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  1. The Japan foot-and-mouth outbreak in 2010 occurred in Miyazaki Prefecture, affecting cattle, swine, sheep and goats.A similar outbreak had occurred ten years earlier, in 2000. Located on the eastern coast of Japan's Kyūshū island, Miyazaki Prefecture plays a significant role in supplying top-quality Wagyū cattle for the production of Wagyū beef throughout Japan including Matsuzaka and Ōmi.

    • Etymology
    • Life Cycle, Signs and Symptoms
    • Physiology
    • Genetics
    • Origin and Diversity of P. infestans
    • Disease Management
    • Historical Impact
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    The genus name Phytophthora comes from the Greek φυτό–(phyto), meaning : "plant" – plus the Greek φθορά (phthora), meaning : "decay, ruin, perish". The species name infestans is the present participle of the Latin verb infestare, meaning : "attacking, destroying", from which we get the word "to infest". The name Phytophthora infestans was coined in...

    The asexual life cycle of Phytophthora infestans is characterized by alternating phases of hyphal growth, sporulation, sporangia germination (either through zoospore release or direct germination, i.e. germ tube emergence from the sporangium), and the re-establishment of hyphal growth. There is also a sexual cycle, which occurs when isolates of opp...

    Melatonin in P. infestans/host systems reduces the oomycete's tolerance to stress. PiINF1 is the INF1 in P. infestans. Hosts respond with autophagy upon detection of this elicitor, Liu et al. 2005 finding this to be the only alternative to mass hypersensitivity leading to mass programmed cell death.

    P. infestans is diploid, with about 11–13 chromosomes, and in 2009 scientists completed the sequencing of its genome. The genome was found to be considerably larger (240 Mbp) than that of most other Phytophthora species whose genomes have been sequenced; Phytophthora sojae has a 95 Mbp genome and Phytophthora ramorum had a 65 Mbp genome. About 18,0...

    The highlands of central Mexico are considered by many to be the center of origin of P. infestans, although others have proposed its origin to be in the Andes, which is also the origin of potatoes. A recent study evaluated these two alternate hypotheses and found conclusive support for central Mexico being the center of origin. Support for Mexico c...

    P. infestans is still a difficult disease to control. There are many chemical options in agriculture for the control of damage to the foliage as well as the fruit (for tomatoes) and the tuber (for potatoes). A few of the most common foliar-applied fungicides are Ridomil, a Gavel/SuperTin tank mix, and Previcur Flex. All of the aforementioned fungic...

    The effect of Phytophthora infestans in Ireland in 1845–52 was one of the factors which caused over one million to starve to death and forced another two million to emigrate from affected countries. Most commonly referenced is the Great Irish Famine, during the late 1840s, from which the Irish population has still not fully recouped. The first reco...

    Haverkort, A. J; Struik, P. C; Visser, R. G. F; Jacobsen, E (2009), "Applied Biotechnology to Combat Late Blight in Potato Caused by Phytophthora Infestans", Potato Research (Submitted manuscript),...
    Erwin, Donald C.; Ribeiro, Olaf K. (1996), Phytophthora Diseases Worldwide, St. Paul, MN: American Phytopathological Society Press, ISBN 978-0-89054-212-5
    Lucas, J. A.; Shattock, R. C.; Shaw, D. S.; et al., eds. (1991), Phytophthora, British Mycological Society Symposia, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-40080-0
    Haverkort, A. J.; Boonekamp, P. M; Hutten, R.; Jacobsen, E; Lotz, L.; Kessel, G.; Van der Vossen, E.; et al. (2008), "Societal costs of late blight in potato and prospects of durable resistance thr...
  2. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › StranglesStrangles - Wikipedia

    • Signs
    • Cause
    • Prevention
    • Treatment
    • Outcomes
    • Epidemiology
    • External Links

    A horse with strangles typically develops abscesses in the lymph nodes of the head and neck, causing coughing fits and difficulty swallowing. Clinical signs include fever up to 106°F and yellow-coloured nasaldischarge from both the nose and eyes. Abscesses may form in other areas of the body, such as the abdomen, lungs, and brain.This is considered...

    The disease is spread by an infected horse when nasal discharge or pus from the draining lymph nodescontaminate pastures, feed troughs, brushes, bedding, tack, etc.

    Both intramuscular and intranasal vaccines are available, although their efficacy is rated at no more than 50%. Isolation of new horses for four to six weeks, immediate isolation of infected horses, and disinfection of stalls, water buckets, feed troughs, and other equipment can help prevent the spread of strangles.As with any contagious disease, h...

    As with many streptococcal infections, beta-lactam antibiotics (e.g penicillins) are the most effective treatments, but some authorities are of the opinion that use of antibiotics is contraindicated once abscesses have begun to form, as they predispose to lymphaticspread of the infection (bastard strangles), which has a much higher mortality rate. ...

    Strangles has an 8.1% mortality rate. Mortality is lower in cases without complications than it is in cases of bastard strangles. The disease is very contagious and morbidity is high. Precautions to limit the spread of the illness are necessary and those affected are normally isolated. An isolation period of 4–6 weeks is usually necessary to ensure...

    Equines of any age may contract the disease, although younger and elderly equines are more susceptible. Young equines may lack immunity to the disease because they have not had prior exposure. Geriatric equines may have a weaker immune system.

  3. Tomohiro Ishii (石井 智宏, Ishii Tomohiro, born December 10, 1975) [1] [2] is a Japanese professional wrestler currently signed to New Japan Pro-Wrestling (NJPW). He also makes additional appearances for All Elite Wrestling (AEW). He is also known for his work ...

  4. The COVID-19 pandemic, also known as the coronavirus pandemic, is a global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The novel virus was first identified from an outbreak in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Attempts to contain it there failed, allowing the virus to ...

    • 6,318,006 (reported), 15–25 million (estimated)
    • Worldwide
  5. In March 2022, on the second anniversary of the day when the COVID-19 outbreak became a pandemic, Japan overtook Mexico in terms of the number of confirmed cases. Until March 2020, China had the largest number of confirmed cases. In March 2020, the United States and Italy began to have the largest numbers of confirmed cases by overtaking China.

  6. 54,577,939 [4] (doses administered) The COVID-19 pandemic in Poland is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 ( COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 ( SARS-CoV-2 ). In February and March 2020, health authorities in Poland carried out laboratory testing of suspected cases of infection by SARS ...

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