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  1. Changhua County - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Changhua_County
    • History
    • Geography
    • Administration
    • Electoral Politics
    • Culture
    • Economy
    • Education
    • Energy
    • Tourism
    • Transportation

    Early history

    There are prehistoric burial sites in Changhua that date back 5000 years. The number of burials tally to 32. The original name of the area was Poasoa (Chinese: 半線; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Pòaⁿ-sòaⁿ; lit. 'half line'), so-named by the local indigenous tribes. Poasoa used to be inhabited primarily by the Babuza people, who have since been mostly assimilated by the Han people.

    Qing dynasty

    Qing rule in Taiwan began in 1683, and in 1684, Taiwan Prefecture was established to administer Taiwan under Fujian Province. The prefecture consisted of three counties: Taiwan County[zh], Fongshan District (Formosa)[zh] and Zhuluo. Poasoa and modern-day Changhua County were under the jurisdiction of Zhuluo, but the Changhua area was spread over three counties. In 1723, after the Zhu Yigui rebellion, an inspector official in Taiwan requested to the Qing Emperor to designate Changhua to anothe...

    Japanese rule

    During early Japanese rule, the island was subdivided into three ken(県): Taihoku, Taiwan, and Tainan. Changhua was ruled under Taiwan Ken. In 1920, after several administrative changes, Taichū Prefecture was established, covering modern-day Changhua County, Nantou County and Taichung City. By 1930, the population in Changhua already exceeded one million.

    Changhua county is located on the west coast of Taiwan, bordering Taichung City on the north separated by Dadu River, so Changhua County and Taichung City are often referred to as the Taichung–Changhua metropolitan area. Changhua County is bordered by Yunlin County to the south by the Zhuoshui River. To the east, Changhua County is separated from Nantou County and southern Taichung City by Bagua Plateau. To the west, Changhua County faces the Taiwan Strait. The County's total area is 1,074 km2 (415 sq mi), being Taiwan's smallest county. It owns a 60 km (37 mi) of coastline. The landscape of Changhua can be roughly divided into two parts, one being the western flat land, and the other being the Changhua Plain. This two combines together measures up to 88% of Changhua county's total area. The highest elevation in Changhua is "Hen Shan", at 443 m (1,453 ft).

    Changhua County is divided into 2 cities, 6 urban townships and 18 rural townships. Changhua City is the seat of the county which houses the Changhua County Government and Changhua County Council. Changhua County has the highest number of urban townships of all counties in Taiwan. It also has the second highest number of rural townships after Pingtung County. The current Magistrate of Changhua County is Wang Huei-mei of the Kuomintang.

    Changhua County, an electoral bellwether, is seen as a political battleground between the Kuomintang (KMT) and the Democratic Progressive Party(DPP). While it has historically favored the KMT, recent elections have swung in the direction of the DPP.

    Changhua County in films

    1. You Are the Apple of My Eye

    Lukang used to be the economic hub of central Taiwan in its early years where it was a commercially prosperous area. It was an important trading port during the Qing Dynasty.

    Changhua County is home to Taiwan's two gas-fired power plants, Hsingyuan Power Plant and Hsingneng Power Plant, with a capacity of 490 MW each. Both power plants are located in Lukang Township. In August 2016, the Changhua County Government signed an agreement with Canada's Northland Power and Singapore's Yushan Energy to develop "Hai Long", a 1,200 MW-capacity offshore wind generation project spread over 2,300 km2(890 sq mi) off the coast of the county. With an installed capacity of 188.5 MW from 83 onshore wind turbine, Changhua County has the largest wind energy capacity of any county, municipality or city in Taiwan. As of 2015, there were 21 offshore wind farms located in the water offshore of the county.

    Changhua was one of the cultural centers of Taiwan, with a lot of ancient monuments and structures left from the Qing Dynasty, including the Confucian Temple, Tian Ho Gung, built in Lukangin 1647. There are currently 6 National Certified Historical Monuments, 42 County Certified Historical Monuments, 67 Historical Infrastructures, and 1 Cultural Center in Changhua County.

    Rail

    There are 8 stations in Changhua County of the Taiwan Railways Administration (TRA), with the largest being Changhua Station located in Changhua City. The rest are: Huatan Station, Dacun Station, Yuanlin Station, Yongjing Station, Shetou Station, Tianzhong Station and Ershui Station. Taiwan High Speed Rail has also one station in the county, which is Changhua Station.

    Road

    National Highway 1 and National Highway 3 both pass through Changhua County. In addition, there are plenty of provincial highways as well. The Xiluo Bridge, with a span over 1,900 meters and opened in 1953, links Changhua County with neighboring Yunlin County.

    • 1,074.396 km² (414.827 sq mi)
    • Western Taiwan
  2. Zengwen Dam - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zengwen_Dam
    • History
    • Watershed and Environmental Issues
    • Recreation
    • See Also

    Chianan irrigation project

    The first proposals for the dam were made as early as the 1930s during the Japanese occupation of Taiwan. The Japanese had built the Chianan Irrigation system to increase Taiwan's agricultural output, which was supplied primarily by the Zengwen River. Because the Zengwen River does not cross the area of the Chianan Plain to be irrigated, a tunnel had to be punched through mountains to divert Zengwen water into the Guantian River. Between 1920 and 1930, the Wushantou Dam was built, forming an...

    Initial proposal

    Due to Taiwan's highly seasonal rainfall, the Zengwen River contains little water except during the wet season from May to October, during which massive floods occur that exceed the capacity of the diversion tunnel. Out of the average 1.6 cubic kilometres (1,300,000 acre⋅ft) annual flow of the Zengwen River, only 25 percent of the water could be effectively used. Furthermore, the Zengwen river has a high silt content, which was causing the Wushantou reservoir to quickly lose its capacity. In...

    River diversion

    Construction finally began at the Lioutengtan site on October 31, 1967. Two tunnels were excavated through the rock underneath the south abutment of the future dam site. The outer diversion tunnel was 1,240-metre (4,070 ft) long and the inner diversion tunnel was 1,038-metre (3,406 ft). A rolled-earth embankment cofferdamwas constructed to divert the Zengwen River and protect the dam site from flooding, up to an elevation of 165 metres (541 ft).

    The Zengwen reservoir receives its water from an extremely steep and rugged catchment basin of 481-square-kilometre (186 sq mi) in the Alishan Range of south-central Taiwan. The elevation of the land ranges from 227 metres (745 ft) on the shore of the reservoir to over 2,500 metres (8,200 ft) in the Alishan National Scenic Area near the summit of the range. About 77 percent of the watershed is forest, 13 percent is agriculture, 9 percent other uses and less than 1 percent is urbanized. The reservoir has suffered severe siltation (sedimentation) from the watershed, which has caused a large reduction in its capacity. Siltation has reduced the volume of water available for irrigation and hydropower, as well as reducing the effectiveness of the Zengwen reservoir to control flooding. The siltation rate has greatly increased in recent years, in part due to a sharp increase in the intensity of typhoon rains, as well as a rising frequency of drought. In August 2009, Typhoon Morakot caused m...

    The Zengwen dam and reservoir are part of the Zengwen Reservoir Scenic Area.The reservoir was first opened to the public in July 1974.

    • 128 m (420 ft)
    • 1973
  3. Changhua HSR station - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Changhua_HSR_station

    Changhua (Chinese: 彰化; pinyin: Zhānghuà) is a railway station in Changhua County, Taiwan served by Taiwan High Speed Rail.

  4. Chang Hwa Bank - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chang_Hwa_Bank

    Chang Hwa Bank (CHB; Chinese: 彰化銀行; pinyin: Zhānghuà Yínháng; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Chiong-hòa-gîn-hâng) is a Taiwan-based financial institution that offers both retail and commercial banking services to private and corporate customers. Today, the ...

  5. Earthquake - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earthquake
    • Naturally Occurring Earthquakes
    • Intensity of Earth Quaking and Magnitude of Earthquakes
    • Frequency of Occurrence
    • Induced Seismicity
    • Measuring and Locating Earthquakes
    • Major Earthquakes
    • Prediction
    • Forecasting
    • Preparedness
    • Historical Views

    Tectonic earthquakes occur anywhere in the earth where there is sufficient stored elastic strain energy to drive fracture propagation along a fault plane. The sides of a fault move past each other smoothly and aseismically only if there are no irregularities or asperities along the fault surface that increase the frictional resistance. Most fault surfaces do have such asperities, which leads to a form of stick-slip behavior. Once the fault has locked, continued relative motion between the plates leads to increasing stress and therefore, stored strain energy in the volume around the fault surface. This continues until the stress has risen sufficiently to break through the asperity, suddenly allowing sliding over the locked portion of the fault, releasing the stored energy. This energy is released as a combination of radiated elastic strain seismic waves, frictional heating of the fault surface, and cracking of the rock, thus causing an earthquake. This process of gradual build-up of...

    Quaking or shaking of the earth is a common phenomenon undoubtedly known to humans from earliest times. Prior to the development of strong-motion accelerometers that can measure peak ground speed and acceleration directly, the intensity of the earth-shaking was estimated on the basis of the observed effects, as categorized on various seismic intensity scales. Only in the last century has the source of such shaking been identified as ruptures in the Earth's crust, with the intensity of shaking at any locality dependent not only on the local ground conditions but also on the strength or magnitudeof the rupture, and on its distance. The first scale for measuring earthquake magnitudes was developed by Charles F. Richter in 1935. Subsequent scales (see seismic magnitude scales) have retained a key feature, where each unit represents a ten-fold difference in the amplitude of the ground shaking and a 32-fold difference in energy. Subsequent scales are also adjusted to have approximately th...

    It is estimated that around 500,000 earthquakes occur each year, detectable with current instrumentation. About 100,000 of these can be felt. Minor earthquakes occur nearly constantly around the world in places like California and Alaska in the U.S., as well as in El Salvador, Mexico, Guatemala, Chile, Peru, Indonesia, Philippines, Iran, Pakistan, the Azores in Portugal, Turkey, New Zealand, Greece, Italy, India, Nepal and Japan. Larger earthquakes occur less frequently, the relationship being exponential; for example, roughly ten times as many earthquakes larger than magnitude 4 occur in a particular time period than earthquakes larger than magnitude 5. In the (low seismicity) United Kingdom, for example, it has been calculated that the average recurrences are:an earthquake of 3.7–4.6 every year, an earthquake of 4.7–5.5 every 10 years, and an earthquake of 5.6 or larger every 100 years. This is an example of the Gutenberg–Richter law. The number of seismic stations has increased f...

    While most earthquakes are caused by movement of the Earth's tectonic plates, human activity can also produce earthquakes. Activities both above ground and below may change the stresses and strains on the crust, including building reservoirs, extracting resources such as coal or oil, and injecting fluids underground for waste disposal or fracking. Most of these earthquakes have small magnitudes. The 5.7 magnitude 2011 Oklahoma earthquake is thought to have been caused by disposing wastewater from oil production into injection wells, and studies point to the state's oil industry as the cause of other earthquakes in the past century. A Columbia University paper suggested that the 8.0 magnitude 2008 Sichuan earthquake was induced by loading from the Zipingpu Dam,though the link has not been conclusively proved.

    The instrumental scales used to describe the size of an earthquake began with the Richter magnitude scale in the 1930s. It is a relatively simple measurement of an event's amplitude, and its use has become minimal in the 21st century. Seismic waves travel through the Earth's interior and can be recorded by seismometers at great distances. The surface wave magnitude was developed in the 1950s as a means to measure remote earthquakes and to improve the accuracy for larger events. The moment magnitude scale not only measures the amplitude of the shock but also takes into account the seismic moment (total rupture area, average slip of the fault, and rigidity of the rock). The Japan Meteorological Agency seismic intensity scale, the Medvedev–Sponheuer–Karnik scale, and the Mercalli intensity scaleare based on the observed effects and are related to the intensity of shaking. Every tremor produces different types of seismic waves, which travel through rock with different velocities: 1. Lon...

    One of the most devastating earthquakes in recorded history was the 1556 Shaanxi earthquake, which occurred on 23 January 1556 in Shaanxi province, China. More than 830,000 people died. Most houses in the area were yaodongs—dwellings carved out of loess hillsides—and many victims were killed when these structures collapsed. The 1976 Tangshan earthquake, which killed between 240,000 and 655,000 people, was the deadliest of the 20th century. The 1960 Chilean earthquake is the largest earthquake that has been measured on a seismograph, reaching 9.5 magnitude on 22 May 1960. Its epicenter was near Cañete, Chile. The energy released was approximately twice that of the next most powerful earthquake, the Good Friday earthquake (27 March 1964), which was centered in Prince William Sound, Alaska. The ten largest recorded earthquakes have all been megathrust earthquakes; however, of these ten, only the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquakeis simultaneously one of the deadliest earthquakes in history....

    Earthquake prediction is a branch of the science of seismology concerned with the specification of the time, location, and magnitude of future earthquakes within stated limits. Many methods have been developed for predicting the time and place in which earthquakes will occur. Despite considerable research efforts by seismologists, scientifically reproducible predictions cannot yet be made to a specific day or month.

    While forecasting is usually considered to be a type of prediction, earthquake forecasting is often differentiated from earthquake prediction. Earthquake forecasting is concerned with the probabilistic assessment of general earthquake hazard, including the frequency and magnitude of damaging earthquakes in a given area over years or decades.For well-understood faults the probability that a segment may rupture during the next few decades can be estimated. Earthquake warning systemshave been developed that can provide regional notification of an earthquake in progress, but before the ground surface has begun to move, potentially allowing people within the system's range to seek shelter before the earthquake's impact is felt.

    The objective of earthquake engineering is to foresee the impact of earthquakes on buildings and other structures and to design such structures to minimize the risk of damage. Existing structures can be modified by seismic retrofitting to improve their resistance to earthquakes. Earthquake insurance can provide building owners with financial protection against losses resulting from earthquakes Emergency managementstrategies can be employed by a government or organization to mitigate risks and prepare for consequences. Artificial intelligence may help to assess buildings and plan precautionary operations: the Igor expert system is part of a mobile laboratory that supports the procedures leading to the seismic assessment of masonry buildings and the planning of retrofitting operations on them. It has been successfully applied to assess buildings in Lisbon, Rhodes, Naples. Individuals can also take preparedness steps like securing water heaters and heavy items that could injure someone...

    From the lifetime of the Greek philosopher Anaxagoras in the 5th century BCE to the 14th century CE, earthquakes were usually attributed to "air (vapors) in the cavities of the Earth." Thales of Miletus (625–547 BCE) was the only documented person who believed that earthquakes were caused by tension between the earth and water. Other theories existed, including the Greek philosopher Anaxamines' (585–526 BCE) beliefs that short incline episodes of dryness and wetness caused seismic activity. The Greek philosopher Democritus (460–371 BCE) blamed water in general for earthquakes. Pliny the Eldercalled earthquakes "underground thunderstorms".

  6. Solar energy - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_energy
    • Potential
    • Thermal Energy
    • Electricity Production
    • Architecture and Urban Planning
    • Agriculture and Horticulture
    • Transport
    • Fuel Production
    • Energy Storage Methods
    • Development, Deployment and Economics
    • Use by Region

    The Earth receives 174 petawatts (PW) of incoming solar radiation (insolation) at the upper atmosphere. Approximately 30% is reflected back to space while the rest is absorbed by clouds, oceans and land masses. The spectrum of solar light at the Earth's surface is mostly spread across the visible and near-infrared ranges with a small part in the near-ultraviolet. Most of the world's population live in areas with insolation levels of 150–300 watts/m2, or 3.5–7.0 kWh/m2per day. Solar radiation is absorbed by the Earth's land surface, oceans – which cover about 71% of the globe – and atmosphere. Warm air containing evaporated water from the oceans rises, causing atmospheric circulation or convection. When the air reaches a high altitude, where the temperature is low, water vapor condenses into clouds, which rain onto the Earth's surface, completing the water cycle. The latent heat of water condensation amplifies convection, producing atmospheric phenomena such as wind, cyclones and ant...

    Solar thermal technologies can be used for water heating, space heating, space cooling and process heat generation.

    Solar power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics (PV), or indirectly using concentrated solar power (CSP). CSP systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. PV converts light into electric current using the photoelectric effect. Solar power is anticipated to become the world's largest source of electricity by 2050, with solar photovoltaics and concentrated solar power contributing 16 and 11 percent to the global overall consumption, respectively.In 2016, after another year of rapid growth, solar generated 1.3% of global power. Commercial concentrated solar power plants were first developed in the 1980s. The 392 MW Ivanpah Solar Power Facility, in the Mojave Desert of California, is the largest solar power plant in the world. Other large concentrated solar power plants include the 150 MW Solnova Solar Power Station and the 100 MW Andasol solar power station, both in Spain. The 250...

    Sunlight has influenced building design since the beginning of architectural history. Advanced solar architecture and urban planning methods were first employed by the Greeks and Chinese, who oriented their buildings toward the south to provide light and warmth. The common features of passive solar architecture are orientation relative to the Sun, compact proportion (a low surface area to volume ratio), selective shading (overhangs) and thermal mass. When these features are tailored to the local climate and environment, they can produce well-lit spaces that stay in a comfortable temperature range. Socrates' Megaron House is a classic example of passive solar design. The most recent approaches to solar design use computer modeling tying together solar lighting, heating and ventilation systems in an integrated solar design package. Active solarequipment such as pumps, fans, and switchable windows can complement passive design and improve system performance. Urban heat islands (UHI) ar...

    Agriculture and horticulture seek to optimize the capture of solar energy to optimize the productivity of plants. Techniques such as timed planting cycles, tailored row orientation, staggered heights between rows and the mixing of plant varieties can improve crop yields. While sunlight is generally considered a plentiful resource, the exceptions highlight the importance of solar energy to agriculture. During the short growing seasons of the Little Ice Age, French and English farmers employed fruit walls to maximize the collection of solar energy. These walls acted as thermal masses and accelerated ripening by keeping plants warm. Early fruit walls were built perpendicular to the ground and facing south, but over time, sloping walls were developed to make better use of sunlight. In 1699, Nicolas Fatio de Duillier even suggested using a tracking mechanism which could pivot to follow the Sun. Applications of solar energy in agriculture aside from growing crops include pumping water, dr...

    Development of a solar-powered car has been an engineering goal since the 1980s. The World Solar Challenge is a biannual solar-powered car race, where teams from universities and enterprises compete over 3,021 kilometres (1,877 mi) across central Australia from Darwin to Adelaide. In 1987, when it was founded, the winner's average speed was 67 kilometres per hour (42 mph) and by 2007 the winner's average speed had improved to 90.87 kilometres per hour (56.46 mph).The North American Solar Challenge and the planned South African Solar Challengeare comparable competitions that reflect an international interest in the engineering and development of solar powered vehicles. Some vehicles use solar panels for auxiliary power, such as for air conditioning, to keep the interior cool, thus reducing fuel consumption. In 1975, the first practical solar boat was constructed in England. By 1995, passenger boats incorporating PV panels began appearing and are now used extensively. In 1996, Kenichi...

    Solar chemical processes use solar energy to drive chemical reactions. These processes offset energy that would otherwise come from a fossil fuel source and can also convert solar energy into storable and transportable fuels. Solar induced chemical reactions can be divided into thermochemical or photochemical. A variety of fuels can be produced by artificial photosynthesis. The multielectron catalytic chemistry involved in making carbon-based fuels (such as methanol) from reduction of carbon dioxide is challenging; a feasible alternative is hydrogen production from protons, though use of water as the source of electrons (as plants do) requires mastering the multielectron oxidation of two water molecules to molecular oxygen. Some have envisaged working solar fuel plants in coastal metropolitan areas by 2050 – the splitting of seawater providing hydrogen to be run through adjacent fuel-cell electric power plants and the pure water by-product going directly into the municipal water sys...

    Thermal mass systems can store solar energy in the form of heat at domestically useful temperatures for daily or interseasonal durations. Thermal storage systems generally use readily available materials with high specific heat capacities such as water, earth and stone. Well-designed systems can lower peak demand, shift time-of-use to off-peakhours and reduce overall heating and cooling requirements. Phase change materials such as paraffin wax and Glauber's salt are another thermal storage medium. These materials are inexpensive, readily available, and can deliver domestically useful temperatures (approximately 64 °C or 147 °F). The "Dover House" (in Dover, Massachusetts) was the first to use a Glauber's salt heating system, in 1948. Solar energy can also be stored at high temperatures using molten salts. Salts are an effective storage medium because they are low-cost, have a high specific heat capacity, and can deliver heat at temperatures compatible with conventional power systems...

    Beginning with the surge in coal use, which accompanied the Industrial Revolution, energy consumption has steadily transitioned from wood and biomass to fossil fuels. The early development of solar technologies starting in the 1860s was driven by an expectation that coal would soon become scarce. However, development of solar technologies stagnated in the early 20th century in the face of the increasing availability, economy, and utility of coal and petroleum. The 1973 oil embargo and 1979 energy crisis caused a reorganization of energy policies around the world. It brought renewed attention to developing solar technologies. Deployment strategies focused on incentive programs such as the Federal Photovoltaic Utilization Program in the US and the Sunshine Program in Japan. Other efforts included the formation of research facilities in the US (SERI, now NREL), Japan (NEDO), and Germany (Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE). Commercial solar water heaters began appearing...

    Solar energy is not available in all regions, due to geographic location or due to deployment and infrastructure. For instance, while the European Union has installed more than 130 GW of capacity in 2019, China had reached more than 200 GW and the US more than 100 GW. The Desertec Foundation has estimated that an area of ~300 x 300 miles in the Saharaarea would be sufficient to produce all the electricity the world used (based on 2005 levels). Summaries of solar energy use and production are available on these pages: Africa and Middle East: Israel, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Yemen Europe: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Cyprus, Italy, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom Americas: Canada, United States, Brazil, Chile, Mexico Asia: Burma (Myanmar), China, India, Japan, Pakistan, Thailand Australia and New Zealand

  7. Royal Space Force: The Wings of Honnêamise - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Wings_of_Honneamise

    Royal Space Force: The Wings of Honnêamise (Japanese: 王立宇宙軍~オネアミスの翼, Hepburn: Ōritsu Uchūgun: Oneamisu no Tsubasa) is a 1987 Japanese animated science fiction film written and directed by Hiroyuki Yamaga, co-produced by Hiroaki Inoue ...

  8. Japan Heritage - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japan_Heritage

    Japan Heritage (日本遺産, Nihon Isan) is a programme sponsored by the Agency for Cultural Affairs, aimed at valorization by local governments and other bodies, that sees individual Cultural Properties across the different categories as well as ...

  9. Keio University - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keio_University

    Keio University (慶應義塾大学, Keiō Gijuku Daigaku), abbreviated as Keio (慶應) or Keidai (慶大), is a private research university located in Minato, Tokyo, Japan. It is the oldest institute of western higher education in Japan. Its founder, ...

  10. Lions Clubs International - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lions_Clubs_International
    • Introduction
    • Aims
    • Focus of Lions
    • Spread of Lions
    • International Convention
    • External Links

    Lions Clubs International was founded in Evansville, Indiana on 24 October 1916 by William Perry Woods and subsequently evolved as an international service organization under the guidance and supervision of its secretary, Melvin Jones. In 1917, Jones was a 38-year-old Chicago business leader who told members of his local business club they should reach beyond business issues and address the betterment of their communities and the world. Jones' group, the Business Circle of Chicago, agreed. After contacting similar groups around the United States, an organizational meeting was held on June 7, 1917, in Chicago. The Business Circle subsequently joined one of the invited groups, the "International Association of Lions Clubs" and at a national convention held in Dallas, Texas, later that year, those who were assembled: (1) adopted a Constitution, By-Laws, Code of Ethics and an Emblem; (2) established as a main tenet "unselfish service to others", (3) unanimously elected Woods as its firs...

    The stated purposes of Lions Clubs International are: 1. To Organize, charter and supervise service clubs to be known as Lions clubs. 2. To Coordinatethe activities and standardize the administration of Lions clubs. 3. To Createand foster a spirit of understanding among the peoples of the world. 4. To Promotethe principles of good government and good citizenship. 5. To Takean active interest in the civic, cultural, social and moral welfare of the community. 6. To Unitethe clubs in the bonds of friendship, good fellowship and mutual understanding. 7. To Provide a forum for the open discussion of all matters of public interest; provided, however, that partisan politics and sectarianreligion shall not be debated by club members. 8. To Encourageservice-minded people to serve their community without personal financial reward, and to encourage efficiency and promote high ethical standards in commerce, industry, professions, public works and private endeavors.

    Service projects

    Lions Clubs plan and participate in a wide variety of service projects that meet the international goals of Lions Clubs International as well as the needs of their local communities. Examples include donations to hospices, or community campaigns such as Message in a bottle, a United Kingdom and Ireland initiative which places a plastic bottle with critical medical information inside the refrigerators of vulnerable people. Money is also raised for international purposes. Some of this is donate...

    Lions Clubs International Foundation

    Lions Clubs International Foundation is "Lions helping Lions serve the world". Donations provide funding in the form of grants to financially assist Lions districts with large-scale humanitarian projects that are too expensive and costly for Lions to finance on their own.The Foundation aids Lions in making a greater impact in their local communities, as well as around the world. Through LCIF, Lions ease pain and suffering and bring healing and hope to people worldwide. Major initiatives of th...

    SightFirst

    Upon endorsing the biggest ever collaborative disease eradication program called the London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases launched on 30 January 2012 in London, the organization has implemented SightFirst program by which it aims to eradicate blindness due to trachoma, one of the neglected tropical diseases. It has allocated over US$11 million in 10 countries for eye surgeries, medical training, distribution of Zithromax and tetracycline, and sanitary services. It has also announ...

    Lions Clubs around the world

    The organization became international on 12 March 1920, when the first club in Canada was established in Windsor, Ontario. In 1937, it was founded in San Juan, Puerto Rico.Lions Clubs have since spread across the globe and have a current membership roster of 1.4 million members worldwide.

    Extensions of the Lions family

    In addition to adult Lions Clubs, the Lions family includes Lioness Clubs, Leo Clubs, Campus Lions Clubs and Lion Cubs. These divisions are parts of Lions Clubs International.

    An international convention is held annually in cities across the globe for members to meet other Lions, elect the coming year's officers, and partake in the many activities planned. At the convention, Lions can participate in elections and parades, display and discuss fundraisers and service projects, and trade pins and other souvenirs. The first convention was held in 1917, the first year of the club's existence, in Dallas, Texas. The 2006 convention was due to be held in New Orleans, but damage sustained during Hurricane Katrina meant that the convention had to be relocated to Boston.

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