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  1. National Pension - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › National_Pension

    The Japanese Kokumin Nenkin (国民年金) national pension is a pension system that all registered residents of Japan, both Japanese and foreign, are required to enroll in. Since January 1, 2010 it has been managed by the Japan Pension Service.

  2. National Security Bureau (Taiwan) - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › National_Security_Bureau_(Taiwan)
    • History
    • Structure
    • Directors-General
    • External Links

    The organization was created in 1955 by a ROC Presidential Directive from Chiang Kai-shek, to supervise and coordinate all security-related administrative organizations, military agencies and KMTorganizations in Taiwan. Earlier, the bureau was nicknamed "China's CIA" or "CCIA". The first Director-General of National Security Bureau was a three-star army general Cheng Jie-min[zh], with a background in military intelligence, who once was the deputy of the controversial Bureau of Investigation and Statistics of the National Military Council. (The "Military-Statistics Bureau" served under Dai Li, and even assumed command the "Military-Statistics Bureau" after the death of Dai Li in March 1946. As a result, the National Security Bureau is often seen as one of several successors to the Military-Statistics Bureau.) Initially, National Security Bureau did not have its own field officers or operatives. However, in order to strengthen its ability to guide and coordinate other intelligence age...

    The National Security Bureau is subordinate to the National Security Council(NSC). Under the chain of command, the NSC is under the direct administration of the President. However, the Director-General of the National Security Bureau usually can and does report directly to the President, bypassing the NSC. The imagery also appears to be censored on google maps from satellite view. 25.107496°N 121.535756°E

    Cheng Chieh-ming[zh](August 1954 – 11 December 1959)
    Hsia Chi-ping[zh](1 December 1962 – 30 June 1967)
  3. Transformer - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Transformer
    • Principles
    • Construction
    • Classification Parameters
    • Applications
    • History
    • Bibliography

    Ideal transformer

    An ideal transformer is a theoretical linear transformer that is lossless and perfectly coupled. Perfect coupling implies infinitely high core magnetic permeability and winding inductances and zero net magnetomotive force (i.e. ipnp - isns = 0).[c] A varying current in the transformer's primary winding attempts to create a varying magnetic flux in the transformer core, which is also encircled by the secondary winding. This varying flux at the secondary winding induces a varying electromotive...

    Transformer EMF equation

    If the flux in the core is purely sinusoidal, the relationship for either winding between its rms voltage Erms of the winding, and the supply frequency f, number of turns N, core cross-sectional area a in m2 and peak magnetic flux density Bpeak in Wb/m2or T (tesla) is given by the universal EMF equation: 1. E rms = 2 π f N a B peak 2 ≈ 4.44 f N a B peak {\\displaystyle E_{\\text{rms}}={\\frac {2\\pi fNaB_{\\text{peak}}}{\\sqrt {2}}}\\approx 4.44fNaB_{\\text{peak}}}

    Polarity

    A dot convention is often used in transformer circuit diagrams, nameplates or terminal markings to define the relative polarity of transformer windings. Positively increasing instantaneous current entering the primary winding's ‘dot’ end induces positive polarity voltage exiting the secondary winding's ‘dot’ end. Three-phase transformers used in electric power systems will have a nameplate that indicate the phase relationships between their terminals. This may be in the form of a phasordiagra...

    Cores

    Core form = core type; shell form = shell type Closed-core transformers are constructed in 'core form' or 'shell form'. When windings surround the core, the transformer is core form; when windings are surrounded by the core, the transformer is shell form. Shell form design may be more prevalent than core form design for distribution transformer applications due to the relative ease in stacking the core around winding coils. Core form design tends to, as a general rule, be more economical, and...

    Windings

    The electrical conductor used for the windings depends upon the application, but in all cases the individual turns must be electrically insulated from each other to ensure that the current travels throughout every turn. For small transformers, in which currents are low and the potential difference between adjacent turns is small, the coils are often wound from enamelled magnet wire. Larger power transformers may be wound with copper rectangular strip conductors insulated by oil-impregnated pa...

    Cooling

    It is a rule of thumb that the life expectancy of electrical insulation is halved for about every 7 °C to 10 °C increase in operating temperature (an instance of the application of the Arrhenius equation). Small dry-type and liquid-immersed transformers are often self-cooled by natural convection and radiation heat dissipation. As power ratings increase, transformers are often cooled by forced-air cooling, forced-oil cooling, water-cooling, or combinations of these. Large transformers are fil...

    Transformers can be classified in many ways, such as the following: 1. Power rating: From a fraction of a volt-ampere (VA) to over a thousand MVA. 2. Duty of a transformer: Continuous, short-time, intermittent, periodic, varying. 3. Frequency range: Power-frequency, audio-frequency, or radio-frequency. 4. Voltage class: From a few volts to hundreds of kilovolts. 5. Cooling type: Dry or liquid-immersed; self-cooled, forced air-cooled;forced oil-cooled, water-cooled. 6. Application: power supply, impedance matching, output voltage and current stabilizer, pulse, circuit isolation, power distribution, rectifier, arc furnace, amplifier output, etc.. 7. Basic magnetic form: Core form, shell form, concentric, sandwich. 8. Constant-potential transformer descriptor: Step-up, step-down, isolation. 9. General winding configuration: By IEC vector group, two-winding combinations of the phase designations delta, wye or star, and zigzag; autotransformer, Scott-T 10. Rectifier phase-shift winding c...

    Various specific electrical application designs require a variety of transformer types. Although they all share the basic characteristic transformer principles, they are customized in construction or electrical properties for certain installation requirements or circuit conditions. In electric power transmission, transformers allow transmission of electric power at high voltages, which reduces the loss due to heating of the wires. This allows generating plants to be located economically at a distance from electrical consumers.All but a tiny fraction of the world's electrical power has passed through a series of transformers by the time it reaches the consumer. In many electronic devices, a transformer is used to convert voltage from the distribution wiring to convenient values for the circuit requirements, either directly at the power line frequency or through a switch mode power supply. Signal and audio transformers are used to couple stages of amplifiers and to match devices such...

    Discovery of induction

    Electromagnetic induction, the principle of the operation of the transformer, was discovered independently by Michael Faraday in 1831 and Joseph Henry in 1832. Only Faraday furthered his experiments to the point of working out the equation describing the relationship between EMF and magnetic flux now known as Faraday's law of induction: 1. | E | = | d Φ B d t | , {\\displaystyle |{\\mathcal {E}}|=\\left|{{\\mathrm {d} \\Phi _{\\text{B}}} \\over \\mathrm {d} t}\\right|,} where | E | {\\displaystyle |{\\m...

    Induction coils

    The first type of transformer to see wide use was the induction coil, invented by Rev. Nicholas Callan of Maynooth College, Ireland in 1836. He was one of the first researchers to realize the more turns the secondary winding has in relation to the primary winding, the larger the induced secondary EMF will be. Induction coils evolved from scientists' and inventors' efforts to get higher voltages from batteries. Since batteries produce direct current (DC) rather than AC, induction coils relied...

    First alternating current transformers

    By the 1870s, efficient generators producing alternating current (AC) were available, and it was found AC could power an induction coil directly, without an interrupter. In 1876, Russian engineer Pavel Yablochkov invented a lighting system based on a set of induction coils where the primary windings were connected to a source of AC. The secondary windings could be connected to several 'electric candles'(arc lamps) of his own design. The coils Yablochkov employed functioned essentially as tran...

    Beeman, Donald, ed. (1955). Industrial Power Systems Handbook. McGraw-Hill.
    Calvert, James (2001). "Inside Transformers". University of Denver. Archived from the original on May 9, 2007. Retrieved May 19, 2007.
    Coltman, J. W. (Jan 1988). "The Transformer". Scientific American. 258 (1): 86–95. Bibcode:1988SciAm.258a..86C. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0188-86. OSTI 6851152.
    Coltman, J.W. (Jan–Feb 2002). "The Transformer [Historical Overview]". IEEE Industry Applications Magazine. 8 (1): 8–15. doi:10.1109/2943.974352. S2CID 18160717.
  4. Batman - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Batman

    Batman is a superhero who appears in American comic books published by DC Comics.Batman was created by artist Bob Kane and writer Bill Finger, and debuted in the 27th issue of the comic book Detective Comics on March 30, 1939. In the DC Universe ...

  5. Turkey - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Turkey

    Turkey is a regional power, and a newly industrialized and developing country, with a geopolitically strategic location. Its economy, which is classified among the emerging and growth-leading economies, is the twentieth-largest in the world by ...

  6. Facebook - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Facebook

    Facebook's initial public offering came on May 17, 2012, at a share price of US$38. The company was valued at $104 billion, the largest valuation to that date. The IPO raised $16 billion, the third-largest in U.S. history, after Visa Inc. in ...

  7. Kyōiku kanji - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Gakunenbetsu_kanji_haitōhyō

    Kyōiku kanji (教育漢字, literally "education kanji"), also known as Gakunenbetsu kanji haitōhyō (学年別漢字配当表, literally "list of kanji by school year") is a list of 1,026 kanji and associated readings developed and ...

  8. Electric generator - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Electric_generator
    • Terminology
    • History
    • Specialized Types of Generator
    • Common Use Cases
    • Equivalent Circuit

    Electromagneticgenerators fall into one of two broad categories, dynamos and alternators. 1. Dynamos generate pulsing direct current through the use of a commutator. 2. Alternators generate alternating current. Mechanically a generator consists of a rotating part and a stationary part: 1. Rotor: The rotating part of an electrical machine. 2. Stator: The stationary part of an electrical machine, which surrounds the rotor. One of these parts generates a magnetic field, the other has a wire winding in which the changing field induces an electric current: 1. Field winding or field (permanent) magnets: The magnetic field-producing component of an electrical machine. The magnetic field of the dynamo or alternator can be provided by either wire windings called field coils or permanent magnets. Electrically-excited generators include an excitation system to produce the field flux. A generator using permanent magnets (PMs) is sometimes called a magneto, or a permanent magnet synchronous gene...

    Before the connection between magnetism and electricity was discovered, electrostatic generators were invented. They operated on electrostatic principles, by using moving electrically charged belts, plates, and disks that carried charge to a high potential electrode. The charge was generated using either of two mechanisms: electrostatic induction or the triboelectric effect. Such generators generated very high voltage and low current. Because of their inefficiency and the difficulty of insulating machines that produced very high voltages, electrostatic generators had low power ratings, and were never used for generation of commercially significant quantities of electric power. Their only practical applications were to power early X-ray tubes, and later in some atomic particle accelerators.

    Direct current

    A dynamo uses commutators to produce direct current. It is self-excited, i.e. its field electromagnets are powered by the machine's own output. Other types of DC generators use a separate source of direct current to energize their field magnets.

    Power station

    A power station, also referred to as a power plant or powerhouse and sometimes generating station or generating plant, is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power. Most power stations contain one or more generators, a rotating machine that converts mechanical power into three-phase electric power. The relative motion between a magnetic field and a conductor creates an electrical current. The energy source harnessed to turn the generator varies widely. Most power stations in...

    Genset

    An engine-generator is the combination of an electrical generator and an engine (prime mover) mounted together to form a single piece of self-contained equipment. The engines used are usually piston engines, but gas turbines can also be used, and there are even hybrid diesel-gas units, called dual-fuel units. Many different versions of engine-generators are available - ranging from very small portable petrolpowered sets to large turbine installations. The primary advantage of engine-generator...

    Human powered electrical generators

    A generator can also be driven by human muscle power (for instance, in field radio station equipment). Human powered electric generators are commercially available, and have been the project of some DIY enthusiasts. Typically operated by means of pedal power, a converted bicycle trainer, or a foot pump, such generators can be practically used to charge batteries, and in some cases are designed with an integral inverter. An average "healthy human" can produce a steady 75 watts (0.1 horsepower)...

    An equivalent circuit of a generator and load is shown in the adjacent diagram. The generator is represented by an abstract generator consisting of an ideal voltage source and an internal impedance. The generator's V G {\\displaystyle V_{\\text{G}}} and R G {\\displaystyle R_{\\text{G}}} parameters can be determined by measuring the winding resistance (corrected to operating temperature), and measuring the open-circuit and loaded voltage for a defined current load. This is the simplest model of a generator, further elements may need to be added for an accurate representation. In particular, inductance can be added to allow for the machine's windings and magnetic leakage flux,but a full representation can become much more complex than this.

  9. Differences between Shinjitai and Simplified characters - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Differences_in_Shinjitai_and
    • List of Different Simplifications
    • Traditional Characters That May Cause Problems Displaying
    • Different Stroke Orders in Chinese and Japanese

    The old and new forms of the Kyōiku Kanji and their Hànzì equivalents are listed below. In the following lists, the characters are sorted by the radicals of the Japanese kanji. The two Kokuji 働 and 畑 in the Kyōiku-Kanji List, which have no Chinese equivalents, are not listed here. Note that 弁 is used to simplify three different Traditional characters (辨, 瓣, and 辯) in Japan. 1. No simplificationin either language (The following characters were simplified neither in Japanese nor in Chinese.) 1. 一 丁 下 三 不 天 五 民 正 平 可 再 百 否 武 夏 中 内 出 本 世 申 由 史 冊 央 向 曲 印 州 表 果 半 必 永 求 九 丸 千 久 少 夫 午 失 末 未 包 年 危 后 兵 我 束 卵 承 垂 刷 重 省 看 勉 七 乳 才 予 事 二 元 亡 六 主 市 交 忘 夜 育 京 卒 商 率 就 人 化 今 仁 付 代 仕 他 令 以 合 全 任 休 件 仲 作 何 位 住 余 低 似 命 使 念 例 供 信 保 便 値 修 借 候 倍 俳 俵 健 停 働 像 先 入 八 分 公 共 弟 並 典 前 益 善 尊 同 周 次 兆 冷 弱 刀 切 別 判 制 券 刻 副 割 力 加 助 努 勇 勤 句 北 疑 十 古 孝 直 南 真 裁 博 上 反 灰 厚 原 台 能 友 収 口 司 右 兄 吸 告 君 味 呼 品 唱 器 四 回 因 困 固 土 去 地 在 寺 均 志 坂 幸 型 城 基 域 喜 境 士 冬 各 夕 外 名 多 大 太 奏 女 好 始 妻 姉 妹 姿 子 存 安 字 守 宅 宇 完 定 官 宙 宗 室 客 宣 家 害 案 容 宮 寄 密 宿 寒...

    Some of the traditional Kanji are not included in the Japanese font of Windows XP/2000, and only rectangles are shown. Downloading the Meiryo font from the Microsoft website (VistaFont_JPN.EXE) and installing it will solve this problem. Note that within the Jōyō Kanji there are 62 characters the old forms of which may cause problems displaying: Kyōiku Kanji (26): Grade 2 (2 Kanji): 海 社 Grade 3 (8 Kanji): 勉 暑 漢 神 福 練 者 都 Grade 4 (6 Kanji): 器 殺 祝 節 梅 類 Grade 5 (1 Kanji): 祖 Grade 6 (9 Kanji): 勤 穀 視 署 層 著 諸 難 朗 Secondary-School Kanji (36): 欄 廊 虜 隆 塚 祥 侮 僧 免 卑 喝 嘆 塀 墨 悔 慨 憎 懲 敏 既 煮 碑 祉 祈 禍 突 繁 臭 褐 謁 謹 賓 贈 逸 響 頻 These characters are Unicode CJK Unified Ideographs for which the old form (kyūjitai) and the new form (shinjitai) have been unified under the Unicode standard. Although the old and new forms are distinguished under the JIS X 0213 standard, the old forms map to Unicode CJK Compatibility Ideographs which are considered by Unicode to be canonically equivalent to the new forms and ma...

    Some characters, whether simplified or not, look the same in Chinese and Japanese, but have different stroke orders. For example, in Japan, 必 is written with the top dot first, while the Traditional stroke order writes the 丿 first. In the characters 王 and 玉, the vertical stroke is the third stroke in Chinese, but the second stroke in Japanese.Taiwan and Hong Kong use Traditional characters, though with an altered stroke order.

  10. List of jōyō kanji - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Joyo_kanji_list

    List of characters For brevity, only one English translation is given per kanji. The "Grade" column specifies the grade in which the kanji is taught in Elementary schools in Japan.Grade "S" means that it is taught in ...

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