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  1. Background information Born December 14, 1931Whiteville, Tennessee, U.S. Died May 26, 1989 (aged 57) Memphis, Tennessee Genres Jazz Occupation(s) Musician Instruments Piano Phineas Newborn Jr. (December 14, 1931 – May 26, 1989) was an American jazz pianist, whose principal influences were Art Tatum, Oscar Peterson, and Bud Powell

    • Early Life
    • Career
    • Personal Life
    • Death and Legacy
    • See Also
    • Further Reading

    Cheung was born Cheung Fat-chung in Kowloon, British Hong Kong, the youngest of 10 children in a middle-class Hakka family. His father, Cheung Wut-hoi, was a well-known tailor specialised in suits whose customers included Western celebrities such as film director Alfred Hitchcock and actors Marlon Brando and Cary Grant. Despite his father's reputat...

    Beginnings

    Upon returning to Hong Kong, Cheung went back to high school as a mature student and formed a band, where he was the lead singer, with his classmates. In May 1977, the band members signed up individually for Rediffusion Television (RTV)'s Asian Singing Contest. Only Cheung remained until the final round of the Hong Kong division, where he finished as the first runner-up with a rendition of "American Pie". He proceeded to the pan-Asian division, finishing fifth. Soon after the competition, RTV...

    1982–1989: Cantopop success and film crossover

    Cheung signed with Capital Artists, a record label closely associated with the then-dominant television network TVB, in 1982. His first hit single, "The Wind Blows On" (風繼續吹; 1982), is a cover version of Momoe Yamaguchi's Japanese single "The Other Side of Goodbye" (さよならの向こう側). The song was successful on charts, revitalising Cheung's image as a Cantopop singer. The titular album was Cheung's first to be certified gold by the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI) Hong Ko...

    1990–1995: Music hiatus and major film roles

    In addition to music, Cheung had his breakthrough movie role in the crime-action A Better Tomorrow (1986), which would pave the way for his upcoming career in cinema. Cheung announced his "retirement" and emigrated to Canada in 1989, in the aftermath of the handover of Hong Kong, but subsequently returned to show business in 1990. He also won Best Actor at the 1994 Hong Kong Film Critics Society Awards in the comedy-drama Ashes of Time(1994). The turning point in Cheung's acting career came i...

    In 1977, during the filming of the RTV television series Love Story, the then 20-year-old Cheung met and fell in love with his 17-year-old co-star, Teresa Mo (毛舜筠), and they got together after they finished the series. In 1979, Cheung proposed to Mo with flowers, but his sudden proposal startled her and she began to distance herself from him. Altho...

    Cheung died by suicide on 1 April 2003 at 6:43 pm (HKT). He leapt from the 24th floor of the Mandarin Oriental hotel, located in the Central district of Hong Kong Island.He left a suicide note saying that he had been suffering from depression. As one of the most popular performers in Asia, Cheung's death broke the hearts of millions of his fans acr...

    Simon Broughton, Mark Ellingham, World Music Volume 2: Latin and North America, Caribbean, India, Asia and Pacific, BBC Radio, 2000, ISBN 1-85828-636-0
    Kei Mori, "夢想之欠片 (Broken pieces of dreams)", Renga Shyobo Shinshya Co Ltd, Tokyo, Japan, 2004, ISBN 4-902603-55-1
    Chitose Shima, "Leslie Cheung Interview", All About Leslie, p25–40, Sangyo Henshu Center Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan, 1999, ISBN 4-916199-10-3
    Chitose Shima, Time of Leslie Cheung, Sangyo Henshu Center Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan, 2004, ISBN 4-916199-59-6
    • Names
    • Background
    • Political Boundaries
    • History
    • Government and Politics
    • Economy
    • Life Under The Regime
    • Notable Figures
    • Legacy
    • in Popular Culture

    The regime is informally also known as the Nanjing Nationalist Government (Chinese: 南京國民政府; pinyin: NánjīngGuómínZhèngfǔ), the Nanjing Regime, or by its leader Wang Jingwei Regime (Chinese: 汪精衛政權; pinyin: WāngJīngwèiZhèngquán). As the government of the Republic of China and subsequently of the People's Republic of China regard the regime as illegal...

    While Wang Jingwei was widely regarded as a favorite to inherit Sun Yat-sen's position as leader of the Nationalist Party, based upon his faithful service to the party throughout the 1910s and 20s and based on his unique position as the one who accepted and recorded Dr. Sun's last will and testament, he was rapidly overtaken by Chiang Kai-shek. By ...

    In theory, the Reorganized National Government controlled all of China with the exception of Manchukuo, which it recognized as an independent state. In actuality, at the time of its formation, the Reorganized Government controlled only Jiangsu, Anhui, and the north sector of Zhejiang, all being Japanese-controlled territories after 1937. Thereafter...

    Shanghai as de facto capital, 1939–1941

    With Nanjing still rebuilding itself after the devastating assault and occupation by the Japanese Imperial Army, the fledgling Reorganized Nationalist Government turned to Shanghai as its primary focal point. With its key role as both an economic and media center for all China, close affiliation to Western Imperial powers even despite the Japanese invasion, and relatively sheltered position from attacks by KMT and Communist forces alike, Shanghai offered both sanctuary and opportunity for Wan...

    Foundation of the Reorganized Government in Nanjing

    The administrative structure of the Reorganized National Government included a Legislative Yuan and an Executive Yuan. Both were under the president and head of state Wang Jingwei. However, actual political power remained with the commander of the Japanese Central China Area Armyand Japanese political entities formed by Japanese political advisors. After obtaining Japanese approval to establish a national government in the summer of 1940, Wang Jingwei ordered the 6th National Congress of the...

    Efforts to expand Japanese recognition

    While Wang had been successful in securing from Japan a "basic treaty" recognizing the foundation of his new party in November 1940, the produced document granted the Reorganized Nationalist Government almost no powers whatsoever. This initial treaty precluded any possibility for Wang to act as intermediary with Chiang Kai-shek and his forces in securing a peace agreement in China. Likewise, the regime was afforded no extra administrative powers in occupied China, save those few previously ca...

    International recognition and foreign relations

    The Nanjing Nationalist Government received little international recognition as it was seen as a Japanese puppet state, being recognized only by Japan and the rest of the Axis powers. Initially, its main sponsor, Japan, hoped to come to a peace accord with Chiang Kai-shek and held off official diplomatic recognition for the Wang Jingwei regime for eight months after its founding, not establishing formal diplomatic relations with the National Reorganized Government until 30 November 1940. The...

    State ideology

    After Japan's pivot towards joining the Axis powers (which included signing the Tripartite Pact), Wang Jingwei's government promoted the idea of pan-Asianism directed against the West, aimed at establishing a "New Order in East Asia" together with Japan, Manchukuo, and other Asian nations that would expel Western colonial powersfrom Asia, particularly the "Anglo-Saxons" (the U.S. and Britain) that dominated large parts of Asia. Wang Jingwei used pan-Asianism, basing his views on Sun Yat-sen's...

    National defense

    During its existence, the Reorganized National Government nominally led a large army that was estimated to have included 300,000 to 500,000 men, along with a smaller navy and air force. Although its land forces possessed limited armor and artillery, they were primarily an infantry force. Military aid from Japan was also very limited despite Japanese promises to assist the Nanjing regime in the "Japan–China Military Affairs Agreement" that they signed. All military matters were the responsibil...

    The North China Transportation Company and the Central China Railwaywere established by the former Provisional Government and Reformed Government, which had nationalised private railway and bus companies that operated in their territories, and continued to function providing railway and bus services in the Nanjing regime's territory.

    Japanese under the regime had greater access to coveted wartime luxuries, and the Japanese enjoyed things like matches, rice, tea, coffee, cigars, foods, and alcoholic drinks, all of which were scarce in Japan proper, but consumer goods became more scarce after Japan entered World War II. In Japanese-occupied Chinese territories the prices of basic...

    Local administration: 1. Wang Jingwei: President and Head of State 2. Chen Gongbo: President and Head of State after the death of Wang. Also, President of the Legislative Yuan (1940–1944) and Mayor of the Shanghaioccupied sector. 3. Zhou Fohai: Vice President and Finance Minister in the Executive Yuan 4. Wen Tsungyao: Chief of the Judicial Yuan 5. ...

    Having died before the war had ended, Wang Jingwei was unable to join his fellow Reorganized Nationalist Government leaders on trial for treason in the months that followed the Japanese surrender. Instead he, alongside his presidential successor Chen Gongbo (who was tried and sentenced to death by the victorious Nationalists) and his vice president...

    Lust, Caution is a 1979 novella by Chinese author Eileen Chang which was later turned into an award-winning film by Ang Lee. The story is about a group of young university students who attempt to a...
    The 2009 Chinese film The Message is a thriller/mystery in the vein of a number of Agatha Christie novels. The main characters are all codebreakers serving in the Reorganized National Government's...
  2. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Janine_ChangJanine Chang - Wikipedia

    Janine Chang Chun-ning (Chinese: 張鈞甯; pinyin: Zhāng Jūnníng; born 4 September 1982) is a Taiwanese actress.[1][2] Chang attended National Taipei University and obtained a bachelor's degree in law. In June 2010, Chang graduated from the Institute of Industrial Economics at National Central University with a master's degree.[3] Chang ...

    • History
    • Religious Policies
    • See Also
    • Sources

    Establishment

    The Vandals, under their new king Gaiseric (also known as Genseric or Geiseric), crossed to Africa in 429. Although their numbers are unknown and some historians debate the validity of estimates, based on Procopius's assertion that the Vandals and Alans numbered 80,000 when they moved to North Africa, Peter Heather estimates that they could have fielded an army of around 15,000–20,000. According to Procopius, the Vandals came to Africa at the request of Bonifacius, the military ruler of the r...

    The grain trade

    Historians since Edward Gibbon have seen the capture of North Africa by the Vandals and Alans as the "deathblow" and "the greatest single blow" to the Western Roman Empire in its struggle to survive. Prior to the Vandals, northern Africa was prosperous and peaceful, requiring only a small percentage of the Roman Empire's military forces, and was an important source of taxes for the empire and grain for the city of Rome. The scholar Josephusin the 1st century AD said that North Africa fed Rome...

    Sack of Rome

    The peace treaty of 442 did not halt Vandal raids in the western Mediterranean. Over the next 35 years, Gaiseric used his large naval fleet to loot the coasts of both the Eastern and Western Empires. After Attila the Hun's death in 453, however, the Romans turned their attention back to the Vandals, who were now in control of some of the richest lands formerly ruled by Rome.[citation needed] In an effort to bring the Vandals into the fold of the Empire, Valentinian III offered the hand of his...

    From their invasion of North Africa in 429 onward, the Vandals, who were predominantly followers of Arianism, persecuted Nicene Christians. This persecution began with the unfettered violence inflicted against the church during Gaiseric's invasion, but, with the legitimization of the Vandal Kingdom, the oppression became entrenched in "more coheren...

    Bury, John Bagnell (1923), History of the Later Roman Empire, from the Death of Theodosius I to the Death of Justinian (A.D.395 to A.D. 565), vol. 2 vols, Macmillan
    Cameron, Averil (2000). "The Vandal conquest and Vandal rule (A.D. 429–534)". The Cambridge Ancient History. Late Antiquity: Empire and Successors, A.D. 425–600. Vol. XIV. Cambridge University Pres...
    Collins, Roger (2000). "Vandal Africa, 429–533". The Cambridge Ancient History. Late Antiquity: Empire and Successors, A.D. 425–600. Vol. XIV. Cambridge University Press. pp. 124–126.
    Heather, Peter (2005). The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History of Rome and the Barbarians. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19515-954-7.
  3. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Jiro_WangJiro Wang - Wikipedia

    Jiro Wang was born August 24, 1981, in Taiwan. He graduated from Fu Shin Trade and Arts College with a degree in Advertising Design. Wang's father died when he was 18, leaving him and his mother stranded with the family debt. To pay off the enormous debt, Wang worked three jobs at a time, which variously included flyer distribution, dressing up ...

  4. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › ScotiaScotia - Wikipedia

    Scotia translates to "Land of the Scots". It was a way of saying "Land of the Gaels" (compare Angli and Anglia; Franci and Francia; Romani and Romania; etc).It was originally used as a name for Ireland, for example in Adomnán's Life of Columba, and when Isidore of Seville in 580 CE writes "Scotia and Hibernia are the same country" (Isidore, lib. xii. c. 6), the connotation is still ethnic.

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