanoid remote-controlled robots as well as electronic pets, such as robotic dogs. They have also have been used by many universities in competitions such as the RoboCup.

    Social robots take on the function of social communication. Domestic humanoid robots are used by elderly and immobilized residents to keep them company. Home-telepresencerobots can move around in a remote location and let one communicate with people there via its camera, speaker, and microphone. Network robots link ubiquitous networks with robots, contributing to the creation of new lifestyles and solutions to address a variety of social problems including the aging of population and nursing care. Robots built for therapy have been in production for quite some time now. Some of these uses can be for autism or physical therapy.

    Lt. Comm. Data is a Starfleet officer in Star Trek: The Next Generation (1987-1994). The episode that best explains who Data is was "The Measure of A Man", Data, an android on the U.S.S. Enterprise is on trial to determine whether or not he is truly human. He likes to be seen as a human, not a robot. In the Star Wars film series, robots of all shapes and sizes can be found assisting the humans with several tasks. C-3POis a robot designed to assist humans in translation, and etiquette. Many cartoons feature robot maids, notably Rosie the Robot from The Jetsons. Maid Robots are especially prominent in anime (in Japanese, they are called Meido Robo, Meido Roboto or meido robot), and their artificial intelligenceranges from rudimentary to fully sentient and emotional, while their appearance ranges from obviously mechanical to human-like. The 2009 adaptation of Astro Boy, based on creator Osamu Tezuka's Japanese anime Tetsuwan Atomu, showcases robots with various domestic functions. Orri...

  8. Consumer IR - Wikipedia
    • Cir and Protocol Implementation
    • Cir Influences in Other Devices
    • Standards
    • Protocol Limitations
    • Technical Information

    With the ready availability of inexpensive microcontroller chips, many remotes may be based on such chips today rather than dedicated remote control encoder chips. This makes it easier to keep the same codes when moving the buttons on the remote. Also, the decoder functionality will often be integrated into a more complicated microcontroller that controls the AV device, eliminating the need for the separate chip. In the absence of a viable standard, the microcontrollers can be used to emulate the ambiguous protocols used by the old dedicated encoder/decoder chips and it appears that this is often the case.[clarification needed] There are even stripped down 4-bit mask-programmable microcontrollers designed only for remote control use (such as NEC's μPD612xA (discontinued), μPD613x, μPD1724x, μPD6x; and μPD17932x 8-bit family). These offer keyboard wake, low power standby modes, and sample controller code though similar features are present on more general PIC microcontrollers or Atme...

    Some infrared wireless laptop keyboards and mice use protocols similar to consumer IR devices. Some PC remote controls used for controlling computer media players, controlling presentation software, or other applications also use consumer IR style protocols. Some computer remotes, keyboards, and mice may also use IrDA protocol though IrDAwas designed for very short range use.

    Sony manufactured a number of consumer devices of different types that share a common proprietary protocol, called S-link. A jack on each device allowed the remote control signals to be interconnected between devices. The protocol included the useful but unusual feature of supporting more than one of the same type of device (such as multiple CD changers). Some AV components could generate informational status codes that could be used to do things like automatically stop your tape deck when the CD you were recording stopped playing. Software running on a PC with a suitable interface could also control the AV components and monitor their activity; for example, your computer could tell what disk and track were playing in your CD changer and look up the titles in one of the internet CD databases. Sony charges 5000 USD for access to the S-Link documentation.Sony use the SIRC protocol for remote controls.SIRC is developed in three different versions: 12 bit, 15 bit and 20 bit. After 12 bi...

    The lack of standardization creates many problems for consumers: the need to purchase universal remotes because the original cannot control related functions on interconnected devices and to upgrade them when buying a new device, universal remotes that do not adequately control the devices, inability to control more than one of the same type unit, the inability in most consumer setups to stop tape recording when CD ends, the inability of VCRs to control cable channels, and owning more than 5 different remotes.

    Infrared wavelength: around 870 nm and 930–950 nm. Latter is preferred because water in atmosphere blocks sunlight in this wavelengthmaking devices less susceptible to blinding.
    Carrier frequency: Usually fixed carrier frequency, typically somewhere between 33 and 40 kHz or 50 to 60 kHz. The most commonly used protocol is the NEC protocol, which specifies a carrier frequen...
    Modulation schemes: typically 100% amplitude-shift keying (ASK). May also involve pulse-position modulation, biphase/manchesterencoding, etc. of the transmitted pulses (as opposed to the carrier it...
    Data rate: usually significantly lower than the carrier frequency. Most protocols seem to range between 120 bits/second and 4 bits/second. Data rate may be variable as some common bit encoding sche...
  9. NetworkManager - Wikipedia
    • Rationale
    • How It Works
    • History
    • See Also
    • External Links

    NetworkManager is a software utility that aims to simplify the use of computer networks.NetworkManager is available for Linux kernel-based and other Unix-like operating systems.[citation needed]

    To connect computers with each other, various communications protocols have been developed, e.g. IEEE 802.3 (Ethernet), IEEE 802.11 ("wireless"), IEEE 802.15.1 (Bluetooth), PPPoE, PPPoA, and many many more. Each participating computer must have the suitable hardware, e.g. network card or wireless network cardand this hardware must be configured accordingly to be able to establish a connection. In case of a monolithic kernel all the device drivers are part of it. The hardware is accessed (and also configured) through its device driver. In case of Linux, the kernel presents for each device driver a representation in form of a device file. All device files are found in the /dev directory, and traditionally the device files for Ethernet hardware have been named eth0, eth1, etc. Since systemd, they are named differently: enp4s0, etc. (This abstraction is called the everything is a fileconcept.) Anything in user-space accesses the hardware through its device file. The configuration utilit...

    Red Hat initiated the NetworkManager project in 2004 with the goal of enabling Linux users to deal more easily with modern networking needs, particularly wireless networking. NetworkManager takes an opportunistic approach to network selection, attempting to use the best available connection as outages occur, or as the user roams between wireless networks. It prefers Ethernet connections over “known” wireless networks, which are preferred over wireless networks with SSIDs to which the user has never connected. The user is prompted for WEP or WPAkeys as needed. The NetworkManager project was among the first major Linux desktop components to utilize D-Bus and HALextensively. Since June 2009, however, NetworkManager no longer depends on HAL, and since 0.9.10 (ca. 2014), neither does it require the D-Bus daemon to be running for root operation.

  10. Arduino - Wikipedia
    • History
    • Hardware
    • Software
    • Applications
    • Recognitions
    • See Also
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    The Arduino project was started at the Interaction Design Institute Ivrea (IDII) in Ivrea, Italy. At that time, the students used a BASIC Stamp microcontroller at a cost of $50. In 2003 Hernando Barragán created the development platform Wiring as a Master's thesis project at IDII, under the supervision of Massimo Banzi and Casey Reas. Casey Reas is known for co-creating, with Ben Fry, the Processing development platform. The project goal was to create simple, low cost tools for creating digital projects by non-engineers. The Wiring platform consisted of a printed circuit board (PCB) with an ATmega168 microcontroller, an IDE based on Processing and library functions to easily program the microcontroller.In 2005, Massimo Banzi, with David Mellis, another IDII student, and David Cuartielles, extended Wiring by adding support for the cheaper ATmega8 microcontroller. The new project, forked from Wiring, was called Arduino. The initial Arduino core team consisted of Massimo Banzi, David C...

    Arduino is open-source hardware. The hardware reference designs are distributed under a Creative CommonsAttribution Share-Alike 2.5 license and are available on the Arduino website. Layout and production files for some versions of the hardware are also available. Although the hardware and software designs are freely available under copyleft licenses, the developers have requested the name Arduino to be exclusive to the official product and not be used for derived works without permission. The official policy document on use of the Arduino name emphasizes that the project is open to incorporating work by others into the official product. Several Arduino-compatible products commercially released have avoided the project name by using various names ending in -duino. Most Arduino boards consist of an Atmel 8-bit AVR microcontroller (ATmega8, ATmega168, ATmega328, ATmega1280, or ATmega2560) with varying amounts of flash memory, pins, and features. The 32-bit Arduino Due, based on the Atm...

    A program for Arduino hardware may be written in any programming language with compilers that produce binary machine code for the target processor. Atmel provides a development environment for their 8-bit AVR and 32-bit ARM Cortex-Mbased microcontrollers: AVR Studio (older) and Atmel Studio (newer).

    Arduboy, a handheld game consolebased on Arduino
    Arduinome, a MIDI controller device that mimics the Monome

    The Arduino project received an honorary mention in the Digital Communities category at the 2006 Prix Ars Electronica. The Arduino Engineering Kit won the Bett Award for “Higher Education or Further Education Digital Services” in 2020.

    Exploring Arduino: Tools and Techniques for Engineering Wizardry; 2nd Ed; Jeremy Blum; Wiley; 512 pages; 2019; ISBN 978-1119405375.
    Arduino For Dummies; 2nd Ed; John Nussey; John Wiley & Sons; 400 pages; 2018; ISBN 978-1119489542.
    Programming Arduino Next Steps: Going Further with Sketches; 2nd Ed; Simon Monk; McGraw-Hill Education; 320 pages; 2018; ISBN 978-1260143249.
    Programming Arduino: Getting Started With Sketches; 2nd Ed; Simon Monk; McGraw-Hill Education; 192 pages; 2016; ISBN 978-1259641633.
    How Arduino is open sourcing imagination, a TEDtalk by creator Massimo Banzi
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