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  1. 廚餘處理機 相關
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  1. Air handler - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Air_handling_unit

    An air handler, or air handling unit (often abbreviated to AHU), is a device used to regulate and circulate air as part of a heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system.[1] An air handler is usually a large metal box containing a ...

  2. Word processor - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Word_processing_system

    A word processor (WP)[1][2] is a device or computer program that provides for input, editing, formatting, and output of text, often with some additional features. Early word processors were stand-alone devices dedicated to the function, but ...

  3. Central processing unit - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Central_processing_unit
    • History
    • Operation
    • Structure and Implementation
    • Virtual CPUs
    • Performance
    • External Links

    Early computers such as the ENIAC had to be physically rewired to perform different tasks, which caused these machines to be called "fixed-program computers". The "central processing unit" term has been in use since as early as 1955. Since the term "CPU" is generally defined as a device for software (computer program) execution, the earliest devices that could rightly be called CPUs came with the advent of the stored-program computer. The idea of a stored-program computer had been already present in the design of J. Presper Eckert and John William Mauchly's ENIAC, but was initially omitted so that it could be finished sooner. On June 30, 1945, before ENIAC was made, mathematician John von Neumann distributed the paper entitled First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC. It was the outline of a stored-program computer that would eventually be completed in August 1949. EDVAC was designed to perform a certain number of instructions (or operations) of various types. Significantly, the program...

    The fundamental operation of most CPUs, regardless of the physical form they take, is to execute a sequence of stored instructions that is called a program. The instructions to be executed are kept in some kind of computer memory. Nearly all CPUs follow the fetch, decode and execute steps in their operation, which are collectively known as the instruction cycle. After the execution of an instruction, the entire process repeats, with the next instruction cycle normally fetching the next-in-sequence instruction because of the incremented value in the program counter. If a jump instruction was executed, the program counter will be modified to contain the address of the instruction that was jumped to and program execution continues normally. In more complex CPUs, multiple instructions can be fetched, decoded and executed simultaneously. This section describes what is generally referred to as the "classic RISC pipeline", which is quite common among the simple CPUs used in many electronic...

    Hardwired into a CPU's circuitry is a set of basic operations it can perform, called an instruction set. Such operations may involve, for example, adding or subtracting two numbers, comparing two numbers, or jumping to a different part of a program. Each basic operation is represented by a particular combination of bits, known as the machine language opcode; while executing instructions in a machine language program, the CPU decides which operation to perform by "decoding" the opcode. A complete machine language instruction consists of an opcode and, in many cases, additional bits that specify arguments for the operation (for example, the numbers to be summed in the case of an addition operation). Going up the complexity scale, a machine language program is a collection of machine language instructions that the CPU executes. The actual mathematical operation for each instruction is performed by a combinational logic circuit within the CPU's processor known as the arithmetic logic un...

    Cloud computing can involve subdividing CPU operation into virtual central processing units (vCPUs). A host is the virtual equivalent of a physical machine, on which a virtual system is operating. When there are several physical machines operating in tandem and managed as a whole, the grouped computing and memory resources form a cluster. In some systems, it is possible to dynamically add and remove from a cluster. Resources available at a host and cluster level can be partitioned out into resources pools with fine granularity.

    The performance or speed of a processor depends on, among many other factors, the clock rate (generally given in multiples of hertz) and the instructions per clock (IPC), which together are the factors for the instructions per second (IPS) that the CPU can perform.Many reported IPS values have represented "peak" execution rates on artificial instruction sequences with few branches, whereas realistic workloads consist of a mix of instructions and applications, some of which take longer to execute than others. The performance of the memory hierarchy also greatly affects processor performance, an issue barely considered in MIPS calculations. Because of these problems, various standardized tests, often called "benchmarks" for this purpose‍—‌such as SPECint‍—‌have been developed to attempt to measure the real effective performance in commonly used applications. Processing performance of computers is increased by using multi-core processors, which essentially is plugging two or more indiv...

    How Microprocessors Work at HowStuffWorks.
    25 Microchips that shook the world – an article by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
  4. On-board data handling - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › On-Board_Data_Handling
    • Telecommand Execution
    • Time-Tagged Telecommands
    • Position-Tagged Telecommands
    • Processing Function
    • External Links

    The desired effect of the telecommand may be just to change a value in the on-board software, or to open/close a latching relayto reconfigure or power a unit, or maybe to fire a thruster or main engine. Whichever effect is desired, the OBDH subsystem will facilitate this either by sending an electric pulse from the OBC, or by passing the command through a data bus to the unit which will eventually execute the TC. Some TCs are part of a large block of commands, used to upload updated software or data tables to fine tune the operation of the spacecraft, or to deal with anomalies.

    It is often required to delay a command's execution until a certain time. This is often because the spacecraft is not in view of the ground station, but may also be for reasons of precision. The OBC will store the TC until the required time in a queue, and then execute it.

    Similar to time-tagged commands are commands that are stored for execution until the spacecraft is at a specified position. These are most useful for earth observation satellites, which need to start an observation over a specified point of the Earth's surface. The spacecraft, often in sun-synchronous orbits, take a precisely repeating track over the earth. Observations which are taken from the same position may be compared using interferometry, if they are in close enough register. The precise position required is sensed using GPS. Once a position tagged command has been executed, it may be flagged for deletion or left to execute again when the spacecraft is once again over the same point.

    The modern OBDH always uses an on-board computer (OBC) that is reliable, usually with redundant processors. The processing power is made available to other applications which support the spacecraft bus, such as attitude control algorithms, thermal control, failure detection isolation and recovery. If the mission itself requires only a small amount of computing power (such as a small scientific satellite) then the payload may also be controlled by the software running on the OBC, to save launch mass and the considerable expense of a dedicated payload computer.

    https://ecss.nl/standard/ecss-e-st-50-04c-space-data-links-telecommand-protocols-synchronization-and-channel-coding/

  5. Transformer - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Transformer
    • Principles
    • Construction
    • Classification Parameters
    • Applications
    • History
    • Bibliography

    Ideal transformer

    An ideal transformer is a theoretical linear transformer that is lossless and perfectly coupled. Perfect coupling implies infinitely high core magnetic permeability and winding inductance and zero net magnetomotive force (i.e. ipnp - isns = 0).[c] A varying current in the transformer's primary winding attempts to create a varying magnetic flux in the transformer core, which is also encircled by the secondary winding. This varying flux at the secondary winding induces a varying electromotive f...

    Transformer EMF equation

    If the flux in the core is purely sinusoidal, the relationship for either winding between its rms voltage Erms of the winding, and the supply frequency f, number of turns N, core cross-sectional area a in m2 and peak magnetic flux density Bpeak in Wb/m2or T (tesla) is given by the universal EMF equation: 1. E rms = 2 π f N a B peak 2 ≈ 4.44 f N a B peak {\\displaystyle E_{\\text{rms}}={\\frac {2\\pi fNaB_{\\text{peak}}}{\\sqrt {2}}}\\approx 4.44fNaB_{\\text{peak}}}

    Polarity

    A dot convention is often used in transformer circuit diagrams, nameplates or terminal markings to define the relative polarity of transformer windings. Positively increasing instantaneous current entering the primary winding's ‘dot’ end induces positive polarity voltage exiting the secondary winding's ‘dot’ end. Three-phase transformers used in electric power systems will have a nameplate that indicate the phase relationships between their terminals. This may be in the form of a phasordiagra...

    Cores

    Core form = core type; shell form = shell type Closed-core transformers are constructed in 'core form' or 'shell form'. When windings surround the core, the transformer is core form; when windings are surrounded by the core, the transformer is shell form. Shell form design may be more prevalent than core form design for distribution transformer applications due to the relative ease in stacking the core around winding coils. Core form design tends to, as a general rule, be more economical, and...

    Windings

    The electrical conductor used for the windings depends upon the application, but in all cases the individual turns must be electrically insulated from each other to ensure that the current travels throughout every turn. For small transformers, in which currents are low and the potential difference between adjacent turns is small, the coils are often wound from enamelled magnet wire. Larger power transformers may be wound with copper rectangular strip conductors insulated by oil-impregnated pa...

    Cooling

    It is a rule of thumb that the life expectancy of electrical insulation is halved for about every 7 °C to 10 °C increase in operating temperature (an instance of the application of the Arrhenius equation). Small dry-type and liquid-immersed transformers are often self-cooled by natural convection and radiation heat dissipation. As power ratings increase, transformers are often cooled by forced-air cooling, forced-oil cooling, water-cooling, or combinations of these. Large transformers are fil...

    Transformers can be classified in many ways, such as the following: 1. Power rating: From a fraction of a volt-ampere (VA) to over a thousand MVA. 2. Duty of a transformer: Continuous, short-time, intermittent, periodic, varying. 3. Frequency range: Power-frequency, audio-frequency, or radio-frequency. 4. Voltage class: From a few volts to hundreds of kilovolts. 5. Cooling type: Dry or liquid-immersed; self-cooled, forced air-cooled;forced oil-cooled, water-cooled. 6. Application: power supply, impedance matching, output voltage and current stabilizer, pulse, circuit isolation, power distribution, rectifier, arc furnace, amplifier output, etc.. 7. Basic magnetic form: Core form, shell form, concentric, sandwich. 8. Constant-potential transformer descriptor: Step-up, step-down, isolation. 9. General winding configuration: By IEC vector group, two-winding combinations of the phase designations delta, wye or star, and zigzag; autotransformer, Scott-T 10. Rectifier phase-shift winding c...

    Various specific electrical application designs require a variety of transformer types. Although they all share the basic characteristic transformer principles, they are customized in construction or electrical properties for certain installation requirements or circuit conditions. In electric power transmission, transformers allow transmission of electric power at high voltages, which reduces the loss due to heating of the wires. This allows generating plants to be located economically at a distance from electrical consumers.All but a tiny fraction of the world's electrical power has passed through a series of transformers by the time it reaches the consumer. In many electronic devices, a transformer is used to convert voltage from the distribution wiring to convenient values for the circuit requirements, either directly at the power line frequency or through a switch mode power supply. Signal and audio transformers are used to couple stages of amplifiers and to match devices such...

    Discovery of induction

    Electromagnetic induction, the principle of the operation of the transformer, was discovered independently by Michael Faraday in 1831 and Joseph Henry in 1832. Only Faraday furthered his experiments to the point of working out the equation describing the relationship between EMF and magnetic flux now known as Faraday's law of induction: 1. | E | = | d Φ B d t | , {\\displaystyle |{\\mathcal {E}}|=\\left|{{\\mathrm {d} \\Phi _{\\text{B}}} \\over \\mathrm {d} t}\\right|,} where | E | {\\displaystyle |{\\m...

    Induction coils

    The first type of transformer to see wide use was the induction coil, invented by Rev. Nicholas Callan of Maynooth College, Ireland in 1836. He was one of the first researchers to realize the more turns the secondary winding has in relation to the primary winding, the larger the induced secondary EMF will be. Induction coils evolved from scientists' and inventors' efforts to get higher voltages from batteries. Since batteries produce direct current (DC) rather than AC, induction coils relied...

    First alternating current transformers

    By the 1870s, efficient generators producing alternating current (AC) were available, and it was found AC could power an induction coil directly, without an interrupter. In 1876, Russian engineer Pavel Yablochkov invented a lighting system based on a set of induction coils where the primary windings were connected to a source of AC. The secondary windings could be connected to several 'electric candles'(arc lamps) of his own design. The coils Yablochkov employed functioned essentially as tran...

    Beeman, Donald, ed. (1955). Industrial Power Systems Handbook. McGraw-Hill.
    Calvert, James (2001). "Inside Transformers". University of Denver. Archived from the original on May 9, 2007. Retrieved May 19, 2007.
    Coltman, J. W. (Jan 1988). "The Transformer". Scientific American. 258 (1): 86–95. Bibcode:1988SciAm.258a..86C. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0188-86. OSTI 6851152.
    Coltman, J.W. (Jan–Feb 2002). "The Transformer [Historical Overview]". IEEE Industry Applications Magazine. 8 (1): 8–15. doi:10.1109/2943.974352. S2CID 18160717.
  6. COVID-19 - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Covid-19

    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The first known case was identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. [7] The disease has since spread ...

  7. AKB48 - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › 47_no_Suteki_na_Machi_e

    AKB48 (A.K.B. Forty-Eight, but pronounced ending with a -to (エーケービー フォーティーエイト)) are a Japanese idol group named after the Akihabara (Akiba for short) area in Tokyo, where the group's theater is located.AKB48's producer, ...

  8. Takeo Kimura filmography - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Takeo_Kimura_filmography

    The following is the filmography of Takeo Kimura, the Japanese art director, writer, and film director who has art-directed more than 200 films over a span of more than six decades and ranks among Japan's best-known art directors.[1] His ...

  9. A Cruel Angel's Thesis - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › A_Cruel_Angel&

    "The Cruel Angel's Thesis" (残酷な天使のテーゼ, Zankoku na tenshi no tēze) is a j-pop song performed by Japanese singer Yoko Takahashi. The song, composed to be the opening theme song of the anime television series Neon Genesis ...

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  1. 廚餘處理機 相關
    廣告