Tokyo (東京都, Tōkyō-to), the capital of Japan. Tokyo (disambiguation) Đông Kinh (東京), a former name of Hanoi, Vietnam. Tonkin, a part of Vietnam. Tonkin (disambiguation) Dongjing (disambiguation) (東京) in Chinese. Luoyang.
- Structure of Tokyo Metropolis
- Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly
- Political Parties and Elections
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Under Japanese law, Tokyo is designated as a to (都), translated as metropolis. Within Tokyo Metropolis lie dozens of smaller entities, including twenty-three special wards (特別区 -ku) which until 1943 made up Tokyo City but which now have individual local governments, each with a leader and a council. In addition to these 23 local governments, Tokyo also encompasses 26 cities (市 -shi), five towns (町 -chō or machi), and eight villages (村 -son or -mura), each of which has a local government. These other municipalities are located in the western part of the prefecture, as well as the outlying island chains of Izu and Ogasawara.
The Metropolitan Assembly is the legislative organ of the whole prefecture of Tokyo. It consists of 127 members elected each four years. Regular sessions are held four times each year, in February, June, September and December. These sessions typically last for 30 days. Between these are plenary sessions where discussions on bills are held.
As in other prefectures of Japan, the people of Tokyo directly elect the governor to four-year terms of office. There is no limit to the number of terms a person may serve. Unlike collegiate cabinet systems, where the decisions are made unanimously, the Governor has the authority to make policy decisions and enforce policy. As the chief of Tokyo, ruling an area encompassing 13 million inhabitants and a GDP comparable to a strong economic nation, they hold the greatest influence among the nation's governors. In contrast to other prefectures, the governor of Tokyo has a relatively important role given the size of Tokyo's budget (13 trillion yen as of 2014, which is roughly equivalent to the government budget of Sweden). The Tokyo metropolitan government is also granted relative freedom in how it allocates the budget, as it is not subject to national government subsidies which other prefectures receive. The responsibility for approving the metropolitan budget lies with the governor and...
Tokyo's population consists largely of swing voters who are not loyal to any one political party. Tokyoites tend to vote for independent candidates with name recognition or in response to hot-button issues, and have been less susceptible to pork-barrel spendingand other "machine" style politics than voters elsewhere in Japan. With the early elections for the Metropolitan Assembly in 1965 due to a corruption scandal, Tokyo became the first prefecture not to hold its assembly elections during the unified local elections (tōitsu chihō senkyo), which typically take place in prefectures and municipalities throughout the country every four years. By 2011, it was one of six prefectures not to do so, the others being Iwate, Miyagi, Fukushima, Ibaraki and Okinawa. Following Shintarō Ishihara's resignation in October 2012, Tokyo held an early gubernatorial election in December 2012 and completely left the unified election cycle. The four largest established national political parties of the p...
Tokyo 10th district is a constituency of the House of Representatives in the Diet of Japan (national legislature). It is located in Tokyo and covers northwestern parts of the former city of Tokyo. The district consists of the wards of Toshima ...
Tokyo 2nd district (東京都第2区 Tōkyō-to dai-ni-ku or simply 東京2区 Tōkyō ni-ku) is a constituency of the House of Representatives in the Diet of Japan (national legislature). It is located in eastern mainland Tokyo and covers central parts of ...
Tokyo 2nd district was a constituency of the House of Representatives in the Diet of Japan (national legislature). Between 1947 and 1993 it elected three, later five representatives by single non-transferable vote.It initially consisted of ...
Tokyo's 1st district was a constituency of the House of Representatives in the Diet of Japan (national legislature). Between 1947 and 1993 it elected four, later three representatives by single non-transferable vote.It initially consisted of ...
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The origin of Tokyo Metropolitan University was Prefectural Higher School, under the old system of education, established by Tokyo Prefecture in 1929 as the third public higher school. The School was modeled on Eton College, with three years of advanced course and four years of regular course. The seven-year system had an advantage to assure the entrance to Imperial universities at the age of Middle School, and the typical passway for academic elites before the end of the Pacific War was to enter Tokyo First Middle School, proceeding First Higher School and Tokyo Imperial University. Since the jurisdiction control of Tokyo First Middle School and First Higher School were different, however, Tokyo First Middle School attempted to originally establish the prefectural higher school, whereas the other Middle Schools opposed to the said attempt. Prefectural Higher School was established in 1929 locating in the same site of Tokyo First Middle School, as a result of the opposition. In 1932...
The following history includes the former institution of Tokyo Metropolitan University. 1. 1949 – Tokyo Metropolitan University was established with three faculties, namely Humanities, Science and Technology 2. 1953 – Master's courses of Anthropology, Social Science, Natural Science and Technology were set up 3. 1955 – Doctoral courses of Anthropology, Social Science, Natural Science and Technology were set up 4. 1957 – Faculty of Law and Economics was set up 5. 1966 – Faculty of Law and Economics was reorganised as Faculty of Law and Faculty of Economics 6. 1977 – Centre of Metropolitan Study was set up 7. 1994 – Centre of Metropolitan Study was reorganised as Institute of Metropolitan Study 8. 1996 – Master's course of Metropolitan Science was set up 9. 1998 – Doctoral course of Metropolitan Science was set up 10. 1991 – The campus was transferred from Meguro to Minami-Osawa 11. 2003 – Institute of Social Science launched to provide MBA course (Business school) 12. 2005 – Institut...
In later 1990s, Government and local municipalities facilitated to reform the administrative scheme and financial management in line with economic bubble burst and financial difficulties due to Japan's progressive low birthrate and longevity. As a part of the said administrative and financial reform, social interest grew on restructuring national and public universities to independent administrative agencies with consolidating them. Tokyo Metropolitan University was also planned by Tokyo Metropolitan Governmentto be consolidated with aforementioned three metropolitan universities and one junior college. As a result of Tokyo gubernatorial election in April 2003, Shintaro Ishiharawas re-elected as Governor of Tokyo, holding up a promise "I will establish a revolutionary university", and consequently the original restructure plan was significantly and rapidly changed, in terms of the organisation of faculties, course structure, etc. During this process, many faculty staff left the univ...
Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences
1. Department of Human and Social Sciences 1.1. Sociology 1.2. Social Anthropology 1.3. Social Welfare 1.4. Psychology 1.5. Pedagogy 1.6. Language Sciences 1.7. Japanese Language Education 2. Department of Humanities 2.1. Philosophy 2.2. History and Archaeology 2.3. Studies of Culture and Representation 2.4. Japanese Cultures 2.5. Chinese Cultures 2.6. English Studies 2.7. German Studies 2.8. French Studies
Faculty of Law
1. Department of Law 1.1. Division of Law 1.2. Division of Political Science
Faculty of Economics and Business Administration
1. Department of Economics and Business Administration 1.1. Economics Program 1.2. Business Administration Program
Graduate School of Humanities
1. Department of Behavioral Social Sciences 1.1. Sociology 1.2. Social Anthropology 1.3. Social Welfare 2. Department of Human Sciences 2.1. Psychology 2.2. Clinical Psychology 2.3. Pedagogy 2.4. Language Sciences 2.5. Japanese Language Education 3. Department of Philosophy, History and Cultural Studies 3.1. Philosophy 3.1.1. Philosophy 3.1.2. Classical Studies 3.2. History 3.3. Studies of Culture and Representaion 4. Department of Intercultural Studies 4.1. Intercultural Studies of Japanese...
Graduate School of Law and Politics
1. Department of Law and Politics 1.1. Division of Law 1.2. Division of Political Science 2. Law School 2.1. 2-year curriculum 2.2. 3-year curriculum
Graduate School of Management
1. Department of Management 1.1. Business Administration (MBA) Program 1.2. Economics (MEc) Program 1.3. Finance (MF) ProgramMinami-Osawa Campus (Main campus)Harumi Campus (Law School)Harumi campusComputer Centre and Information Processing FacilitiesScience and Technology Research FacilitiesInternational House
Lecturers of the university has been all highly regarded in their respective fields, and the standard of the research carried out by each of them has been considered as extremely high. In line with this, research groups that produce outstanding results and have the potential to become international research hubs, or those working in unique fields that are aligned with the university's mission, are designated as "research centres" and given support by the university. 1. Research Centre for Space Science (Director: Prof. Takaya Ohashi) 2. Research Centre for Genomics and Bioinformatics (Director: Prof. Koichiro Tamura) 3. Research Centre for Artificial Photosynthesis (Director: Prof. Haruo Inoue) 4. Research Centre for Gold Chemistry (Director: Prof. Masatake Haruta) 5. Research Centre for Language, Brain and Genetics (Director: Prof. Hiroko Hagiwara) 6. Research Centre for Water System Engineering (Director: Prof. Akira Koizumi) 7. Research Centre for Community Centric Systems (Direc...
The university has concluded agreements with the overseas educational institutions with the aim of promoting international cooperation in education and research as well as student exchange.
Although its small size and young history in contrast to national universities and several leading private universities, the university has been one of the most reputable institutions in Japan. According to the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, it ranks 7th in 2014–2015 among 781 universities in Japan, behind renowned national universities, namely University of Tokyo, Kyoto University, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Osaka University, Tohoku University and Nagoya University. The university received the highest score of 100.0 for "citations.” In 2012, Prof. Masatake Haruta was selected as a Thomson Reuters Citation Laureateas a possible winner of the Nobel Prize for his "independent foundational discoveries of catalysis by gold."
- To pursue the vision of an ideal human society in a metropolis
- 1949 (reformed in 2005)
東京都 Tōkyō-to Tokyo (Prefecture) Municipal-level subdivision 文京区 Bunkyō-ku Bunkyo (Ward) Land-lot number 白山4丁目3番2号 Hakusan-4-chōme 3-ban 2-gō 4-3-2 Hakusan (Neighborhood) Secondary unit 3階B号室 3-kai B-gōshitsu 3rd Fl. Rm. B Name of ...