Education Berklee College of Music Occupation Cellist, actress, singer, musician Years active 2014–present Agent Sony Music Entertainment China Ouyang Nana (Chinese: 歐陽娜娜; pinyin: Ōuyáng Nànà; born 15 June 2000) is a Taiwanese musician and ...
- Positive Implications
- in Popular Culture
- See Also
- External Links
Photo manipulation was developed in the 19th century and soon applied to motion pictures. Technology steadily improved during the 20th century, and more quickly with digital video. Deepfake technology has been developed by researchers at academic institutions beginning in the 1990s, and later by amateurs in online communities.More recently the methods have been adopted by industry.
Deepfakes rely on a type of neural network called an autoencoder. These consist of an encoder, which reduces an image to a lower dimensional latent space, and a decoder, which reconstructs the image from the latent representation. Deepfakes utilize this architecture by having a universal encoder which encodes a person in to the latent space. The latent representation contains key features about their facial features and body posture. This can then be decoded with a model trained specifically for the target.This means the target's detailed information will be superimposed on the underlying facial and body features of the original video, represented in the latent space. A popular upgrade to this architecture attaches a generative adversarial network to the decoder. A GAN trains a generator, in this case the decoder, and a discriminator in an adversarial relationship. The generator creates new images from the latent representation of the source material, while the discriminator attempt...
Deepfakes can be used to generate blackmail materials that falsely incriminate a victim. However, since the fakes cannot reliably be distinguished from genuine materials, victims of actual blackmail can now claim that the true artifacts are fakes, granting them plausible deniability. The effect is to void credibility of existing blackmail materials, which erases loyalty to blackmailers and destroys the blackmailer's control. This phenomenon can be termed "blackmail inflation", since it "deval...
Many deepfakes on the internet feature pornography of people, often female celebrities whose likeness is typically used without their consent. Deepfake pornography prominently surfaced on the Internet in 2017, particularly on Reddit. A report published in October 2019 by Dutch cybersecurity startup Deeptrace estimated that 96% of all deepfakes online were pornographic. The first one that captured attention was the Daisy Ridley deepfake, which was featured in several articles. Other prominent...
Deepfakes have been used to misrepresent well-known politicians in videos. 1. In separate videos, the face of the Argentine President Mauricio Macri has been replaced by the face of Adolf Hitler, and Angela Merkel's face has been replaced with Donald Trump's. 2. In April 2018, Jordan Peele collaborated with Buzzfeed to create a deepfake of Barack Obama with Peele's voice; it served as a public service announcementto increase awareness of deepfakes. 3. In January 2019, Fox affiliate KCPQ aired...
Audio deepfakes have been used as part of social engineering scams, fooling people into thinking they are receiving instructions from a trusted individual.In 2019, a U.K.-based energy firm's CEO was scammed over the phone when he was ordered to transfer €220,000 into a Hungarian bank account by an individual who used audio deepfake technology to impersonate the voice of the firm's parent company's chief executive.
Credibility and authenticity
Though fake photos have long been plentiful, faking motion pictures has been more difficult, and the presence of deepfakes increases the difficulty of classifying videos as genuine or not. AI researcher Alex Champandard has said people should know how fast things can be corrupted with deepfake technology, and that the problem is not a technical one, but rather one to be solved by trust in information and journalism. Deepfakes can be leveraged to defame, impersonate, and spread disinformation....
Deepfakes of North Korean leader Kim Jong-un and Russian president Vladimir Putin have also been created by a nonpartisan advocacy group RepresentUs. These deepfakes were meant to air publicly as commercials to relay the notion that interference by these leaders in US elections would be detrimental to the United States' democracy; the commercial also aimed to shock Americans to realize how fragile democracy is, and how media and news can significantly influence the country's path regardless o...
Potential positive innovations have also emerged alongside the growing popularity and creation of deepfakes. For example, corporate training videos can be created using deepfaked avatars and their voices. An example of this is Synthesia, which uses deepfake technology with avatars to create personalized videos.
Most of the academic research surrounding deepfake seeks to detect the videos. The most popular technique is to use algorithms similar to the ones used to build the deepfake to detect them. By recognizing patterns in how deepfakes are created the algorithm is able to pick up subtle inconsistencies. Researchers have developed automatic systems that examine videos for errors such as irregular blinking patterns of lighting. This technique has also been criticized for creating a "Moving Goal post...
Since 2017, Samantha Cole of Vice published a series of articles covering news surrounding deepfake pornography. On 31 January 2018, Gfycat began removing all deepfakes from its site. On Reddit, the r/deepfakes subreddit was banned on 7 February 2018, due to the policy violation of "involuntary pornography". In the same month, representatives from Twitter stated that they would suspend accounts suspected of posting non-consensual deepfake content. Chat site Discord has taken action against de...
In the United States, there have been some responses to the problems posed by deepfakes. In 2018, the Malicious Deep Fake Prohibition Act was introduced to the US Senate, and in 2019 the DEEPFAKES Accountability Act was introduced in the House of Representatives. Several states have also introduced legislation regarding deepfakes, including Virginia, Texas, California, and New York. On 3 October 2019, California governor Gavin Newsom signed into law Assembly Bills No. 602 and No. 730. Assembl...The 1986 Mid-December issue of Analogmagazine published the novelette "Picaper" by Jack Wodhams. Its plot revolves around digitally enhanced or digitally generated videos produced by skilled hacker...The 1987 film The Running Manstarring Arnold Schwarzenegger depicts an autocratic government using computers to digitally replace the faces of actors with those of wanted fugitives to make it appea...In the 1992 techno-thriller A Philosophical Investigation by Philip Kerr, "Wittgenstein", the main character and a serial killer, makes use of both a software similar to Deepfake and a virtual real...The 1993 film Rising Sunstarring Sean Connery and Wesley Snipes depicts another character, Jingo Asakuma, who reveals that a computer disc has digitally altered personal identities to implicate a c...
- Human Health
- Food Production
- See Also
- External Links
Lactobacilli are homofermentative, i.e. hexoses are metabolised by glycolysis to lactate as major end product, or heterofermentative, i.e. hexoses are metabolised by the Phosphoketolase pathway to lactate, CO2 and acetate or ethanol as major end products. Most lactobacilli are aerotolerant and some species respire if heme and menaquinone are present in the growth medium. Aerotolerance of lactobacilli is manganese-dependent and has been explored (and explained) in Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (previously Lactobacillus plantarum). Lactobacilli generally do not require ironfor growth. The Lactobacillaceae are the only family of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that includes homofermentative and heterofermentative organisms; in the Lactobacillaceae, homofermentative or heterofermentative metabolism is shared by all strains of a genus. Lactobacillus species are all homofermentative, do not express pyruvate formate lyase, and most species do not ferment pentoses. In L. crispatus, pentose m...
The genomes of lactobacilli are highly variable, ranging in size from 1.2 to 4.9 Mb (megabases). Accordingly, the number of protein-coding genes ranges from 1,267 to about 4,758 genes (in Fructilactobacillus sanfranciscensis and Lentilactobacillus parakefiri, respectively). Even within a single species there can be substantial variation. For instance, strains of L. crispatus have genome sizes ranging from 1.83 to 2.7 Mb, or 1,839 to 2,688 open reading frames. Lactobacillus contains a wealth of compound microsatellites in the coding region of the genome, which are imperfect and have variant motifs.Many lactobacilli also contain multiple plasmids. A recent study has revealed that plasmids encode the genes which are required for adaptation of lactobacilli to the given environment.
The genus Lactobacillus currently contains 44 species which are adapted to vertebrate hosts or to insects. In recent years, other members of the genus Lactobacillus (formerly known as the Leuconostoc branch of Lactobacillus) have been reclassified into the genera Atopobium, Carnobacterium, Weissella, Oenococcus, and Leuconostoc. The Pediococcus species P. dextrinicus has been reclassified as a Lapidilactobacillus dextrinicus and most lactobacilli were assigned to Paralactobacillus or one of the 23 novel genera of the Lactobacillaceae. Two websites inform on the assignment of species to the novel genera or species (http://www.lactobacillus.uantwerpen.be/; http://www.lactobacillus.ualberta.ca/).
The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclatureand the phylogeny is based on whole-genome sequences.
The female genital tract is one of the principal colonisation sites for human microbiotic, and there is interest in the relationship between the composition of these bacteria and human health, with a domination by a single species being correlated with general welfare and good outcomes in pregnancy. In around 70% of women, a Lactobacillusspecies is dominant, although that has been found to vary between American women of European origin and those of African origin, the latter group tending to...
Interactions with other pathogens
Lactobacilli produce hydrogen peroxide which inhibits the growth and virulence of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans in vitro and in vivo. In vitro studies have also shown that lactobacilli reduce the pathogenicity of C. albicans through the production of organic acids and certain metabolites. Both the presence of metabolites, such as sodium butyrate, and the decrease in environmental pH caused by the organic acids reduce the growth of hyphae in C. albicans, which reduces its pathogenicity....
Fermentive bacteria like lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce hydrogen peroxide which protects themselves from oxygen toxicity. The accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in growth media, and its antagonistic effects on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas, have been demonstrated by researchers. LAB cultures have been used as starter cultures to create fermented foods since the beginning of the 20th century. Elie Metchnikoffwon a nobel prize in 1908 for his work on LAB. Lactobacilli administered in...
Lactobacilli comprise most food fermenting lactic acid bacteria and are used as starter cultures in industry for controlled fermentation in the production of wine, yogurt, cheese, sauerkraut, pickles, beer, cider, kimchi, cocoa, kefir, and other fermented foods, as well as animal feeds and the bokashi soil amendment. Lactobacillus species are dominant in yoghurt, cheese, and sourdough fermentations.The antibacterial and antifungal activity of lactobacilli relies on production of bacteriocins and low molecular weight compounds that inhibits these microorganisms. Sourdough bread is made either spontaneously, by taking advantage of the bacteria naturally present in flour, or by using a "starter culture", which is a symbiotic culture of yeast and lactic acid bacteria growing in a water and flour medium.The bacteria metabolize sugars into lactic acid, which lowers the pH of their environment, creating a signature "sourness" associated with yogurt, sauerkraut, etc. In many traditional pic...
- Commercial Success
The first YouTuber was Jawed Karim, who created his YouTube channel, jawed, on April 23, 2005 PDT (April 24, 2005 UTC).
Influential YouTubers are frequently described as microcelebrities. Since YouTube is widely conceived as a bottom-up social media video platform, microcelebrities do not appear to be involved with the established and commercial system of celebrity culture but rather appear self-governed and independent.This appearance, in turn, leads to YouTubers being seen as more relatable and authentic, also fostered by the direct connection between artist and viewer using the medium of YouTube. In 2014, the University of Southern California surveyed 13-18 year-olds in the United States on whether 10 YouTube celebrities or 10 traditional celebrities were more influential; YouTube personalities took the first five spots of the ranking, with the YouTube duo Smosh ranking as most influential. It repeated in 2015 and found six YouTubers on the first ranks, with KSI ranked as most influential. Several prominent YouTubers and their influence were subjects for scientific studies, such as Zoella and PewD...
YouTubers can earn revenue from Google AdSense. Additionally, they can supplement their income through affiliate links, merchandising, and 3rd party memberships using platforms such as Patreon. Popular channels have garnered corporate sponsors, who pay to be included in the videos. In 2018, Walmart, Nordstrom, and others sought YouTube stars as influencers. In the early days of YouTube, there was no way to monetize videos on the platform. Much of the site's content was homemade and produced by hobbyists with no plans for making money on the site. The first targeted advertising on the site came in the form of participatory video ads, which were videos in their own right that offered users the opportunity to view exclusive content by clicking on the ad. The first such ad was for the Fox show Prison Break and solely appeared above videos on Paris Hilton's channel. At the time, the channel was operated by Warner Bros. Records and was cited as the first brand channel on the platform. Par...
- Creation of The Brand
- A New Positioning
- Acquisition by LVMH
- Céline’s Designers
- Phoebe Philo: A Decade as Creative Director
- Hedi Slimane
- External Links
In 1945, Céline Vipiana (1915–1997) and her husband, Richard, created one of the first luxury brands in the industry, Céline, a made-to-measure children's shoe business, and opened a first boutique at 52 rue Malte in Paris.The brand was recognised by its logo, the red elephant created by Raymont Peynet.
In 1960, the brand decided to change its positioning by focusing its business on a ready-to-wear fashion brand for women with a sportswear approach. Henceforth, the brand offered a range of leather goods such as bags, loafers, gloves and clothes.Céline Vipiana remained the designer from 1945-1997. In 1964, the launch of the new fragrance "Vent fou" and the new ‘American Sulky’ collection of accessories gained success. The trench became the chief product of the house. Prompted by the popularity of leather, Céline opened a leather goods factory in Florence. In 1973, Céline redesigned its logo with the intertwined "C" Sulky canvas, linked to the Arc-de-Triomphe, which appeared as a symbol for Parisians.At that time, Céline began its expansion in the world with the opening of various boutiques in Monte Carlo, Geneva, Hong Kong, Lausanne, Toronto and Beverly Hills. The brand’s founders wished to be part of a charitable association, so Richard Vipiana established the Céline-Pasteur Prize,...
In 1987, Bernard Arnault decided to buy into Céline’s capital. However, it was only in 1996 that the brand was integrated into the LVMH group for 2.7 billion French francs ($540 million). LVMHpropelled the brand to fame with the opening of a boutique at 36 avenue Montaigne in Paris.
After Céline Vipiana, Peggy Huynh Kinh, appointed by Bernard Arnault, took over the house’s artistic direction in 1988. She modernised the brand and initiated seasonal collections for accessories. American fashion designer Michael Kors was named women's ready-to-wear designer and creative director for Céline in 1997. During his tenure at Céline, Kors brought modern femininity with a luxurious spirit.In 2004, he left the fashion luxury house to focus his career on his own brand. In 2005, Italiandesigner Roberto Menichetti was named creative director. A year later, Croatian designer Ivana Omazic directed the design studio. Omazic was a former consultant for the brand and previously worked with Romeo Gigli, Prada, Jil Sanderand Miu Miu. Omazic designed for Céline until 2008, after further disappointments for the brand.
On September 4, 2008, the fashion portal Women's Wear Daily announced that Bernard Arnault, president of LVMH, had appointed Phoebe Philo as the new creative director of Céline. Philo's tenure at Céline began in October 2008, and she presented her first ready-to-wear collection for Spring/Summer 2010 at Paris Fashion Week. Pierre-Yves Roussel, chief executive officer of LVMH’s fashion division, said that recruiting Philo was giving her the opportunity to express her vision.In 2009, Vogue Magazine defined her style as the “cool minimal trend”. Philo studied at Central Saint Martins School of Art and Design in London. Prior to Céline, Philo held the position of Design Director at Chloé. In 2010, Philo received the Designer of the Year award from British Fashion Council. In 2011, she was awarded International Designer of the Year by the Council of Fashion Designers of America.Both prizes were awarded for her work at Céline. In December 2017, Philo announced her departure from Céline af...
On January 21, 2018, LVMH announced the appointment of Hedi Slimane as Artistic, Creative and Image Director, set to join the house on February 1. He is to direct all Céline collections, extending the brand's offering with the launch of men’s fashion, couture and fragrances. In September 2018, Slimane presented an updated Celine logo on the brand's Instagram account.Slimane created his retail flagship concept stores in Paris, Tokyo, Shanghai, Los Angeles, Madrid, Milan and London.Slimane replaced the brand's tradition style with his personal signature "driven by youth culture, indie rock and sulking adolescence."
Dakota Johnson was the first celebrity to wear Slimane’s first Celine collection on the red carpet for the Los Angeles premiere of Suspiria.
The brand owns almost 150 stores worldwide and is distributed through a selective network including department stores such as Barneys New York (New York), Bergdorf Goodman (New York), Harrods (London) and Galeries Lafayette (Paris).
"See You Again" is a song by American rapper Wiz Khalifa, featuring American singer Charlie Puth. It was commissioned for the soundtrack of the 2015 film Furious 7 as a tribute to actor Paul Walker, who died in a single-vehicle ...
China's economic growth has been consistently above 6 percent since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978. China is also the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. Between 2010 and 2019, China's ...