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  1. Republic of China Marine Corps - Wikipedia
    • Organization
    • History
    • Equipment
    • Gallery
    • See Also
    • External Links

    The Marine Corps Command (海軍陸戰隊指揮部) is subordinate to the Navy GHQ, the General Staff, the Minister of Defense, and the ROC President.

    The ROC Marine Corps were formed from the former Navy Sentry Corps in December 1914. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, the ROC marines saw little in amphibious warfare for the Japanese dominated the seas & thus saw combat in the same form as the regular infantry. Likewise, during the civil war, the ROC marines were either absorbed as regular infantry units, or played as supporting role. However, in 1947, the ROC Marine Corps was reconstituted & saw action Mawei, Fujian. The Marine Corps used to be 2 divisions, 66th and 99th divisions, in size, when its doctrine focused on retaking mainland China. Since its transition to a defensive posture, the ROCMC has been downsized towards a focus as a small rapid reaction force, a strategic reserve, and has learned skills compatible with guerrilla warfare operations. The Marine Corps is by design trained and equipped for transport by the ROC Navyto conduct amphibious assaults to defend Taiwan's outlying islands and Taiwan's coasts. In 2004,...

    Equipment gallery

    1. ROCMC Humvee Carried T-75M 20mm Cannon Display at Keelung Naval Pier 2. ROCMC M60A3 TTS Display at Navy Fleet Command Ground 3. BGM-71 TOW and M2 Machine Gun on ROCMC CM-25 4. M109A2-155 5. ROCMC M8 Motor Boat catching divers in sea 6. ROCMC Special Forces Team standing behind 66th Brigade Recruitment Booth 7. ROC Marine Corps Special Service Company Operator with SIG MPX

    Seven ROCMC M8 motor boats circled around Exercise Water
    Marines at Zuoying naval pier
    ROC Marine Corps personnel
    ROC Marine Corps frogmen
  2. Vodka - Wikipedia
    • Etymology
    • History
    • Production
    • Today
    • Illegal Production
    • Public Health Effects
    • Cooking
    • See Also
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    The name vodka is a diminutive form of the Slavic word voda (water), interpreted as little water: root вод- (vod-) [water] + -к- (-k-) (diminutive suffix, among other functions) + -a (ending of feminine gender). The word vodka was recorded for the first time in 1405 in Akta Grodzkie, the court documents from the Palatinate of Sandomierz in Poland. At the time, wódka referred to medicines and cosmetic products, while the beverage was called gorzałka (from the Old Polish gorzeć meaning "to burn"), which is also the source of Ukrainian horilka (горілка). The word vodka written in Cyrillic appeared first in 1533, in relation to a medicinal drink brought from Poland to Russia by the merchants of Kievan Rus'. Although the word vodka could be found in early manuscripts and lubok pictograms, it began to appear in Russian dictionaries only in the mid-19th century. It was attested in Sámuel Gyarmathi's Russian-German-Hungarian glossary of 1799, where it is glossed with Latin vinum adustum("bu...

    Scholars debate the beginnings of vodka due to the little historical material available. For many centuries, beverages differed significantly compared to the vodka of today, as the spirit at that time had a different flavor, color, and smell, and was originally used as medicine. It contained little alcohol, an estimated maximum of about 14%. The still, allowing for distillation ("burning of wine"), increased purity and increased alcohol content, was invented in the 8th century.

    Vodka may be distilled from any starch- or sugar-rich plant matter; most vodka today is produced from grains such as sorghum, corn, rye or wheat. Among grain vodkas, rye and wheat vodkas are generally considered superior. Some vodkas are made from potatoes, molasses, soybeans, grapes, rice, sugar beets and sometimes even byproducts of oil refining or wood pulp processing. In some Central European countries, such as Poland, some vodka is produced by just fermenting a solution of crystal sugar and yeast. In the European Union there are talks about the standardization of vodka, and the Vodka Beltcountries insist that only spirits produced from grains, potato and sugar beet molasses be allowed to be branded as "vodka", following the traditional methods of production. In the United States, many vodkas are made from 95% pure grain alcohol produced in large quantities by agricultural-industrial giants Archer Daniels Midland, Grain Processing Corporation, and Midwest Grain Products (MGP). B...

    According to The Penguin Book of Spirits and Liqueurs, "Its low level of fusel oils and congeners—impurities that flavor spirits but that can contribute to the after-effects of heavy consumption—led to its being considered among the 'safer' spirits, though not in terms of its powers of intoxication, which, depending on strength, may be considerable." Since the year 2000, due to evolving consumer tastes and regulatory changes, several 'artisanal vodka' or even 'ultra premium vodka' brands have appeared.

    In some countries, black-market or "bathtub" vodka is widespread because it can be produced easily and avoid taxation. However, severe poisoning, blindness, or death can occur as a result of dangerous industrial ethanol substitutes being added by black-market producers. In March 2007 in a documentary, BBC News UK sought to find the cause of severe jaundice among imbibers of a "bathtub" vodka in Russia. The cause was suspected to be an industrial disinfectant (Extrasept) – 95% ethanol but also containing a highly toxic chemical – added to the vodka by the illegal traders because of its high alcohol content and low price. Death toll estimates list at least 120 dead and more than 1,000 poisoned. The death toll is expected to rise due to the chronic nature of the cirrhosis that is causing jaundice.[citation needed]

    Estimates of the annual death toll resulting from vodka consumption extend up to the thousands in Russia.

    Vodka can also be used in cooking and various recipes are improved by the addition of vodka or rely on it as a key ingredient. Vodka sauce is a pasta sauce made from tomato sauce, cream, and vodka that gained popularity in the 1970s. Vodka can be used in baking as a substitute for water: pie crusts can be made flakier with vodka. It may be used in seafood dishes, cheesecake, or bitters.

    Begg, Desmond (1997). The Vodka Companion: A Connoisseur's Guide. Running. ISBN 0-7624-0252-0.
    Broom, Dave (1998). Complete Book of Spirits and Cocktails. Italy: Carlton Books Ltd. ISBN 1-85868-485-4.
    Delos, Gilbert (1998). Vodkas of the World. Edison, New Jersey: Wellfleet Press. ISBN 0-7858-1018-8.
    Elborn, Geoffrey (2013). The Dedalus Book of Vodka. Dedalus. ISBN 978-1-907650-04-8.
    • Central, Northern and Eastern Europe
    • Water, alcohol
  3. Oak - Wikipedia
    • Classification
    • Evolution
    • Hybridization
    • Uses
    • Biodiversity and Ecology
    • Diseases and Pests
    • Conservation
    • Toxicity
    • Cultural Significance
    • Bibliography

    The most recent classification of Quercus divides the genus into two subgenera and eight sections. These divisions support the evolutionary diversification of oaks among two distinct clades: the "Old World" clade, including oaks that diversified mainly in Eurasia; and the "New World" clade, for oaks that diversified mainly in the Americas.

    Records of Quercus have been reported from Late Cretaceous deposits in North America and East Asia, however these are not considered definitive. In a survey of the fossil record of Quercus it was concluded that "pre-Paleogene, and perhaps pre-Eocene occurrences of Quercus macroremains are generally represented by poorly preserved fossils that lack critical features needed for certain identification and need to be treated with caution." The oldest unequivocal records of Quercusdate to the Eocene, around 45 million years ago.

    Interspecific hybridization is quite common among oaks, but usually between species within the same section only, and most common in the white oak group. White oaks are unable to discriminate against pollination by other species in the same section. Because they are wind pollinated and they have weak internal barriers to hybridization, hybridization produces functional seeds and fertile hybrid offspring.Ecological stresses, especially near habitat margins, can also cause a breakdown of mate recognition as well as a reduction of male function (pollen quantity and quality) in one parent species. Frequent hybridization among oaks has consequences for oak populations around the world; most notably, hybridization has produced large populations of hybrids with copious amounts of introgression, and the evolution of new species. Frequent hybridization and high levels of introgression have caused different species in the same populations to share up to 50% of their genetic information. Havin...

    Oak wood has a density of about 0.75 g/cm3 (0.43 oz/cu in) creating great strength and hardness. The wood is very resistant to insect and fungal attack because of its high tannin content. It also has very appealing grain markings, particularly when quartersawn. Oak planking was common on high status Viking longships in the 9th and 10th centuries. The wood was hewn from green logs, by axe and wedge, to produce radial planks, similar to quarter-sawn timber. Wide, quarter-sawn boards of oak have been prized since the Middle Ages for use in interior panelling of prestigious buildings such as the debating chamber of the House of Commons in London and in the construction of fine furniture. Oak wood, from Quercus robur and Quercus petraea, was used in Europe for the construction of ships, especially naval men of war, until the 19th century, and was the principal timber used in the construction of European timber-framed buildings. Today oak wood is still commonly used for furnituremaking an...

    Oaks are keystone species in a wide range of habitats from Mediterranean semi-desert to subtropical rainforest. For example, oak trees are important components of hardwood forests, and certain species are particularly known to grow in associations with members of the Ericaceae in oak–heath forests. A number of kinds of truffles, including the two well known varieties, the black Périgord truffle and the white Piedmont truffle, have symbiotic relationships with oak trees. Similarly many other mushrooms such as Ramaria flavosaponaria also associate with oaks. The European pied flycatcheris an example of an animal species that often depends upon oak trees. Many species of oaks are under threat of extinction in the wild, largely due to land use changes, livestock grazing and unsustainable harvesting. For example, over the past 200 years, large areas of oak forest in the highlands of Mexico, Central America and the northern Andes have been cleared for coffee plantations and cattle ranchin...

    Sudden oak death (Phytophthora ramorum) is a water mould that can kill oaks within just a few weeks. Oak wilt, caused by the fungus Ceratocystis fagacearum is also a lethal disease of some oaks, particularly the red oaks (the white oaks can be infected but generally live longer). Other dangers include wood-boring beetles, as well as root rot in older trees which may not be apparent on the outside, often being discovered only when the trees come down in a strong gale. Oak apples are galls on oaks made by the gall wasp. The female kermes scale causes galls to grow on kermes oak. Oaks are used as food plants by the larvae of Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) species such as the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, which can defoliate oak and other broadleaved tree species in North America. A considerable number of galls are found on oak leaves, buds, flowers, roots, etc. Examples are oak artichoke gall, oak marble gall, oak apple gall, knopper gall, and spangle gall. A number of species of fun...

    According to a comprehensive report by The Morton Arboretumand the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) an estimated 31% of the world's estimated 430 oak species are threatened with extinction, while the study found an estimated 41% of oak species to be of conservation concern. The countries with the highest numbers of threatened oak species according to the report are China with 36 species, Mexico with 32 species, Vietnam with 20 species and the USA with 16 species. While the cause of decline is still partly unknown for some species, the main causes the scientists determined were climate change and invasive pests in the US, and deforestation and urbanizationin Asia. In the Himalayan region of India, oak forests are being invaded by pine forests due to the increase in temperature. The associated species of pine forest may cross frontiers and become new elements of the oak forests. In eastern North America, rare species of oak trees include scarlet oak (Quercus cocci...

    The leaves and acorns of the oak tree are poisonous in large amounts to livestock including cattle, horses, sheep, and goats due to the toxin tannic acid, causing kidney damage and gastroenteritis. Symptoms of poisoning include lack of appetite, depression, constipation, diarrhea (which may contain blood), blood in urine, and colic. The exception is the domestic pig, which may be fed entirely on acorns in the right conditions, and has traditionally been pastured in oak woodlands (such as the Spanish dehesa and the English system of pannage). Acorns are also edible by humans, after leachingof the tannins.

    National symbol

    The oak is a common symbol of strength and endurance and has been chosen as the national tree of many countries. In England, oaks have been a national symbol since at least the sixteenth century, often used by Shakespeare to convey heritage and power. In England today they remain a symbol of the nation's history, traditions, and the beauty of its countryside. Already an ancient Germanic symbol (in the form of the Donar Oak, for instance), certainly since the early nineteenth century, it stand...


    The prehistoric Indo-Europeantribes worshiped the oak and connected it with a thunder or lightning god, and this tradition descended to many classical cultures. In Greek mythology, the oak is the tree sacred to Zeus, king of the gods. In Zeus's oracle in Dodona, Epirus, the sacred oak was the centerpiece of the precinct, and the priests would divine the pronouncements of the god by interpreting the rustling of the oak's leaves. In Celtic polytheism, the name of the oak tree was part of the Pr...


    Several oak trees, such as the Royal Oak in Britain and the Charter Oakin the United States, are of great historical or cultural importance. "The Proscribed Royalist, 1651", a famous painting by John Everett Millais, depicted a Royalist fleeing from Cromwell's forces and hidden in an oak. Millais painted the picture in Hayes, Kent, from a local oak tree that became known as the Millais Oak. Approximately 50 km west of Toronto, Canada is the town of Oakville, Ontario, famous for its history as...

    Byfield, Liz (1990) An Oak Tree, Collins book bus, London : Collins Educational, ISBN 0-00-313526-8
    Philips, Roger. Trees of North America and Europe, Random House, Inc., New York ISBN 0-394-50259-0, 1979.
    Logan, William B. (2005) Oak: The Frame of Civilization, New York; London : W.W. Norton, ISBN 0-393-04773-3
    Paterson, R.T. (1993) Use of Trees by Livestock, 5: Quercus, Chatham : Natural Resources Institute, ISBN 0-85954-365-X
  4. 2020–21 NBA season - Wikipedia–21_NBA_season

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The 2020–21 NBA season was the 75th season of the National Basketball Association (NBA). Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the regular season was reduced to 72 games for each team, and began on December 22, ...

  5. Fate/Grand Order - Wikipedia
    • Gameplay
    • Development and Release
    • Reception
    • Other Media
    • External Links

    Fate/Grand Order is a turn-based tactical RPGwith few visual novel elements. The player takes the role of a "Master" and commands a group of individuals called "Servants", who are typically historical, literary, and mythological figures from various cultures. The player commands a party composed of up to 6 Servants in each battle, 3 active members and 3 reserve members. In each turn, the player is given a set of 5 Command Cards and may use up to 3 of them in a turn to attack. Each Servant has 5 cards the player may use; the cards for all the Servants on the field are shuffled and dealt to the player each turn. The cards have three types: Buster (a heavy attack), Arts (a medium attack that charges a gauge for the Servant's "Noble Phantasm"), and Quick (a light attack that generates Critical Stars that increase the probability of critical hits next turn). If three similar cards are used in one turn, they create a "Chain" which gives a bonus based on the cards' properties. If three car...

    The game was first drafted by Kinoko Nasu under the working title "Fate Online Project Reboot", which was meant to be a massively multiplayer online game using designs, drafts and concepts later collected in the Fate/complete material IV Extra material book. But the planned game was cancelled and shelved during planning stages. It later became a novel, Fate/Apocrypha, which integrated some concepts of the planned game. Later on in 2014, Aniplex proposed Nasu to revisit the cancelled game project, announcing a collaboration with the game studio DelightWorks to rework the concept into a mobile RPG game. The game was published by Aniplex and was released in Japan on 29 July 2015, on Android devices, with a subsequent release on 12 August for iOS devices. Maaya Sakamoto performed three theme songs for the game: "Shikisai"(色彩, "Color"), "Gyakko"(逆光, Gyakkō, "Moonlight") and "Yakudo"(躍動, "Dynamic"). Aside from its gameplay and own storyline, the game also features events for players to ob...


    As of October 2018, the game is available in five languages across ten countries, having received a total of 32million downloads worldwide, including over 4million downloads for the English version, and 7 million in September 2019 surpassing Fortnite and PlayerUnknown's Battlegrounds. The game is very popular in Japan, its first market, and reports indicate that the level is comparable to the success of Pokémon Go. In Japan, the game had crossed 13million downloads by May 2018, and 14million...


    Fate/Grand Order grossed over $646 million during 2015 to 2016. In 2017, the game grossed ¥89.6 billion ($822 million) in Japan between January and 3 October, and ¥13.2 billion ($121 million) in China. Worldwide, the game grossed $982 million in 2017, making it the year's sixth highest-grossing mobile game. In 2018, it grossed at least ¥134.8 billion ($1,237 million), including ¥120.4 billion in Japan (where it was the year's second highest-grossing mobile game) along with ¥14.4 billion overs...

    Criticisms and controversy

    The game illustrations have been described as overly sexualized. Some illustrations from the game have been subject to censorship in China to remove cleavage.For the English release, whitening of the skin tone of Emiya Alter has also raised some criticism among the fans.


    An animated television film special titled Fate/Grand Order: First Order(Japanese: フェイト/グランドオーダー -First Order-, Hepburn: Feito/Gurando Ōdā -First Order-) aired on 31 December 2016. It was an adaptation of the game's prologue. The film, produced by the studio Lay-duce, was directed by Hitoshi Nanba and stars the voice actors Nobunaga Shimazaki, Rie Takahashi, and Ayako Kawasumi in the roles of the main characters who were projected into the past to try to prevent the approaching extinction of...


    A two-part anime film adaptation, titled Fate/Grand Order - Divine Realm of the Round Table: Camelot(Japanese: フェイト/グランドオーダー -神聖円卓領域 キャメロット-, Hepburn: Feito/Gurando Ōdā Shinsei Entaku Ryōiki Kyamerotto) is being produced by Production I.G and Signal.MD, adapting the 6th chapter of the game. Ukyō Kodachi will write the first films' scripts, and Keita Haga and Hideyuki Fukasawa are composing the films' scores. Kei Suezawa is directing the first film at Signal.MD; Kazuto Arai is directing the se...


    Three manga adaptations were released. The first manga series, -mortalis:stella- was written by Shiramine, serialized in Ichijinsha's Monthly Comic Zero Sum magazine. Two tankobon volumes have been released so far. Kodansha USA licensed the manga in English. The second manga series, -turas réalta- is written by Takashi Kawabuchi and serialized through Kodansha's Bessatsu Shōnen Magazine since 9 August 2017. Kodansha published the first tankōbon volume on January 9, 2018.As of 9 December 2020,...

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