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  1. Tōyō kanji - Wikipedia › wiki › Mazegaki

    The tōyō kanji, also known as the Tōyō kanjihyō (当用漢字表, "list of kanji for general use") are the result of a reform of the Kanji characters of Chinese origin in the Japanese written language. They were the kanji declared ...

  2. Semiconductor - Wikipedia › wiki › Semiconductor
    • Properties
    • Materials
    • Physics of Semiconductors
    • Early History of Semiconductors
    • See Also
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    Variable electrical conductivity

    Semiconductors in their natural state are poor conductors because a current requires the flow of electrons, and semiconductors have their valence bands filled, preventing the entire flow of new electrons. Several developed techniques allow semiconducting materials to behave like conducting materials, such as doping or gating. These modifications have two outcomes: n-type and p-type. These refer to the excess or shortage of electrons, respectively. An unbalanced number of electrons would cause...


    Heterojunctions occur when two differently doped semiconducting materials are joined. For example, a configuration could consist of p-doped and n-doped germanium. This results in an exchange of electrons and holes between the differently doped semiconducting materials. The n-doped germanium would have an excess of electrons, and the p-doped germanium would have an excess of holes. The transfer occurs until an equilibrium is reached by a process called recombination, which causes the migrating...

    Excited electrons

    A difference in electric potential on a semiconducting material would cause it to leave thermal equilibrium and create a non-equilibrium situation. This introduces electrons and holes to the system, which interact via a process called ambipolar diffusion. Whenever thermal equilibrium is disturbed in a semiconducting material, the number of holes and electrons changes. Such disruptions can occur as a result of a temperature difference or photons, which can enter the system and create electrons...

    A large number of elements and compounds have semiconducting properties, including: 1. Certain pure elements are found in group 14 of the periodic table; the most commercially important of these elements are silicon and germanium. Silicon and germanium are used here effectively because they have 4 valence electrons in their outermost shell, which gives them the ability to gain or lose electrons equally at the same time. 2. Binary compounds, particularly between elements in groups 13 and 15, such as gallium arsenide, groups 12 and 16, groups 14 and 16, and between different group-14 elements, e.g. silicon carbide. 3. Certain ternary compounds, oxides, and alloys. 4. Organic semiconductors, made of organic compounds. 5. Semiconducting metal–organic frameworks. The most common semiconducting materials are crystalline solids, but amorphous and liquid semiconductors are also known. These include hydrogenated amorphous silicon and mixtures of arsenic, selenium and tellurium in a variety o...

    Energy bands and electrical conduction

    Semiconductors are defined by their unique electric conductive behavior, somewhere between that of a conductor and an insulator. The differences between these materials can be understood in terms of the quantum states for electrons, each of which may contain zero or one electron (by the Pauli exclusion principle). These states are associated with the electronic band structure of the material. Electrical conductivity arises due to the presence of electrons in states that are delocalized (exten...

    Charge carriers

    The partial filling of the states at the bottom of the conduction band can be understood as adding electrons to that band. The electrons do not stay indefinitely (due to the natural thermal recombination) but they can move around for some time. The actual concentration of electrons is typically very dilute, and so (unlike in metals) it is possible to think of the electrons in the conduction band of a semiconductor as a sort of classical ideal gas, where the electrons fly around freely without...


    The conductivity of semiconductors may easily be modified by introducing impurities into their crystal lattice. The process of adding controlled impurities to a semiconductor is known as doping. The amount of impurity, or dopant, added to an intrinsic (pure) semiconductor varies its level of conductivity. Doped semiconductors are referred to as extrinsic.By adding impurity to the pure semiconductors, the electrical conductivity may be varied by factors of thousands or millions. A 1 cm3 specim...

    The history of the understanding of semiconductors begins with experiments on the electrical properties of materials. The properties of the time-temperature coefficient of resistance, rectification, and light-sensitivity were observed starting in the early 19th century. Thomas Johann Seebeck was the first to notice an effect due to semiconductors, in 1821. In 1833, Michael Faraday reported that the resistance of specimens of silver sulfide decreases, when they are heated. This is contrary to the behavior of metallic substances such as copper. In 1839, Alexandre Edmond Becquerel reported observation of a voltage between a solid and a liquid electrolyte, when struck by light, the photovoltaic effect. In 1873, Willoughby Smith observed that selenium resistors exhibit decreasing resistance, when light falls on them. In 1874, Karl Ferdinand Braun observed conduction and rectification in metallic sulfides, although this effect had been discovered much earlier by Peter Munck af Rosenschold...

    A. A. Balandin & K. L. Wang (2006). Handbook of Semiconductor Nanostructures and Nanodevices (5-Volume Set). American Scientific Publishers. ISBN 978-1-58883-073-9.
    Sze, Simon M. (1981). Physics of Semiconductor Devices (2nd ed.). John Wiley and Sons (WIE). ISBN 978-0-471-05661-4.
    Turley, Jim (2002). The Essential Guide to Semiconductors. Prentice Hall PTR. ISBN 978-0-13-046404-0.
    Yu, Peter Y.; Cardona, Manuel (2004). Fundamentals of Semiconductors : Physics and Materials Properties. Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-41323-3.
    Calculator for the intrinsic carrier concentrationin silicon
    Semiconductor OneSource Hall of Fame, Glossary
  3. Rulin - Wikipedia › wiki › Rulin
    • Name
    • History
    • Administrative Division
    • Geography
    • Demographics
    • Transport
    • References

    The name of the town is named after Rulin Academy (儒林书院), an academy of classical learning built by Yang Zaicheng (杨再成) in 1313 during the Yuan dynasty(1271–1368).

    The town of Rulin is an ancient town. In the late period of Sui dynasty (about 610s AD), the separatist leader Xiao Xian created Jian Prefecture (建州), as a county of the prefecture, Wuyou County (武攸县) was formed and its seat was located in the place of modern Rulin Town. The county of Wuyou was renamed to Wugang (武冈县) which was a part of Nanliang Prefecture (南梁州) in 621 AD. The county seat of Wugang was transferred to the modern downtown area of Wugang in early Song dynasty, the place of its former seat was named as Stockaded Village of Chengbu (城步寨). The county of Chengbu was formed from parts of two counties of Wugang and Suiningin 1504, it was named after its seat of Chengbuzhai (meaning "Stockaded Village of Chengbu"). Rulin Town was established in 1950, it was reorganized as a commune and a town in 1961.

    The town of Ruling has 11 communities and 25 villages under its jurisdiction (as of 2016). 11 communities 25 villages

    The town is located in the middle of Chengbu Miao Autonomous County. It has a total area of 311 square kilometres (120 sq mi), of which 295.39 square kilometres (114.05 sq mi) is land and 15.61 square kilometres (6.03 sq mi) is water. The Wushui River (巫水河) winds through the town. The town is in the central subtropical monsoon climate. It has four distinct seasons and abundant rainfall. Winter is warm and summer is cold.

    In December 2015, the town had an estimated population of 75,900 and a population density of 244 persons per km2. Miao people is the dominant ethnic group in the town, accounting for 48,700, accounting for 64.16%. There are also 12 ethnic groups, such as Dong, Hui, Tujia, and Yao. Among them, there are 15,200 Han people(20.03%), 4,100 Dong (5.40%), and 2,500 Hui people (3.29%).

    The Provincial Highway S219 is a north-south highway passing through the town's commercial and industrial areas.


    1. Wu Yizhen, ed. (2009). 《城步苗族自治县概况》 [General Situation of Chengbu Miao Autonomous County] (in Chinese). Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House. ISBN 978-7-105-08659-7.

  4. Zhou dynasty - Wikipedia › wiki › Zhou_state
    • History
    • Culture and Society
    • Kings
    • Astrology
    • See Also
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    Western Zhou

    King Wu maintained the old capital for ceremonial purposes but constructed a new one for his palace and administration nearby at Hao. Although Wu's early death left a young and inexperienced heir, the Duke of Zhou assisted his nephew King Cheng in consolidating royal power. Wary of the Duke of Zhou's increasing power, the "Three Guards", Zhou princes stationed on the eastern plain, rose in rebellion against his regency. Even though they garnered the support of independent-minded nobles, Shang...

    Eastern Zhou

    The Eastern Zhou was characterized by an accelerating collapse of royal authority, although the king's ritual importance allowed over five more centuries of rule. The Confucian chronicle of the early years of this process led to its title of the "Spring and Autumn" period. The partition of Jin in the mid-5th century BCE initiated a second phase, the "Warring States". In 403 BCE, the Zhou court recognized Han, Zhao, and Wei as fully independent states. Duke Hui of Wei, in 344 BCE, was the firs...

    Mandate of Heaven and the justification of power

    Zhou rulers introduced what was to prove one of East Asia's most enduring political doctrines: the concept of the "Mandate of Heaven". They did this by asserting that their moral superiority justified taking over Shang wealth and territories, and that heaven had imposed a moral mandate on them to replace the Shang and return good governance to the people. The Mandate of Heaven was presented as a religious compact between the Zhou people and their supreme god in heaven (literally the 'sky god'...


    Western writers often describe the Zhou period as "feudal" because the Zhou's fēngjiàn (封建) system invites comparison with medieval rule in Europe. There were many similarities between the decentralized systems. When the dynasty was established, the conquered land was divided into hereditary fiefs (諸侯, zhūhóu) that eventually became powerful in their own right. In matters of inheritance, the Zhou dynasty recognized only patrilineal primogeniture as legal.According to Tao (1934: 17–31), "the T...


    Agriculture in the Zhou dynasty was very intensive and, in many cases, directed by the government. All farming lands were owned by nobles, who then gave their land to their serfs, a situation similar to European feudalism. For example, a piece of land was divided into nine squares in the well-field system, with the grain from the middle square taken by the government and that of surrounding squares kept by individual farmers. This way, the government was able to store surplus food and distrib...

    The rulers of the Zhou dynasty were titled Wáng (王), which is normally translated into English as "king" and was also the Shang term for their rulers.In addition to these rulers, King Wu's immediate ancestors – Danfu, Jili, and Wen– are also referred to as "Kings of Zhou", despite having been nominal vassals of the Shang kings. NB: Dates in Chinese history before the first year of the Gonghe Regency in 841 BCE are contentious and vary by source. Those below are those published by Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project and Edward L. Shaughnessy's The Absolute Chronology of the Western Zhou Dynasty. Nobles of the Ji family proclaimed Duke Hui of Eastern Zhou as King Nan's successor after their capital, Chengzhou, fell to Qin forces in 256 BCE. Ji Zhao, a son of King Nan, led a resistance against Qin for five years. The dukedom fell in 249 BCE. The remaining Ji family ruled Yan and Weiuntil 209 BCE.

    In traditional Chinese astrology, Zhou is represented by two stars, Eta Capricorni (週一; Zhōu yī; 'the First Star of Zhou') and 21 Capricorni (週二; Zhōu èr; 'the Second Star of Zhou'), in "Twelve States" asterism. Zhou is also represented by the star Beta Serpentis in asterism "Right Wall", Heavenly Market enclosure (see Chinese constellation).

    Fong, Wen, ed. (1980), The great Bronze Age of China: an exhibition from the People's Republic of China, New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, ISBN 978-0-87099-226-1.
    Lee, Yuan-Yuan; Shen, Sinyan (1999), Chinese Musical Instruments, Chinese Music Monograph Series, Chinese Music Society of North America Press, ISBN 978-1-880464-03-8.
    Li, Feng (2006), Landscape and Power in Early China: The Crisis and Fall of the Western Zhou 1045–771 BCE, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-85272-2.
    Shen, Sinyan (1987), "Acoustics of Ancient Chinese Bells", Scientific American, 256 (4): 94, Bibcode:1987SciAm.256d.104S, doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0487-104.

    Chinese Text Project, Rulers of the Zhou period – with links to their occurrences in pre-Qin and Han texts.

  5. List of kanji by concept - Wikipedia › wiki › KanjiReference:IndexByConcept

    This Kanji index method groups together kanji that describe things that deal with the same concept, for example kanji for numbers or kanji for directions. Kanji with multiple meanings may appear more than once. Listed in alphabetical order. ...

  6. List of kanji radicals by frequency - Wikipedia › wiki › Simplified_table_Japanese_kanji_radicals
    • Table of Kanji Radicals
    • Other Combinations
    • See Also
    • External Links

    Table key

    Position category: 1. へん (hen) - left ◧- radical forms the left component of a kanji. 2. つくり (tsukuri) - right ◨- radical forms the right component of a kanji. 3. かんむり (kanmuri) - top ⊤- radical forms the top component of a kanji. 4. あし (ashi) - bottom ⊥- radical forms the bottom component of a kanji. 5. かまえ (kamae) - wrap ⿴- radical encloses the other kanji components. 6. たれ (tare) - top-left ⿸- radical forms the left and top components of a kanji. 7. にょう (nyou) - bottom-left ⿺- radical form...


    1. This is a simplified list, so the reading of the radical is only given if the kanji is used on its own. 2. Example kanji for each radical are all jōyō kanji, but some examples show all jōyō (ordered by stroke number) while others were from the Chinese radicals page with non-jōyō (and Chinese-only) characters removed. 3. No radicals with more than 12 strokes are listed as they are not as common and can all be formed from the other components. 4. The radicals are listed in the same basic ord...

    Variations of this table

    Many other combinations could realistically be called a simplified table of kanji radicals, here are a few examples. 1. 䒑 could replace both 丷 and 艹 2. ⺈ could be merged with 刀 or 勹(not commonly used as a radical by itself) 3. 聿or 書 could be used instead of ⺻ Entries with an upside-down exclamation mark (¡) are possibly made up "radicals," meaning only one online dictionary was found to use them (Tangorin Online). Possible additions: (Note that the examples below show allthe jōyō kanji exampl...

    Radicals ordered by frequency

    With frequency considered to be the amount of kanji where the radical or its variants can be found as a visual component. 1. Variants of the same radical are separated by forward slashes (for example 彐/ヨ/⺕) 2. The first radical on the list (口) is the most frequent and can be seen in 2839 kanji 3. The last radical on the list (斉) is the least frequent and can be seen in 5 kanji

    The 79 Radicals

    A simplification used in "The Kanji Dictionary","The Learner's Kanji Dictionary," "Japanese, Chinese, and Korean Surnames and How to Read Them", and in "Kanji & Kana."

  7. List of kanji by stroke count - Wikipedia › wiki › Kanji_Reference:IndexByStrokeCount

    List of kanji by stroke count. This Kanji index method groups together the kanji that are written with the same number of strokes. Currently, there are 2,187 individual kanji listed. Characters followed by an alternate in (parentheses) indicate ...

  8. List of CJK Unified Ideographs, part 2 of 4 - Wikipedia › wiki › List_of_CJK_Unified_Ideographs,_part

    This list is a part of a single Unicode block. For an overview of all CJK ideograph blocks in Unicode, see CJK Unified Ideographs. CJK Unified Ideographs (Part 2 of 4) Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF) 0. 1.

  9. List of jōyō kanji - Wikipedia › wiki › Joyo_kanji_list

    List of characters For brevity, only one English translation is given per kanji. The "Grade" column specifies the grade in which the kanji is taught in Elementary schools in Japan.Grade "S" means that it is taught in ...

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