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Lin Yü-chih (林 煜 智; pinyin: Lín Yùzhì; b. ca. 1972) photo is the former shortest man in the world according to Guinness World Records.He resides in Taipei, Taiwan, where he works as an author and social activist.His name has sometimes been ...
Cai Yuanpei (Chinese: 蔡元培; pinyin: Cài Yuánpéi; 11 January 1868 – 5 March 1940) was a Chinese philosopher and politician as well as an influential educationalist in the history of Chinese modern education. He made contributions to education ...
LinkedIn (/ l ɪ ŋ k t ˈ ɪ n /) is an American business and employment-oriented online service that operates via websites and mobile apps.Launched on May 5, 2003, the platform is mainly used for professional networking, and allows job seekers to ...
- Signs and Symptoms
Patients with Zollinger–Ellison syndrome may experience abdominal pain and diarrhea.The diagnosis is also suspected in patients who have severe ulceration of the stomach and small bowel, especially if they fail to respond to treatment. 1. Chronic diarrhea, including steatorrhea(fatty stools) 2. Pain in the esophagus, especially between and after meals at night 3. Nausea 4. Wheezing 5. Vomiting blood 6. Malnourishment 7. Loss of appetite 8. Malabsorption Gastrinomas may occur as single tumors or as multiple small tumors. About one-half to two-thirds of single gastrinomas are malignant tumors that most commonly spread to the liver and to lymph nodes near the pancreas and small bowel.Nearly 25 percent of patients with gastrinomas have multiple tumors as part of a condition called multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1). MEN I patients have tumors in their pituitary gland and parathyroid glands, in addition to tumors of the pancreas.
Gastrin works on the parietal cells of the gastric glands, causing them to secrete more hydrogen ions into the stomach lumen. In addition, gastrin acts as a trophic factor for parietal cells, causing parietal cell hyperplasia. Normally, hydrogen ion secretion is controlled by a negative feedback loop by gastric cells to maintain a suitable pH, however, the neuroendocrine tumor that is present in individuals with Zollinger–Ellison Syndrome has no regulation, resulting in excessively large amounts of secretion. Thus, there is an increase in the number of acid-secreting cells, and each of these cells produces acid at a higher rate. The increase in acidity contributes to the development of peptic ulcers in the stomach, duodenum(first portion of the small bowel) and occasionally the jejunum (second portion of the small bowel), the last of which is an 'atypical' ulcer.
Zollinger–Ellison syndrome may be suspected when the above symptoms prove resistant to treatment, when the symptoms are especially suggestive of the syndrome, or when endoscopyis suggestive. The diagnosis is made through several laboratory tests and imaging studies: 1. Secretin stimulation test, which measures evoked gastrin levels. Note that the mechanism underlying this test is in contrast to the normal physiologic mechanism whereby secretin inhibits gastrin release from G cells. Gastrinoma cells release gastrin in response to secretin stimulation,thereby providing a sensitive means of differentiation. 2. Fasting gastrin levels on at least three occasions 3. Gastric acid secretion and pH (normal basal gastric acid secretion is less than 10 mEq/hour; in Zollinger–Ellison patients, it is usually more than 15 mEq/hour) 4. An increased level of chromogranin Ais a common marker of neuroendocrine tumors. In addition, the source of the increased gastrin production must be determined usin...
Proton pump inhibitors (such as omeprazole and lansoprazole) and histamine H2-receptor antagonists (such as famotidine and ranitidine) are used to slow acid secretion. Once gastric acid is suppressed, symptoms normally improve. Surgery to remove peptic ulcers or tumors might also be considered.
The condition most commonly affects people between the ages of 30 and 60.The prevalence is unknown, but estimated to be about 1 in 100,000 people.
Sporadic reports of unusual cases of peptic ulceration in the presence of pancreatic tumors occurred prior to 1955, but R. M. Zollinger and E. H. Ellison, surgeons at The Ohio State University, were the first to postulate a causal relationship between these findings. The American Surgical Association meeting in Philadelphia in April 1955 heard the first public description of the syndrome, and Zollinger and Ellison subsequently published their findings in Annals of Surgery.
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MediaTek was originally a unit of the Taiwanese firm, United Microelectronics Corporation (UMC), tasked with designing chipsets for home entertainment products. On May 28, 1997, the unit was spun off and incorporated. MediaTek Inc. was listed on the Taiwan Stock Exchange(TSEC) under the "2454" code on July 23, 2001. The company started out designing chipsets for optical drives and subsequently expanded into chips for DVD players, digital TVs, mobile phones, smartphones and tablets.In general MediaTek has had a strong record of gaining market share and displacing competitors after entering new markets. The company launched a division to design products for mobile devices in 2004. Seven years later, it was taking orders for more than 500 million mobile system-on-chip units per annum, which included products for both feature phones and smart devices.By providing extensive system engineering assistance the company allowed many smaller companies and new entrants to enter a mobile phone m...
In 2005, MediaTek acquired Inprocomm, a wireless semiconductor design company producing 802.11a, b and a/g chips. On September 10, 2007, MediaTek announced its intention to buy Analog Devices cellular radio and baseband chipset divisions for US$350 million.The acquisition was finalised by January 11, 2008. On May 5, 2011, MediaTek acquired Ralink Technology Corporation, gaining products and expertise for Wi-Fi technology for mobile and non-mobile applications, as well as for wired DSL and Ethernetconnectivity. On April 11, 2012, MediaTek acquired Coresonic, a global producer of digital signal processing products based in Linköping, Sweden. Coresonic became a wholly owned subsidiary of MediaTek in Europe. On June 22, 2012, MediaTek announced it would acquire rival Taiwanese chipset designer MStar Semiconductor Inc., which held a strong market share position in digital television chips. The initial phase of the deal saw MediaTek taking a 48 percent stake, with an option to purchase th...
MediaTek's financial results have been subject to variation as the financial success of different product lines fluctuated. MediaTek's relatively strong sales in 2009/2010 was based on its strong market position for feature phone chipsets. Smartphone and tablet products contributed to MediaTek's sales and income increase in 2013, while revenue recognition from the acquisition of MStar Semiconductor, which became effective in February 2014, as well as a continuing strong position for smartphone and tablet solutions, were the main reasons for the sales growth seen in 2014.In 2014 smartphone chips accounted for approximately 50–55% of revenue, followed by digital home products (25–30%, includes digital television chips), tablet chips (5–10%), feature phone chips (5–10%) and Wi-Fi products (5–10%). MediaTek started shipping chips with integrated 4G LTE baseband in volume in the second half of 2014, later than its largest competitor Qualcomm. The additional cost of the separate baseband...
The MT8135 system-on-chip (SoC) for tablets announced in July, 2013 was the industry's first chip to implement the new ARM big.LITTLE technology for heterogeneous multi-processing. A variant of the MT8135 was used by Amazon in its Kindle Fire HD tablet models. Also on November 20, 2013, MediaTek launched the MT6592 SoC, the first system-on-chip (SoC) with eight CPU cores which could be used simultaneously,in contrast to competing SoCs with eight physical cores of which only a subset could be active at any given time. The "True Octa-Core" trademark was registered to emphasize the difference in marketing materials. On January 7, 2014, MediaTek announced the development of the world's first "multimode receiver" for wireless charging. In contrast to existing implementations it is compatible with both inductive and resonant charging. The resulting MT3188 wireless charging chip, certified by both the Power Matters Alliance and the Wireless Power Consortiumwas announced on February 24, 201...
On April 8, 2020, MediaTek published a post titled "Why MediaTek Stands Behind Our Benchmarking Practices", and later that day AnandTech published an article on MediaTek's Sports Mode. MediaTek said Sports Mode is designed to show full capabilities during benchmarks, that it is standard practice in the industry, and their device makers can choose to enable it or not. AnandTech pointed out Sports Mode was also being applied to benchmarks intended on measuring user experience benchmarks, provid...
Global navigation satellite system(GNSS) modules. 1. MT6628 (GPS) WLAN 802.11b/g/n, WIFI Direct, Bluetooth 4.0 LE, GPS/QZSS, FM 2. MT6620 (GPS) 3. MT3339 (2011) (GPS, QZSS, SBAS) 4. MT3337 (GPS) 5. MT3336 (GPS) 6. MT3333/MT3332 (2013) GPS/GLONASS/GALILEO/BEIDOU/QZSS, is the world's first five-in-one multi-GNSS that supports the Beidou navigation satellite system. 7. MT3329 (GPS) 8. MT3328 (GPS) 9. MT3318 (GPS)
As a result of the merger with Ralink, MediaTek has added wireless network interface controllers for IEEE 802.11-standards, and SoCs with MIPSCPUs to its product portfolio. 1. RT3883 includes a MIPS 74KEc CPU and an IEEE 802.11n-conformant WNIC. 2. RT6856 includes a MIPS 34KEc CPU and an IEEE 802.11ac-conformant WNIC.
The Chinese Professional Baseball League (CPBL) playoffs included the three top teams from the regular season and crowned a champion with the Taiwan Series through the month of October, 2006. The winner represented Taiwan in the Konami Cup in ...
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The primary features are infertility and small poorly functioning testicles. Often, symptoms may be subtle and many people do not realize they are affected. Sometimes, symptoms are more prominent and may include weaker muscles, greater height, poor coordination, less body hair, breast growth, and less interest in sex. Often it is only at pubertythat these symptoms are noticed.
Klinefelter syndrome is not an inherited condition. Maternal age is the only known risk factor.Women at 40 years have a four times higher risk for a child with Klinefelter syndrome than women aged 24 years. The extra chromosome is retained because of a nondisjunction event during paternal meiosis I, maternal meiosis I, or maternal meiosis II(gametogenesis). The relevant nondisjunction in meiosis I occurs when homologous chromosomes, in this case the X and Y or two X sex chromosomes, fail to separate, producing a sperm with an X and a Y chromosome or an egg with two X chromosomes. Fertilizing a normal (X) egg with this sperm produces an XXY offspring (Klinefelter). Fertilizing a double X egg with a normal sperm also produces an XXY offspring (Klinefelter). Another mechanism for retaining the extra chromosome is through a nondisjunction event during meiosis II in the egg. Nondisjunction occurs when sister chromatids on the sex chromosome, in this case an X and an X, fail to separate....
The standard diagnostic method is the analysis of the chromosomes' karyotype on lymphocytes. A small blood sample is sufficient as test material. In the past, the observation of the Barr body was common practice, as well. To investigate the presence of a possible mosaicism, analysis of the karyotype using cells from the oral mucosa is performed. Physical characteristics of a Klinefelter syndrome can be tall stature, low body hair and occasionally an enlargement of the breast. There is usually a small testicle volume of 1–5 ml per testicle (standard values: 12–30 ml). During puberty and adulthood, low testosterone levels with increased levels of the pituitary hormones FSH and LH in the blood can indicate the presence of Klinefelter syndrome. A spermiogram can also be part of the further investigation. Often there is an azoospermia present, rarely an oligospermia. Furthermore, Klinefelter syndrome can be diagnosed as a coincidental prenatal finding in the context of invasive prenatal...
The genetic variation is irreversible, thus there is no causal therapy. From the onset of puberty, the existing testosterone deficiency can be compensated by appropriate hormone replacement therapy. Testosterone preparations are available in the form of syringes, patches or gel. If gynecomastia is present, the surgical removal of the breastmay be considered for both the psychological reasons and to reduce the risk of breast cancer. The use of behavioral therapy can mitigate any language disorders, difficulties at school, and socialization. An approach by occupational therapy is useful in children, especially those who have dyspraxia.
The lifespan of individuals with Klinefelter syndrome appears to be reduced by approximately 2.1 years compared to the general male population.These results are still questioned data, are not absolute, and need further testing.
This syndrome, evenly distributed in all ethnic groups, has a prevalence of four subjects per every 10000 males in the general population. However, it is estimated that only 25% of the individuals with Klinefelter syndrome are diagnosed throughout their lives.The rate of Klinefelter syndrome among infertile males is 3.1%. The syndrome is also the main cause of male hypogonadism.
The syndrome was named after American endocrinologist Harry Klinefelter, who in 1942 worked with Fuller Albright and E. C. Reifenstein at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, and first described it in the same year. The account given by Klinefelter came to be known as Klinefelter syndrome as his name appeared first on the published paper, and seminiferous tubule dysgenesis was no longer used. Considering the names of all three researchers, it is sometimes also called Klinefelter–Reifenstein–Albright syndrome. In 1956 it was discovered that Klinefelter syndrome resulted from an extra chromosome. Plunkett and Barr found the sex chromatin body in cell nuclei of the body. This was further clarified as XXY in 1959 by Patricia Jacobs and John Anderson Strong. The first published report of a man with a 47,XXY karyotype was by Patricia Jacobs and John Strong at Western General Hospital in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1959. This karyotype was found in a 24-year-old man who had...
Virginia Isaacs Cover (2012). Living with Klinefelter Syndrome, Trisomy X and 47,XYY: A Guide for Families and Individuals Affected by Extra X and Y Chromosomes. ISBN 978-0-615-57400-4.
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Devices equipped with various sensors have become ubiquitous. Most smartphones can sense ambient light, noise (through the microphone), location (through the GPS), movement (through the accelerometer), and more. These sensors can collect vast quantities of data that are useful in a variety of ways. For example, GPS and accelerometer data can be used to locate potholes in cities, and microphones can be used with GPS to map noise pollution. The term "mobile crowdsensing" was coined by Raghu Ganti, Fan Ye, and Hui Lei in 2011. Mobile crowdsensing belongs to three main types: environmental (such as monitoring pollution), infrastructure (such as locating potholes), and social (such as tracking exercise data within a community). Current crowdsensing applications operate based on the assumption that all users voluntarily submit the sensing data leading to extensive user participation.It can also indicate the way mobile device users form microcrowds based on a specific crowdsensing activity.
Based on the type of involvement from the users, mobile crowdsensing can be classified into two types: 1. Participatory crowdsensing, where the users voluntarily participate in contributing information. 2. Opportunistic crowdsensing, where the data is sensed, collected, and shared automatically without user intervention and in some cases, even without the user's explicit knowledge. Taking advantage of the ubiquitous presence of powerful mobile computing devices (especially smartphones) in recent years, it has become an appealing method to businesses that wish to collect data without making large-scale investments. Numerous technology companies use this technique to offer services based on the big data collected, some of the most notable examples being Facebook, Google, and Uber.
Mobile crowdsensing occurs in three stages: data collection, data storage, and data upload. Data collection draws on sensors available through the Internet of things.There are three main strategies for collecting this data: 1. The user of a device collects data manually. This can include taking pictures or using smartphone applications. 2. The user can manually control data collection, but some data can be collected automatically, such as when a user opens an application. 3. Data sensing is triggered by a particular context that has been predefined (e.g., a device begins to collect data when the user is in a particular place at a particular time). The data collection phase can also involve a process called deduplication, which involves removing redundant information from a data set to lower costs and improve user experience.The deduplication process filters and compresses the data that has been collected before it gets uploaded. The second stage involves the storage of data in the u...
Mobile crowdsensing potential is limited by constraints involving energy, bandwidth, and computation power. Using the GPS, for example, drains batteries, but location can also be tracked using Wi-Fi and GSM, although these are less accurate.Eliminating redundant data can also reduce energy and bandwidth costs, as can restricting data sensing when quality is unlikely to be high (e.g., when two photos are taken in the same location, the second is unlikely to provide new information).
Privacy, security, and data integrity
The data collected through mobile crowdsensing can be sensitive to individuals, revealing personal information such as home and work locations and the routes used when commuting between the two. Ensuring the privacy and security of personal information collected through mobile crowdsensing is therefore important. Mobile crowdsensing can use three main methods to protect privacy: 1. Anonymization, which removes identifying information from the data before it is sent to a third party. This meth...
Parks and gardens Bridges and embankments Flowering trees, flowering grass, autumn colors, green trees and other places of dense growth Places inhabited by birds and wild animals, fish/insects and others Rocks, caves Ravines, gorges, waterfalls, ...
Longwanqun National Forest Park (Chinese: 龙 湾 群 国 家 森 林 公 园; pinyin: Lóng wān Qún Guó jiā Sēn lín Gōng yuán) is a nationally protected nature area in Huinan County, Jilin, China.Geographically, it is part of the western Changbai ...