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  1. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › WikipediaWikipedia - Wikipedia

    Wikipedia[note 3] is a free-content online encyclopedia written and maintained by a community of volunteers, known as Wikipedians, through open collaboration and the use of the wiki-based editing system MediaWiki. Wikipedia is the largest and most-read reference work in history.[3][4] It consistently ranks as one of the ten most popular ...

    • United States
  2. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › TokyoTokyo - Wikipedia

    Tokyo (/ ˈ t oʊ k i oʊ /; Japanese: 東京, Tōkyō, ), officially the Tokyo Metropolis (東京都, Tōkyō-to), is the capital of Japan and one of the most populous cities in the world with a population of over 14 million residents as of 2023. The Tokyo metropolitan area, which includes Tokyo and nearby prefectures, is the world's most-populous metropolitan area with 40.8 million residents ...

    • 2,194.07 km² (847.14 sq mi)
    • 2,017 m (6,617 ft)
  3. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › HonoluluHonolulu - Wikipedia

    Honolulu Coordinates: 21°18′25″N 157°51′30″W Honolulu ( / ˌhɒnəˈluːluː / hah-nə-LOO-loo; [7] Hawaiian: [honoˈlulu]) is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Hawaii, which is in the Pacific Ocean.

  4. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › AnthraxAnthrax - Wikipedia

    • Etymology
    • Signs and Symptoms
    • Cause
    • Mechanism
    • Diagnosis
    • Prevention
    • Treatment
    • Prognosis
    • Animals
    • History

    The English name comes from anthrax (ἄνθραξ), the Greek word for coal, possibly having Egyptian etymology, because of the characteristic black skin lesions developed by people with a cutaneous anthrax infection. The central black eschar surrounded by vivid red skin has long been recognised as typical of the disease. The first recorded use of the wo...

    Skin

    Cutaneous anthrax, also known as hide-porter's disease, is when anthrax occurs on the skin. It is the most common form (>90% of anthrax cases). It is the least dangerous form (low mortality with treatment, 23.7% mortality without). Cutaneous anthrax presents as a boil-like skin lesion that eventually forms an ulcer with a black center (eschar). The black eschar often shows up as a large, painless, necrotic ulcer (beginning as an irritating and itchy skin lesion or blister that is dark and usu...

    Injection

    In December 2009, an outbreak of anthrax occurred among injecting heroin users in the Glasgow and Stirling areas of Scotland, resulting in 14 deaths. This became the first documented non-occupational human anthrax outbreak in the UK since 1960. The source of the anthrax is believed to have been dilution of the heroin with bone meal in Afghanistan. Injected anthrax may have symptoms similar to cutaneous anthrax, with the exception of black areas, and may also cause infection deep into the musc...

    Lungs

    Inhalation anthrax usually develops within a week after exposure, but may take up to 2 months. During the first few days of illness, most people have fever, chills, and fatigue. These symptoms may be accompanied by cough, shortness of breath, chest pain, and nausea or vomiting, making inhalation anthrax difficult to distinguish from influenza and community-acquired pneumonia.This is often described as the prodromal period. Over the next day or so, shortness of breath, cough, and chest pain be...

    Bacteria

    Bacillus anthracis is a rod-shaped, Gram-positive, facultative anaerobe bacterium about 1 by 9 μm in size. It was shown to cause disease by Robert Koch in 1876 when he took a blood sample from an infected cow, isolated the bacteria, and put them into a mouse.The bacterium normally rests in spore form in the soil, and can survive for decades in this state. Herbivores are often infected while grazing, especially when eating rough, irritant, or spiky vegetation; the vegetation has been hypothesi...

    Exposure and transmission

    Anthrax can enter the human body through the intestines (gastrointestinal), lungs (pulmonary), or skin (cutaneous) and causes distinct clinical symptoms based on its site of entry. However, anthrax does not usually spread from an infected human to an uninfected human. If the disease is fatal to the person's body, its mass of anthrax bacilli becomes a potential source of infection to others and special precautions should be used to prevent further contamination. Pulmonary anthrax, if left untr...

    The lethality of the anthrax disease is due to the bacterium's two principal virulence factors: the poly-D-glutamic acid capsule, which protects the bacterium from phagocytosis by host neutrophils; and the tripartite protein toxin, called anthrax toxin, consisting of protective antigen (PA), edema factor (EF), and lethal factor (LF). PA plus LF pro...

    Various techniques may be used for the direct identification of B. anthracis in clinical material. Firstly, specimens may be Gram stained. Bacillus spp. are quite large in size (3 to 4 μm long), they may grow in long chains, and they stain Gram-positive. To confirm the organism is B. anthracis, rapid diagnostic techniques such as polymerase chain r...

    Precautions are taken to avoid contact with the skin and any fluids exuded through natural body openings of a deceased body that is suspected of harboring anthrax.The body should be put in strict quarantine. A blood sample is collected and sealed in a container and analyzed in an approved laboratory to ascertain if anthrax is the cause of death. Th...

    Anthrax cannot be spread from person to person, except in the rare case of skin exudates from cutaneous anthrax. However, a person's clothing and body may be contaminated with anthrax spores. Effective decontamination of people can be accomplished by a thorough wash-down with antimicrobial soap and water. Wastewater is treated with bleach or anothe...

    Cutaneous anthrax is rarely fatal if treated, because the infection area is limited to the skin, preventing the lethal factor, edema factor, and protective antigen from entering and destroying a vital organ. Without treatment, up to 20% of cutaneous skin infection cases progress to toxemiaand death. Before 2001, fatality rates for inhalation anthra...

    Anthrax, a bacterial disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, can have devastating effects on animals. It primarily affects herbivores such as cattle, sheep, and goats, but a wide range of mammals, birds, and even humans can also be susceptible. Infection typically occurs through the ingestion of spores in contaminated soil or plants. Once inside the ...

    Discovery

    Robert Koch, a German physician and scientist, first identified the bacterium that caused the anthrax disease in 1875 in Wollstein (now Wolsztyn - a town in Poland). His pioneering work in the late 19th century was one of the first demonstrations that diseases could be caused by microbes. In a groundbreaking series of experiments, he uncovered the lifecycle and means of transmission of anthrax. His experiments not only helped create an understanding of anthrax but also helped elucidate the ro...

    First vaccination

    Anthrax posed a major economic challenge in France and elsewhere during the 19th century. Horses, cattle, and sheep were particularly vulnerable, and national funds were set aside to investigate the production of a vaccine. French scientist Louis Pasteurwas charged with the production of a vaccine, following his successful work in developing methods that helped to protect the important wine and silk industries. In May 1881, Pasteur – in collaboration with his assistants Jean-Joseph Henri Tous...

    Engineered strains

    1. The Sterne strain of anthrax, named after the Trieste-born immunologist Max Sterne, is an attenuated strain used as a vaccine, which contains only the anthrax toxinvirulence plasmid and not the polyglutamic acid capsule expressing plasmid. 2. Strain 836, created by the Soviet bioweapons program in the 1980s, was later called by the Los Angeles Times"the most virulent and vicious strain of anthrax known to man". 3. The virulent Ames strain, which was used in the 2001 anthrax attacks in the...

  5. A hot air balloon is a lighter-than-air aircraft consisting of a bag, called an envelope, which contains heated air. Suspended beneath is a gondola or wicker basket (in some long-distance or high-altitude balloons, a capsule), which carries passengers and a source of heat, in most cases an open flame caused by burning liquid propane.

  6. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › ThermocoupleThermocouple - Wikipedia

    A thermocouple, also known as a "thermoelectrical thermometer", is an electrical device consisting of two dissimilar electrical conductors forming an electrical junction. A thermocouple produces a temperature-dependent voltage as a result of the Seebeck effect, and this voltage can be interpreted to measure temperature.

  7. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › EbolaEbola - Wikipedia

    Ebola, also known as Ebola virus disease (EVD) and Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), is a viral hemorrhagic fever in humans and other primates, caused by ebolaviruses.[1] Symptoms typically start anywhere between two days and three weeks after infection.[3] The first symptoms are usually fever, sore throat, muscle pain, and headaches.[1] These ...

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