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  1. 東京疫情 相關
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  1. Template:COVID-19 pandemic data - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Template:COVID-19_pandemic_data

    Usage. This template is used to provide data for COVID-19 pandemic and COVID-19 pandemic by country and territory. It uses { { Cases in the COVID-19 pandemic }} to update the total numbers. Before making major changes, use the sandbox linked ...

  2. COVID-19 - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Coronavirus_disease_2019

    Name During the initial outbreak in Wuhan, the virus and disease were commonly referred to as "coronavirus" and "Wuhan coronavirus", [19] [20] [21] with the disease sometimes called "Wuhan pneumonia".[22] [23] In ...

  3. COVID-19 pandemic in Taiwan - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › COVID-19_pandemic_in_Taiwan

    The COVID-19 pandemic in Taiwan is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).As of 14 September 2021, 5,684,259 tests had been conducted in ...

  4. COVID-19 pandemic - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › COVID-19_pandemic

    The COVID-19 pandemic, also known as the coronavirus pandemic, is an ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The novel virus was first identified in ...

  5. Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Timeline_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic

    This timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic lists the articles containing the chronology and epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2,[1] the virus that causes the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. The first human ...

  6. Central Epidemic Command Center - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Central_Epidemic_Command_Center

    Dengue fever is caused by the dengue virus, and is common in tropical and sub-tropical climates. Outbreaks occur from time to time in Taiwan, and the CECC was activated on 14 September 2015. There were 43,784 cases reported in total, most of ...

  7. Japan foot-and-mouth outbreak - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Japan_foot-and-mouth_outbreak
    • History of The Outbreak
    • Impact on The Japanese Beef Industry
    • External Links

    On April 20, 2010, the export of all Japanese beef was banned.[citation needed] On April 21, local government was confused because the Japanese Government gave no instructions. There was not enough of disinfectant prepared by a local agricultural union to be distributed to all the farmers. Miyazaki Livestock Improvement Association stopped producing sperm straws which make up the major part of Japan's production (15,000 a year). The amount of stock in distribution would last for 2 months; remaining stocks for about 1 year.[citation needed]

  8. Catalonia - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Catalonia

    Moscow, Tokyo, Dubai and Singapore and ahead of Los Angeles and Madrid. [1] Archived 16 January 2021 at the Wayback Machine In the context of the financial crisis of 2007–2008, Catalonia was expected to suffer a recession amounting to almost ... ...

  9. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Thrombotic_thrombocytopenic_purpura
    • Signs and Symptoms
    • Causes
    • Mechanism
    • Diagnosis
    • Treatment
    • Prognosis
    • Epidemiology
    • History

    The signs and symptoms of TTP may at first be subtle and nonspecific. Many people experience an influenza-like or diarrheal illness before developing TTP. Neurological symptoms are very common and vary greatly in severity. Frequently reported symptoms include feeling very tired, confusion, and headaches. Seizures and symptoms similar to those of a stroke can also be seen. Other symptoms include, but are not limited to jaundice or paleness of the skin, a fast heart rate or shortness of breath, or pinpoint-sized purple or reddish dots on the skin known as petechiae.[citation needed] As TTP progresses, blood clots form within small blood vessels (microvasculature), and platelets (clotting cells) are consumed. As a result, bruising, and rarely bleeding can occur. The bruising often takes the form of purpura, while the most common site of bleeding, if it occurs, is from the nose or gums. Larger bruises (ecchymoses) may also develop.[medical citation needed] The classic presentation of TT...

    TTP, as with other microangiopathic hemolytic anemias (MAHAs), is caused by spontaneous aggregation of platelets and activation of coagulation in the small blood vessels. Platelets are consumed in the aggregation process and bind vWF. These platelet-vWF complexes form small blood clots which circulate in the blood vessels and cause shearing of red blood cells, resulting in their rupture and formation of schistocytes.The two best understood causes of TTP are due to autoimmunity and an inherited deficiency of ADAMTS13 (known as the Upshaw-Schülman syndrome). The majority of the remaining cases are secondary to some other factor.[citation needed]

    The underlying mechanism typically involves autoantibody-mediated inhibition of the enzyme ADAMTS13, a metalloprotease responsible for cleaving large multimers of von Willebrand factor (vWF) into smaller units. The increase in circulating multimers of vWF increases platelet adhesion to areas of endothelial injury, particularly where arterioles and capillaries meet, which in turn results in the formation of small platelet clots called thrombi. As platelets are used up in the formation of thrombi, this then leads to a decrease in the number of overall circulating platelets, which may then cause life-threatening bleeds. Red blood cells passing the microscopic clots are subjected to shear stress, which damages their membranes, leading to rupture of red blood cells within blood vessels, which in turn leads to anemia and schistocyte formation. The presence of these blood clots in the small blood vessels reduces blood flow to organs resulting in cellular injury and end organ damage.[citati...

    Differential diagnosis

    TTP is characterized by thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), the formation of blood clots in small blood vessels throughout the body, which can lead to microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. This characteristic is shared by two related syndromes, hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS). Consequently, differential diagnosis of these TMA-causing diseases is essential. In addition to TMA, one or more of the following symptoms may be present in...

    Due to the high mortality of untreated TTP, a presumptive diagnosis of TTP is made even when only microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia are seen, and therapy is started. Transfusion is contraindicated in thrombotic TTP, as it fuels the coagulopathy. Since the early 1990s, plasmapheresis has become the treatment of choice for TTP. This is an exchange transfusion involving removal of the person's blood plasma through apheresis and replacement with donor plasma (fresh frozen plasma or cryosupernatant); the procedure must be repeated daily to eliminate the inhibitor and abate the symptoms. If apheresis is not available, fresh frozen plasma can be infused, but the volume that can be given safely is limited due to the danger of fluid overload. Plasma infusion alone is not as beneficial as plasma exchange. Corticosteroids (prednisone or prednisolone) are usually given. Rituximab, a monoclonal antibody aimed at the CD20 molecule on B lymphocytes, may be used on diagnosis; t...

    The mortality rate is around 95% for untreated cases, but the prognosis is reasonably favorable (80–90% survival) for people with idiopathic TTP diagnosed and treated early with plasmapheresis.

    The incidence of TTP is about 4–5 cases per million people per year. Idiopathic TTP occurs more often in women and people of African descent, and TTP secondary to autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus occurs more frequently in people of African descent, although other secondary forms do not show this distribution. Pregnant women and women in the post partumperiod accounted for a notable portion (12–31%) of the cases in some studies; TTP affects about one in 25,000 pregnancies.

    TTP was initially described by Eli Moschcowitz at the Beth Israel Hospital in New York City in 1925. Moschcowitz ascribed the disease (incorrectly, as now known) to a toxic cause. Moschcowitz noted his patient, a 16-year-old girl, had anemia, small and large bruises, microscopic hematuria, and, at autopsy, disseminated microvascular thrombi.In 1966, a review of 16 new cases and 255 previously reported cases led to the formulation of the classical pentad of symptoms and findings (i.e., thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, neurological symptoms, kidney failure, fever); in this series, mortality rates were found to be very high (90%). While a response to blood transfusion had been noted before, a 1978 report and subsequent studies showed blood plasma was highly effective in improving the disease process. In 1991, plasma exchange was reported to provide better response rates compared to plasma infusion. In 1982, the disease had been linked with abnormally large von Wille...

  10. GLOBALG.A.P - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › GLOBALG

    GLOBALG.A.P. is a farm assurance program, translating consumer requirements into Good Agricultural Practice. EurepGAP is a common standard for farm management practice created in the late 1990s by several European supermarket chains and their ...

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  1. 東京疫情 相關
    廣告