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  1. Personal protective equipment - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Personal_protective_equipment

    Personal protective equipment (PPE) is protective clothing, helmets, goggles, or other garments or equipment designed to protect the wearer's body from injury or infection.The hazards addressed by protective equipment include physical, ...

  2. Gore-Tex - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Gore-Tex
    • History
    • Manufacture
    • Design
    • Clothing Technology
    • Other Uses
    • See Also
    • External Links

    Gore-Tex was co-invented by Wilbert L. Gore and Gore's son, Robert W. Gore. In 1969, Bob Gore stretched heated rods of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and created expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE). His discovery of the right conditions for stretching PTFE was a happy accident, born partly of frustration. Instead of slowly stretching the heated material, he applied a sudden, accelerating yank. The solid PTFE unexpectedly stretched about 800%, forming a microporous structure that was about 70% air.It was introduced to the public under the trademark Gore-Tex. Gore promptly applied for and obtained the following patents: 1. U.S. Patent 3,953,566, issued April 27, 1976, for a porous form of polytetrafluoroethylene with a micro-structure characterized by nodes interconnected by fibrils 2. U.S. Patent 4,187,390, issued February 5, 1980 3. U.S. Patent 4,194,041on March 18, 1980 for a "waterproof laminate", together with Samuel Allen Another form of stretched PTFE tape was produced pri...

    PTFE is made using an emulsion polymerization process that utilizes the fluorosurfactant PFOA,a persistent environmental contaminant. In 2013, Gore eliminated the use of PFOAs in the manufacture of its weatherproof functional fabrics.

    Gore-Tex materials are typically based on thermo-mechanically expanded PTFE and other fluoropolymer products. They are used in a wide variety of applications such as high-performance fabrics, medical implants, filter media, insulation for wires and cables, gaskets, and sealants. However, Gore-Tex fabric is best known for its use in protective, yet breathable, rainwear. The simplest sort of rain wear is a two layer sandwich. The outer layer is typically woven nylon or polyester and provides strength. The inner one is polyurethane(abbreviated: PU), and provides water resistance, at the cost of breathability. Early Gore-Tex fabric replaced the inner layer of PU with a thin, porous fluoropolymer membrane (Teflon) coating that is bonded to a fabric. This membrane had about 9 billion pores per square inch (around 1.4 billion pores per square centimeter). Each pore is approximately ​1⁄20,000the size of a water droplet, making it impenetrable to liquid water while still allowing the more vo...

    Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene is used in clothing due to its breathability and water protection capabilities. It is used in rain jackets, and ePTFE can now be found in space suits and heart patches.

    Gore-Tex is also used internally in medical applications, because it is nearly inert inside the body. Specifically, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (E-PTFE) can take the form of a fabric-like mesh. Implementing and applying the mesh form in the medical field is a promising type of technological material feature. In addition, the porosity of Gore-Tex permits the body's own tissue to grow through the material, integrating grafted material into the circulation system. Gore-Tex is used in a wide variety of medical applications, including sutures, vascular grafts, heart patches, and synthetic knee ligaments, which have saved thousands of lives. In the form of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (E-PTFE), Gore-Tex has been shown to be a reliable synthetic, medical material in treating patients with nasal dorsal interruptions. In more recent observations, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (E-PTFE) has recently been used as membrane implants for glaucoma surgery. Gore-Tex has been used for man...

  3. Irritable bowel syndrome - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Irritable_bowel_syndrome

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), referred to previously as spastic or nervous colon, and spastic bowel, is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by a group of symptoms accompanied together that include abdominal pain and changes in ...

  4. Security and safety features new to Windows Vista - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Windows_Service_Hardening
    • User Account Control
    • Encryption
    • Windows Firewall
    • Windows Defender
    • Device Installation Control
    • Parental Controls
    • Exploit Protection Functionality
    • Digital Rights Management
    • Windows Service Hardening
    • Authentication and Logon

    User Account Control is a new infrastructure that requires user consent before allowing any action that requires administrative privileges. With this feature, all users, including users with administrative privileges, run in a standard user mode by default, since most applications do not require higher privileges. When some action is attempted that needs administrative privileges, such as installing new software or changing system or security settings, Windows will prompt the user whether to allow the action or not. If the user chooses to allow, the process initiating the action is elevated to a higher privilege context to continue. While standard users need to enter a username and password of an administrative account to get a process elevated (Over-the-shoulder Credentials), an administrator can choose to be prompted just for consent or ask for credentials. If the user doesn't click Yes, after 30 seconds the prompt is denied. UAC asks for credentials in a Secure Desktop mode, wher...

    BitLocker, formerly known as "Secure Startup", this feature offers full disk encryption for the system volume. Using the command-line utility, it is possible to encrypt additional volumes. Bitlocker utilizes a USB key or Trusted Platform Module (TPM) version 1.2 of the TCG specifications to store its encryption key. It ensures that the computer running Windows Vista starts in a known-good state, and it also protects data from unauthorized access.Data on the volume is encrypted with a Full Volume Encryption Key (FVEK), which is further encrypted with a Volume Master Key (VMK) and stored on the disk itself. Windows Vista is the first Microsoft Windows operating system to offer native support for the TPM 1.2 by providing a set of APIs, commands, classes, and services for the use and management of the TPM.A new system service, referred to as TPM Base Services, enables the access to and sharing of TPM resources for developers who wish to build applications with support for the device. En...

    Windows Vista significantly improves the firewall to address a number of concerns around the flexibility of Windows Firewallin a corporate environment: 1. IPv6connection filtering 2. Outbound packet filtering, reflecting increasing concerns about spyware and virusesthat attempt to "phone home". 3. With the advanced packet filter, rules can also be specified for source and destination IP addresses and port ranges. 4. Rules can be configured for services by its service name chosen by a list, without needing to specify the full path file name. 5. IPsec is fully integrated, allowing connections to be allowed or denied based on security certificates, Kerberosauthentication, etc. Encryption can also be required for any kind of connection. A connection security rule can be created using a wizard that handles the complex configuration of IPsec policies on the machine. Windows Firewall can allow traffic based on whether the traffic is secured by IPsec. 6. A new management console snap-in nam...

    Windows Vista includes Windows Defender, Microsoft's anti-spyware utility. According to Microsoft, it was renamed from 'Microsoft AntiSpyware' because it not only features scanning of the system for spyware, similar to other free products on the market, but also includes Real Time Security agents that monitor several common areas of Windows for changes which may be caused by spyware. These areas include Internet Explorer configuration and downloads, auto-start applications, system configuration settings, and add-ons to Windows such as Windows Shell extensions. Windows Defender also includes the ability to remove ActiveX applications that are installed and block startup programs. It also incorporates the SpyNetnetwork, which allows users to communicate with Microsoft, send what they consider is spyware, and check which applications are acceptable.

    Windows Vista allow administrators to enforce hardware restrictions via Group Policyto prevent users from installing devices, to restrict device installation to a predefined white list, or to restrict access to removable media and classes of devices.

    Windows Vista includes a range of parental controls for administrators to monitor and restrict computer activity of standard user accounts that are not part of a domain; User Account Control enforces administrative restrictions. Features include: Windows Vista Web Filter—implemented as a Winsock LSP filter to function across all Web browsers—which prohibits access to websites based on categories of content or specific addresses (with an option to block all file downloads); Time Limits, which prevents standard users from logging in during a date or time specified by an administrator (and which locks restricted accounts that are already logged in during such times); Game Restrictions, which allows administrators to block games based on names, contents, or ratings defined by a video game content rating system such as the Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB), with content restrictions taking precedence over rating restrictions (e.g., Everyone 10+ (E10+) games may be permitted to r...

    Windows Vista uses Address Space Layout Randomization (ASLR) to load system files at random addresses in memory. By default, all system files are loaded randomly at any of the possible 256 locations. Other executables have to specifically set a bit in the header of the Portable Executable (PE) file, which is the file format for Windows executables, to use ASLR. For such executables, the stack and heap allocated is randomly decided. By loading system files at random addresses, it becomes harder for malicious code to know where privileged system functions are located, thereby making it unlikely for them to predictably use them. This helps prevent most remote execution attacks by preventing return-to-libc buffer overflowattacks. The Portable Executable format has been updated to support embedding of exceptionhandler address in the header. Whenever an exception is thrown, the address of the handler is verified with the one stored in the executable header. If they match, the exception is...

    New digital rights managementand content-protection features have been introduced in Windows Vista to help digital content providers and corporations protect their data from being copied. 1. PUMA: Protected User Mode Audio (PUMA) is the new User Mode Audio (UMA) audio stack. Its aim is to provide an environment for audio playback that restricts the copying of copyrighted audio, and restricts the enabled audio outputs to those allowed by the publisher of the protected content. 2. Protected Video Path - Output Protection Management (PVP-OPM) is a technology that prevents copying of protected digital video streams, or their display on video devices that lack equivalent copy protection (typically HDCP). Microsoft claims that without these restrictions the content industry may prevent PCs from playing copyrighted content by refusing to issue license keys for the encryption used by HD DVD, Blu-ray Disc, or other copy-protected systems. 3. Protected Video Path - User-Accessible Bus (PVP-UA...

    Windows Service Hardening compartmentalizes the services such that if one service is compromised, it cannot easily attack other services on the system. It prevents Windows services from doing operations on file systems, registry or networks which they are not supposed to, thereby reducing the overall attack surface on the system and preventing entry of malware by exploiting system services. Services are now assigned a per-service Security identifier (SID), which allows controlling access to the service as per the access specified by the security identifier. A per-service SID may be assigned during the service installation via the ChangeServiceConfig2 API or by using the SC.EXE command with the sidtype verb. Services can also use access control lists(ACL) to prevent external access to resources private to itself. Services in Windows Vista also run in a less privileged account such as Local Service or Network Service, instead of the System account. Previous versions of Windows ran sys...

    Graphical identification and authentication (GINA), used for secure authentication and interactive logon has been replaced by Credential Providers. Combined with supporting hardware, Credential Providers can extend the operating system to enable users to log on through biometric devices (fingerprint, retinal, or voice recognition), passwords, PINs and smart card certificates, or any custom authentication package and schema third party developers wish to create. Smart card authentication is flexible as certificate requirements are relaxed. Enterprises may develop, deploy, and optionally enforce custom authentication mechanisms for all domain users. Credential Providers may be designed to support Single sign-on (SSO), authenticating users to a secure network access point (leveraging RADIUS and other technologies) as well as machine logon. Credential Providers are also designed to support application-specific credential gathering, and may be used for authentication to network resources...

  5. Equinox - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Equinox
    • Equinoxes on Earth
    • Effects on Satellites
    • Equinoxes on Other Planets
    • External Links

    General

    Systematically observing the sunrise, people discovered that it occurs between two extreme locations at the horizon and eventually noted the midpoint between the two. Later it was realized that this happens on a day when the duration of the day and the night are practically equal and the word "equinox" comes from Latin aequus, meaning "equal", and nox, meaning "night". In the northern hemisphere, the vernal equinox (March) conventionally marks the beginning of spring in most cultures and is c...

    Date

    When Julius Caesar established the Julian calendar in 45 BC, he set 25 March as the date of the spring equinox; this was already the starting day of the year in the Persian and Indian calendars. Because the Julian year is longer than the tropical year by about 11.3 minutes on average (or 1 day in 128 years), the calendar "drifted" with respect to the two equinoxes – so that in 300 ADthe spring equinox occurred on about 21 March, and by the 1580s AD it had drifted backwards to 11 March. This d...

    Names

    1. Vernal equinox and autumnal equinox: these classical names are direct derivatives of Latin (ver = spring, and autumnus = autumn). These are the historically universal and still most widely used terms for the equinoxes, but are potentially confusing because in the southern hemisphere the vernal equinox does not occur in spring and the autumnal equinox does not occur in autumn. The equivalent common language English terms spring equinox and autumn (or fall) equinox are even more ambiguous.It...

    One effect of equinoctial periods is the temporary disruption of communications satellites. For all geostationary satellites, there are a few days around the equinox when the Sun goes directly behindthe satellite relative to Earth (i.e. within the beam-width of the ground-station antenna) for a short period each day. The Sun's immense power and broad radiation spectrum overload the Earth station's reception circuits with noise and, depending on antenna size and other factors, temporarily disrupt or degrade the circuit. The duration of those effects varies but can range from a few minutes to an hour. (For a given frequency band, a larger antenna has a narrower beam-width and hence experiences shorter duration "Sun outage" windows.) Satellites in geostationary orbit also experience difficulties maintaining power during the equinox, due to the fact that they now have to travel through Earth's shadowand rely only on battery power. Usually, a satellite will travel either north or south o...

    Equinoxes are defined on any planet with a tilted rotational axis. A dramatic example is Saturn, where the equinox places its ring system edge-on facing the Sun. As a result, they are visible only as a thin line when seen from Earth. When seen from above – a view seen during an equinox for the first time from the Cassini space probe in 2009 – they receive very little sunshine; indeed, they receive more planetshine than light from the Sun.This phenomenon occurs once every 14.7 years on average, and can last a few weeks before and after the exact equinox. Saturn's most recent equinox was on 11 August 2009, and its next will take place on 6 May 2025. Mars's most recent equinox was on 7 February 2021 (northern spring), and the next will be on 24 February 2022 (northern autumn).

  6. BenQ - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › BenQ
    • BenQ-Siemens
    • After Siemens
    • Corporate Restructuring
    • Acquiring Zowie Gear

    On 1 October 2005, BenQ Corp. acquired the mobile devices division of Germany's Siemens AG, becoming the sixth-largest company in the mobile phone industry by accumulated market share. The acquisition results in a new business group, BenQ Mobile, of BenQ Corporation entirely dedicated to wireless communications. Mobile phones of the new group are marketed under a new brand, BenQ-Siemens. In late September 2006, the mobile devices division of BenQ, BenQ Mobile (Germany), announced bankruptcy when BenQ Corp. discontinued its funding. As a result, BenQ Mobile was placed under the supervision of a state-appointed bankruptcy administrator. In February 2007, BenQ Mobile was finally disbanded as a suitable buyer could not be found. An estimated 2000 BenQ Mobile employees lost their jobs.On 24 August 2006 BenQ announced plans to spin off its manufacturing operations in early 2007, separating contract manufacturing and own-brand divisions.

    After BenQ-Siemens, BenQ continued to make phones, primarily aimed at the Asian market (although one was released in Europe too). This is a list of BenQ phones during the post-BenQ-Siemens brands period between 2009-2012: 1. BenQ T33 2. BenQ T51 3. BenQ C30 (BenQ-Siemens C31) 4. BenQ E72 (Windows Mobilesmartphone. Also released in Europe) (Not a E71 Successors) 5. BenQ M7 (BenQ-Siemens M81 spirituality success's) 6. BenQ T60 7. BenQ E53 8. BenQ C36 (BenQ-Siemens C31 Successors) 9. BenQ E55 10. BenQ MOMODESIGN MD300H (HSDPA) (this is a co-brands in exclusively project of gadgets for MOMODESIGN, the most rarest model of BenQ Mobile because the phone was made available in limited quantities volumes not over 5,000 units.) After a hiatus, BenQ resumed production of smartphones under its own brand in 2013.

    On 24 August 2006, BenQ announced plans to spin off its manufacturing operations in early 2007, separating contract manufacturing and own-brand divisions. In April 2007, considering that the branded business has achieved sufficient profit and scale to sustain and grow its operation independently, BenQ announced the plan to spin off its branded business. After the spin-off, BenQ Corporation was renamed Qisda Corporation, which will focus on integrated manufacturing service business, and the spun-off company has succeeded the name of BenQ Corporation, which is a 100% owned subsidiary of Qisda Corp. On 3 September 2007, the newly spun-off BenQ Corporation commenced its new operation to continue selling and marketing products under the BenQ brand name.

    On 10 December 2015, BenQ announced that ZOWIE GEAR would become their new gaming division.Their newer products include mice, mouse pads, sound cards, monitors, and other gaming accessories.

  7. Process capability index - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Process_capability_index
    • Example For Non-Specialists
    • Introduction
    • Recommended Values
    • Relationship to Measures of Process Fallout
    • Example
    • See Also

    A company produces axles with nominal diameter 20 mm on a lathe. As no axle can be made to exactly20 mm, the designer specifies the maximum admissible deviations (called tolerances or specification limits). For instance, the requirement could be that axles need to be between 19.9 and 20.2 mm. The process capability index is a measure for how likely it is that a produced axle satisfies this requirement. The index pertains to statistical (natural) variations only. These are variations that naturally occur without a specific cause. Errors not addressed include a.o. operator errors, or play in the lathe's mechanisms resulting in a wrong or unpredictable tool position. If errors of the latter kinds occur, the process is not in a state of statistical control. When this is the case, the process capability index is meaningless.

    If the upper and lower specification limits of the process are USL and LSL, the target process mean is T, the estimated mean of the process is μ ^ {\\displaystyle {\\hat {\\mu }}} and the estimated variability of the process (expressed as a standard deviation) is σ ^ {\\displaystyle {\\hat {\\sigma }}} , then commonly accepted process capability indices include: σ ^ {\\displaystyle {\\hat {\\sigma }}} is estimated using the sample standard deviation.

    Process capability indices are constructed to express more desirable capability with increasingly higher values. Values near or below zero indicate processes operating off target (μ ^ {\\displaystyle {\\hat {\\mu }}} far from T) or with high variation. Fixing values for minimum "acceptable" process capability targets is a matter of personal opinion, and what consensus exists varies by industry, facility, and the process under consideration. For example, in the automotive industry, the Automotive Industry Action Group sets forth guidelines in the Production Part Approval Process, 4th edition for recommended Cpkminimum values for critical-to-quality process characteristics. However, these criteria are debatable and several processes may not be evaluated for capability just because they have not properly been assessed. Since the process capability is a function of the specification, the Process Capability Index is only as good as the specification. For instance, if the specification came...

    The mapping from process capability indices, such as Cpk, to measures of process fallout is straightforward. Process fallout quantifies how many defects a process produces and is measured by DPMO or PPM. Process yield is the complement of process fallout and is approximately equal to the area under the probability density function Φ ( σ ) = 1 2 π ∫ − σ σ e − t 2 / 2 d t {\\displaystyle \\Phi (\\sigma )={\\frac {1}{\\sqrt {2\\pi }}}\\int _{-\\sigma }^{\\sigma }e^{-t^{2}/2}\\,dt} if the process output is approximately normally distributed. In the short term ("short sigma"), the relationships are: In the long term, processes can shift or drift significantly (most control charts are only sensitive to changes of 1.5σ or greater in process output). If there was a 1.5 sigma shift 1.5σ off of target in the processes (see Six Sigma), it would then produce these relationships: Because processes can shift or drift significantly long term, each process would have a unique sigma shift value, thus process...

    Consider a quality characteristic with target of 100.00 μm and upper and lower specification limits of 106.00 μm and 94.00 μm respectively. If, after carefully monitoring the process for a while, it appears that the process is in control and producing output predictably (as depicted in the run chartbelow), we can meaningfully estimate its mean and standard deviation. If μ ^ {\\displaystyle {\\hat {\\mu }}} and σ ^ {\\displaystyle {\\hat {\\sigma }}} are estimated to be 98.94 μm and 1.03 μm, respectively, then The fact that the process is running off-center (about 1σ below its target) is reflected in the markedly different values for Cp, Cpk, Cpm, and Cpkm.

  8. Nissan Elgrand - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Isuzu_Filly
    • First Generation
    • Second Generation
    • Third Generation
    • World Markets
    • See Also
    • External Links

    The first generation of the Nissan Elgrand was produced from May 1997 - May 2002. Various engine combinations were available including the petrol VG33E, VQ35DE and diesel QD32ETi and ZD30DDTi. The E50 had a 4 speed automatic transmission and came in either 2- or 4-wheel drive. The Caravan Elgrand was exclusive to Nissan Bluebird Store, while the Homy Elgrand was exclusive to Nissan Prince Store Japanese dealerships. The Caravan remained Nissan's commercial load carrying vehicle, while the Elgrand assumed passenger carrying duties with a luxury enhancement. The top trim level equipment packages were installed with internet enabled satellite navigation called CarWings.

    The second generation E51 Elgrand was launched in May 2002 and primarily competes with the Toyota Alphard and Honda Elysion.[citation needed]

    Initial release

    The third generation E52 Elgrand shares a platform with the North American fourth generation R42H Nissan Quest. The first revision of the Elgrand E52 was released in Japan In August 2010. It was manufactured from August 2010 to January 2014. Across this time period there were 6 trim levels available. All models were available in front-wheel drive or all-wheel drive configurations with a continuously variable transmissionbeing the only transmission option. A 250 prefix to the trim level repres...

    Trim levels

    1. Elgrand 250 XG 2. Elgrand 250/350 Highway Star 3. Elgrand 250/350 Highway Star Black Leather 4. Elgrand 250/350 Highway Star Urban Chrome 5. Elgrand 250/350 Highway Star Urban Chrome Black Leather 6. Elgrand 350 Highway Star Premium The Enchant, a version of the Elgrand with a mobility access seat in the second row, was available in the 250/350 Highway Star and the 250 XG. In Japan, the Elgrand is one level below Nissan's largest van, called the Nissan Caravanwhich has been in production s...

    2011 Elgrand update, Nissan Elgrand Urban Chrome

    Changes to the Elgrand for 2011 include: 1. Object motion sensor 2. Power liftgate (standard on 350 Highway Star, optional on 250 models) 3. Standard active AFS on 250 models Urban Chrome is a version of the 250 Highway Star and 350 Highway Star with dark chrome grille, dark chrome fog lamp finisher, front protector, graphite-finish 18-inch aluminium wheels, clear rear combination lamp, LED high-mount strap lamp (clear type), and power sliding doors on the 250 Highway Star (standard on regula...

    There is a strong grey import market emerging for Elgrands in Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Russia and previously the Philippines.Growth in these markets is mainly driven by car enthusiasts, or an unfilled need for a seven- or eight- passenger vehicle in that market. In the Philippines, first generation models were converted to left-hand drive and sold before the ban of JDM vehicles. In Hong Kong, E50 and E51 was imported in limited numbers, while the E52 is currently mass-imported. Both generations are sold officially by Nissan dealers.[citation needed] In the United Kingdom, most Elgrands are imported for resale through specialist Japanese car import agents or dealerships. There is also a growing market in self-importing Elgrands by either purchasing directly through Japanese car auctions or online dealers. In Australia, Elgrands are popular imports and are imported from Japanese import agents and special dealerships. In Indonesia, the third-generation Elgran...

    Nissan page: World, HK, Japan,
    Nissan Elgrand E50 page: 1997-1999, 1999-2000, 2001-2002
    Nissan Elgrand E51 page: 2002-2004, 2004-2007, 2007-2010
  9. Snoopy - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Snoopy
    • Traits
    • Popularity
    • History
    • Siblings
    • Reception
    • Awards and Honors
    • in Aviation and Space
    • External Links

    Snoopy is a loyal, imaginative and good-natured beagle who is prone to imagining fantasy lives, including being an author, a college student known as "Joe Cool", an attorney and a British World War I flying ace. He is perhaps best known in this last persona, wearing an aviator's helmet and goggles and a scarf while carrying a swagger stick (like a stereotypical British Army officer of World War I and II). Snoopy can be selfish, gluttonous and lazy at times, and occasionally mocks his owner, Charlie Brown. But on the whole, he shows great love, care, and loyalty for his owner (even though he cannot even remember his name and always refers to him as "The Round-Headed Kid"). In the 1990s comic strips, he is obsessed with cookies, particularly the chocolate-chip variety. This, and other instances in which he indulges in large chocolate-based meals and snacks, shows a resistance to theobromine unheard of in other dogs. All of his fantasies have a similar formula. Snoopy pretends to be so...

    Snoopy first appeared as a character balloon in the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Paradein 1968; the balloon depicted Snoopy in his World War I Flying Ace costume.

    Snoopy appeared on the October 4, 1950, strip, two days after the first strip. He was called Snoopy for the first time a month later, on November 10. He was originally Patty's dog but quickly adopts Charlie Brown. On March 16, 1952,his thoughts were first shown in a thought balloon. Snoopy first appeared upright on his hind legs on January 9, 1956, when he was shown sliding across a sheet of ice after Shermy and Lucy had done so.

    In the comic strip, Snoopy has seven brothers and sisters. Five appeared at various times in the strip: four brothers, Spike, Andy, Marbles, and Olaf; and one sister, Belle. The two others were never mentioned by name in the comic strip, but the whole family appeared in 1991 television special Snoopy's Reunion, introducing the two unknown siblings, identified in the special as Molly and Rover. Snoopy having seven siblings was an element of the strip that developed as the strip evolved. Originally described in a June 1959 strip as an "only dog", Snoopy went to a family reunion with several unnamed siblings in a May 1965 sequence. In March 1970, Snoopy wrote in his autobiography that he was one of seven puppies,and the number reached its final count of eight beagles in December 1972. In a 1987 interview, Schulz said that he felt introducing Snoopy's siblings was a mistake, similar to the introduction of Eugene the Jeep in Thimble Theatre: "I think Eugene the Jeep took the life out of...

    Snoopy and Charlie Brown were ranked by TV Guideas the 8th greatest cartoon characters of all time. Some critics feel that the strip suffered a decline in quality after the 1960s. Writing in 2000, Christopher Caldwell argued that the character of Snoopy, and the strip's increased focus on him in the 1970s, "went from being the strip's besetting artistic weakness to ruining it altogether". Caldwell felt that Snoopy "was never a full participant in the tangle of relationships that drove Peanutsin its Golden Age", as he could not talk. He went on to say that Snoopy "was way too shallow for the strip as it developed in the 1960s, and the strips he featured in were anomalies." Jim Davis noted that Snoopy was a boon from a marketing standpoint, which inspired him to center his comic strip Garfieldaround a cat: "Snoopy is very popular in licensing. Charlie Brown is not." A toy called The Snoopy Snowcone Machine was popular in the 80's and was later recreated in the 2010s by Cra-z-art.

    Schulz was a keen bridge player, and Peanuts occasionally included bridge references. In 1997, according to Alan Truscott, the American Contract Bridge League (ACBL), awarded both Snoopy and Woodstock the honorary rank of Life Master, and Schulz was delighted. On November 2, 2015, Snoopy was honored with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, becoming the second Peanuts-related figure to be inducted with a star, after Schulz.

    Following the Apollo 1 fire, Snoopy became the official mascot of aerospace safety, testing and the rebuilding of the Apollo Program.
    The Apollo 10 lunar module was named Snoopy and the command module Charlie Brown. While not included in the official mission logo, Charlie Brown and Snoopy became semi-official mascots for the miss...
    The fabric cap worn by NASA astronauts as part of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit is known as a "Snoopy cap", a reference to how the white crown and black earflaps of the cap resemble Snoopy's fur...
    The Silver Snoopy award is a special NASA honor, in the form of a sterling silverpin with an engraving of Snoopy in a spacesuit helmet. It is given by an astronaut to someone who works in the space...
    Media related to Snoopyat Wikimedia Commons
    Quotations related to Snoopyat Wikiquote
    The complete text of Snoopy's It Was a Dark and Stormy Night
  10. Wikipedia:Translation/Urban Network - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Wikipedia:Translation
    • Overview
    • Lines and Designated Colors
    • Services
    • 安全対策
    • Projects
    • その他
    • 乗車券など
    • See Also

    In 1987, Japanese National Railways was divided and privatized into the Japan Railways Group, and the newly-formed West Japan Railway Company (JR West) took over operations in the Kansai, Chūgoku, and Hokuriku regions. But compared to the East Japan Railway Company (JR East), with its extensive commuter rail network in the Kantō region, and the Central Japan Railway Company (JR Central), which operates the Tōkaidō Shinkansen, JR West was unable to compete in revenues. Due to this weakness, JR West implemented a policy designed to shore up its operational base, focusing its financial resources on the San'yō Shinkansen and on lines around greater Osaka. Among the improvements to lines around Osaka were such enhancements as the introduction of newer trains, reduction in travel times through speed increases, and through services. These new features allowed the company to win over some of the ridership of neighboring lines run by the Kansai region's major private railways. As part of the...

    Lines marked with an asterisk (*) are nicknames. Of these, the JR Kyoto Line, JR Kobe Line, and JR Takarazuka Line are so called because Hankyu Railway already has a Kyoto Line, a Kobe Line, and a...
    Lines marked with the reference mark (※) are displayed as grey on fare charts, but station name placards along these routes are painted in JR West's official corporate color: blue. The Sakurajima L...
    Line information at Kyoto Station refers to the Nara Line as the "JR Nara Line" in order to differentiate it from Kintetsu Corporation's Nara Line, as some Kintetsu trains from Kyoto Station go dir...

    Rolling stock

    221-series trainsets, introduced at the Urban Network's inception, were well received by passengers, with their large windows, bright interior, comfortable seating (bi-directional transverse seats) and other features. Along with their successor model, the 223-series, they have become a hallmark of the Urban Network. Additionally, the 4-door, commuter-oriented 207-series was introduced onto the Gakkentoshi Line (Katamachi Line) in anticipation of the JR Tōzai Line's completion, and subsequentl...

    Competition with rival operators

    In the Urban Network area, there are numerous competing lines from other operators. In order to be competitive, JR West has used the following measures:

    Through services

    JRになって、ネットワークを利用した直通運転の拡大も進んだ。 1988年にならシルクロード博覧会をきっかけにした梅田貨物線の旅客使用を開始した。さらに、翌1989年7月の関西本線~阪和線の連絡線の開通に伴って紀勢線特急「くろしお」や一部阪和線快速の新大阪乗り入れを生み、1994年6月の関西空港線の開業では貨物線を利用した京都~関西空港間の特急「はるか」が運転を開始した。そして、1991年9月には北陸本線の田村~長浜間が直流化され、新快速が長浜へと乗り入れ、その後新快速のネットワークが播州赤穂、さらには敦賀へと拡大している。既存線の直通運転に加え、2008年3月にはおおさか東線が区間開業し、大和路線からJR東西線への直通列車も登場した。このおおさか東線はさらに北部区間も開業予定で、これらを含めた利便性の向上とネットワークの拡大は今後も続く予定である。 一方、競争を意識した余裕の少ないダイヤは、わずかの事象で大きなダイヤの乱れにつながることとなった。また、直通運転の拡大はダイヤの乱れの影響を広範囲に広めることとなった。その状況下で2002年11月6日に塚本~尼崎間で消防隊員の死傷事故...

    ホーム柵の設置

    旅客の転落防止のため一部の駅において、可動式またはホーム柵の設置されている。 東海道本線・山陽本線(JR京都線・JR神戸線)・阪和線の一部の駅には可動式ホーム柵が設置されている。停車列車がなく通過列車のみ走行する線路側ホームに設置しているため、通常使用時では開口部はないが、異常時などでの臨時停車の際には、駅係員の操作により手動でホーム柵を開閉できる。 また、JR東西線北新地駅2番のりば、片町線(学研都市線)京橋駅2番のりば・東寝屋川駅1番のりばにはホームの一部に、おおさか東線JR河内永和駅・JR長瀬駅では、ホームすべてに固定式のホーム柵が設置されている。固定式のため常に開口部があり、停車した際にドアがある部分のみ柵がない。固定式ホーム柵は、4ドア車・3ドア車などが混在するため、本格導入するまでに至っていない。

    New stations

    利便性の向上および他交通機関からの利用者の転移による利用者の拡大を見込んで、アーバンネットワークでは新駅の設置を進めている。以下、最近5年間のアーバンネットワークでの新駅開業状況を記す。 1. 2004年3月13日…和歌山線:JR五位堂駅 2. 2005年3月1日…山陽本線(JR神戸線):ひめじ別所駅 3. 2007年3月18日…東海道本線(JR神戸線):さくら夙川駅 4. 2008年3月15日…東海道本線(JR京都線):島本駅、東海道本線(JR神戸線):須磨海浜公園駅、山陽本線:はりま勝原駅 5. 2008年10月18日…東海道本線(JR京都線):桂川駅 今後、以下の線区・区間で新駅を開業する計画がある。

    Opening the JR Tozai Line

    片町線(学研都市線)京橋駅から福知山線(JR宝塚線)尼崎駅までの12.5kmを結ぶJR東西線が1997年3月8日に開通し、関西文化学術研究都市のある京阪奈丘陵と三ノ宮・神戸方面や神戸三田国際公園都市がある北摂・北神地域を同線を介して直通運転が開始された。

    Renovation Osaka Station & Kyoto Station, and redevelopment of surroundings

    大阪駅北側に位置する梅田貨物駅周辺は「都心に残された最後の一等地」として大規模な再開発が進んでおり、これに合わせて大阪駅の改良工事が進められている。工事は、橋上駅舎と駅舎を覆うドームの新設、コンコースとホームの改良などによるバリアフリー施設の整備、新北ビルの建設、アクティ大阪の増床などで、2011年春にグランドオープンする予定である(→大阪2011年問題も参照)。 京都駅でも駅ビルの完成に合わせて1997年までに大規模な改良工事を行い、山陰本線(嵯峨野線)・関空特急「はるか」、奈良線のホームの増設、近鉄京都駅の改札分離、駅舎橋上化に伴う自由通路の新設などを行った。現在でも更なる改良工事が行われ、最近では駅西側にビックカメラ京都店を開業させている。また2008年2月には自由通路の西側に「スバコ・ジェイアール京都伊勢丹」が開業し、大規模な駅ナカが完成した。 その他の駅でも、構内の各種店舗開発など駅自体の集客能力の向上を進めている。

    抑止表示器の設置

    thumb|150px|抑止表示器異常時などのダイヤ乱れで、列車が駅間で長時間停車することを回避させるために、JR西日本では初めておおさか東線内の各駅(放出駅・久宝寺駅を除く)に設置された。詳しくは、阪和線運行管理システムを参照。

    列車運行情報

    2008年2月からJR東日本との提携で相互で運行情報(遅延など)を共有することを開始した。JR東日本管内でも行われている「運行情報メールサービス」も利用可能になった。なおJR西日本のサイト「おでかけネット」ではさらに詳細にまた振り替え輸送情報まで掲載されている。

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