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  1. Price of oil - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › RBOB

    In early 2007, the price of oil was US$50. By July 2008 it reached its all-time peak of US$147. In December 2008, the price of oil plunged to US$34, as the financial crisis of 2007–2008 took hold. The global average price of oil dropped to ...

  2. 2000s energy crisis - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › 2000s_energy_crisis
    • New Inflation-Adjusted Peaks
    • Possible Causes
    • Effects
    • Forecasted Prices and Trends
    • End of The Crisis
    • Possible Mitigations
    • External Links

    The price of crude oil in 2003 traded in a range between $20–$30/bbl. Between 2003 and July 2008, prices steadily rose, reaching $100/bbl in late 2007, coming close to the previous inflation-adjusted peak set in 1980.[better source needed] A steep rise in the price of oil in 2008 – also mirrored by other commodities – culminated in an all-time high of $147.27 during trading on 11 July 2008, more than a third above the previous inflation-adjusted high.[citation needed] High oil prices and economic weakness contributed to a demand contraction in 2007–2008. In the United States, gasoline consumption declined by 0.4% in 2007, then fell by 0.5% in the first two months of 2008 alone. Record-setting oil prices in the first half of 2008 and economic weakness in the second half of the year prompted a 1.2 Mbbl (190,000 m3)/day contraction in US consumption of petroleum products, representing 5.8% of total US consumption, the largest annual decline since 1980 at the climax of the 1979 energy c...

    Demand

    World crude oil demand grew an average of 1.76% per year from 1994 to 2006, with a high of 3.4% in 2003–2004. World demand for oil is projected to increase 37% over 2006 levels by 2030, according to the 2007 U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) annual report. In 2007, the EIA expected demand to reach an ultimate high of 118 million barrels per day (18.8×10^6 m3/d), from 2006's 86 million barrels (13.7×10^6 m3), driven in large part by the transportation sector. A 2008 report from th...

    Supply

    An important contributor to the price increase was the slowdown in oil supply growth, which has been a general trend since oil production surpassed new discoveries in 1980. The likelihood that global oil production will decline at some point, leading to lower supply, is a long-term fundamental cause of rising prices. Although there is contention about the exact time at which global production will peak, a majority of industry participants acknowledge that the concept of a production peak is v...

    Investment/speculation demand

    Investment demand for oil occurs when investors purchase futures contractsto buy a commodity at a set price for future delivery. "Speculators are not buying any actual crude. ... When [the] contracts mature, they either settle them with a cash payment or sell them on to genuine consumers." Several claims have been made implicating financial speculation as a major cause of the price increases. In May 2008 the transport chief for Germany's Social Democrats estimated that 25 percent of the rise...

    There is debate over what the effects of the 2000s energy crisis will be over the long term. Some speculated that an oil-price spike could create a recession comparable to those that followed the 1973 and 1979 energy crises or a potentially worse situation such as a global oil crash. Increased petroleum prices are reflected in a vast number of products derived from petroleum, as well as those transported using petroleum fuels. Political scientist George Friedman has postulated that if high prices for oil and food persist, they will define the fourth distinct geopolitical regime since the end of World War II, the previous three being the Cold War, the 1989–2001 period in which economic globalization was primary, and the post-9/11 "war on terror". In addition to high oil prices, from year 2000 volatility in the price of oil has increased notably and this volatility has been suggested to be a factor in the financial crisis which began in 2008. The perceived increase in oil price differ...

    According to informed observers, OPEC, meeting in early December 2007, seemed to desire a high but stable price that would deliver substantial needed income to the oil-producing states, but avoid prices so high that they would negatively impact the economies of the oil-consuming nations. A range of US$70–80 per barrel was suggested by some analysts to be OPEC's goal. In November 2008, as prices fell below $60 a barrel, the IEA warned that falling prices could lead to both a lack of investment in new sources of oil and a fall in production of more-expensive unconventional reserves such as the oil sands of Canada. The IEA's chief economist warned, "Oil supplies in the future will come more and more from smaller and more-difficult fields," meaning that future production requires more investment every year. A lack of new investment in such projects, which had already been observed, could eventually cause new and more-severe supply issues than had been experienced in the early 2000s acco...

    By the beginning of September 2008, prices had fallen to $110. OPEC Secretary General El-Badri said that the organization intended to cut output by about 500,000 barrels (79,000 m3) a day, which he saw as correcting a "huge oversupply" due to declining economies and a stronger U.S. dollar. On 10 September, the International Energy Agency (IEA) lowered its 2009 demand forecast by 140,000 barrels (22,000 m3) to 87.6 million barrels (13,930,000 m3) a day. As many countries throughout the world entered an economic recession in the third quarter of 2008 and the global banking system came under severe strain, oil prices continued to slide. In November and December, global demand growth fell, and U.S. oil demand fell an estimated 10% overall from early October to early November 2008 (accompanying a significant drop in auto sales). In their December meeting, OPEC members agreed to reduce their production by 2.2 million barrels (350,000 m3) per day, and said their resolution to reduce produc...

    Attempts to mitigate the impacts of oil price increases include: 1. Increasing the supply of petroleum 2. Finding substitutes for petroleum 3. Decreasing the demand for petroleum 4. Attempting to reduce the impact of rising prices on petroleum consumers 5. Better urban planningwith more emphasis on bike lanes, public transit, and high dense residential zoning. In mainstream economic theory, a free market rations an increasingly scarce commodity by increasing its price. A higher price should stimulate producers to produce more, and consumers to consume less, while possibly shifting to substitutes. The first three mitigation strategies in the above list are, therefore, in keeping with mainstream economic theory, as government policies can affect the supply and demand for petroleum as well as the availability of substitutes. In contrast, the last type of strategy in the list (attempting to shield consumers from rising prices) would seem to work against classical economic theory, by enc...

    • Third oil crisis
    • 2003 – 2008
  3. Bonny Light oil - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Bonny_Light_oil
    • Background
    • Features
    • Effects
    • Experiment

    Origination

    Crude oil is a yellow to black colored liquid that exists by nature without artificial factors, observed in geological rock formations underneath the superficial parts of the earth. While the exploration of petroleum began in the late 1930s, the oil for commercial use was found at Oloibiri in the Niger delta region of Nigeria in 1956. As oil exploration has been expanding, light and medium oil like bonny light oil are produced.[citation needed] Searching and exploitation of oil are done in th...

    Chemical composition

    The components of crude oil have a wide range, containing hydrocarbons and a mixture of oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen and trace metals. Hydrocarbon of crude oil consists of paraffin, cycloparaffins and aromatic material with at least one benzene ring. Bonny light oil also includes polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Almost all of these elements, such as vanadium, nickel, asphaltenes, and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons are known as toxic.

    Folkloric uses

    At first, people attempted to use crude oil for lighting, considering its flammable trait. However, it was not appropriate as lamps because of stink and intense fumes while it was burning. There are various ways that indigenous people used crude oil. For the purpose of remedial treatment as poison detoxification, anti-convulsion and dermal inflammation, people swallowed crude oil directly. In traditional medicine, BLCO is used along with olive oil. They applied it on their burnt skin, rotten...

    Low sulfur

    The value of fuels and oils which are generated from the crude oil falls off due to its sulfur compounds. “They cause corrosion of equipment during treatment, reduce activity of antidetonation additives and antioxidizing stability of gasoline, raise the propensity to form hard residues in cracking gasoline fractions, and result and environment pollution".According to world standards, the content of sulfur in BLCO is low, so refinery infrastructure is less affected by corrosion and low impact...

    Good gasoline yields

    There are three types of crude oil, light, medium and heavy, according to its density. For gasoline blends, composites which are lighter hydrocarbons are used. Molecular weights of these hydrocarbons are lower than heptane. Since most of Nigerian crudes are either light or medium sweet, creating plentiful amount of diesel, they are more costly than sour crudes.Gasoline is produced from processed crude oil and it is highly valued petroleum products. Therefore, to have maximized profit, refiner...

    High API gravity

    API gravity, American Petroleum Institute gravity, is a reverse method to decide “the weight of petroleum liquids in comparison to water”. If the API gravity exceeds 10, the liquid will float on the water and is classified to light oil.Therefore, the higher API means the lighter crude oil and it is regarded as more precious than crude oil with lower API (heavier crude) as it generates more high-value products during refinery process. The API range of light crude is between 35 and 45, and BLCO...

    Society

    Nigeria has been generating most of its revenue from oil industry for the past 30years. However, since petroleum industry has appeared, many pollution problems have risen in Nigeria. The major problem was caused by oil spills, occurring during usual operations.[citation needed] From 1976 to 1988, 2000 oil spillages happened in Nigeria and more than two million barrels of bonny light oil were released to the community during this period. Additionally, break of oil pipelines, erosion of flow an...

    Human

    People can be exposed to crude oil through various ways, such as skin contact, inhalation, and ingestion, and those can be happened simultaneously. Especially, residents of oil abundant areas are at the risk of exposure to water which has been contaminated by oil. They consume this polluted water by drinking, cooking and cleaning. The exhibition of crude oil to human can affect mentality and occur symptoms such as anxiety, depression, headache, and sore eyes and throat. Additionally, it cause...

    Potential risks

    As BLCO contains materials like vanadium, nickel and PAH, those tend to be harmful and disturb possibility of antioxidant. Heavy metals are necessary in metabolic process of creatures; however, they are the causes of physiological stress at the same time. Pollution problems by oil spills like soils contamination are continuous and prevalent, putting severe health and environmental threats. The pollutants can gradually accumulate in food chains and interrupt biological actions of creatures. Pe...

    Rats

    The copper level of rats that are exposed to crude oil noticeably shrank which indicates ejection of copper with lack of its absorption. Synthesis of catecholamine which enables total functions of body, emotions, and perception may be hindered by reduction of copper concentration. In addition to it, a rise in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzymes, in proportion to dose was seen in the rats, which were...

    Fish

    After the fishes were treated with BLCO for 30days, the blood glucose outstandingly elevated, dose dependent of crude oil. Similarly, the degree of total protein concentration and albumin levels increased in proportion to the amount of BLCO. aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) concentrations rose too. Fishes which are exposed to crude oil get to have PAHs in their tissue and according to Wegwu and Omeodu, they “are activated to highly reactive epoxides by cytochrome P4...

    Soil

    Isolates from coal power plant soil are being recognized as pseudomonas and show that they are able to “grow on both the aliphatic and aromatic fractions of petroleum". The aliphatic fraction accounts for the most of crude oil and it is easily broken down by species of pseudomonas. Concentration of naphthene and aromatics components of crude oil noticeably decreased, implying the catabolic flexibleness of pseudomonas isolates. Salam, Obayori, Akashoro, and Okogie say that with incubation of p...

    • Offshore
    • Oloibiri
  4. Gulf War - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Gulf_War

    This article is about the war in 1991. For other wars of that name, see Gulf War (disambiguation). The Gulf War was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and ...

  5. Semiconductor - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Semiconductor
    • Properties
    • Materials
    • Physics of Semiconductors
    • Early History of Semiconductors
    • See Also
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    Variable electrical conductivity

    Semiconductors in their natural state are poor conductors because a current requires the flow of electrons, and semiconductors have their valence bands filled, preventing the entire flow of new electrons. Several developed techniques allow semiconducting materials to behave like conducting materials, such as doping or gating. These modifications have two outcomes: n-type and p-type. These refer to the excess or shortage of electrons, respectively. An unbalanced number of electrons would cause...

    Heterojunctions

    Heterojunctions occur when two differently doped semiconducting materials are joined together. For example, a configuration could consist of p-doped and n-doped germanium. This results in an exchange of electrons and holes between the differently doped semiconducting materials. The n-doped germanium would have an excess of electrons, and the p-doped germanium would have an excess of holes. The transfer occurs until an equilibrium is reached by a process called recombination, which causes the...

    Excited electrons

    A difference in electric potential on a semiconducting material would cause it to leave thermal equilibrium and create a non-equilibrium situation. This introduces electrons and holes to the system, which interact via a process called ambipolar diffusion. Whenever thermal equilibrium is disturbed in a semiconducting material, the number of holes and electrons changes. Such disruptions can occur as a result of a temperature difference or photons, which can enter the system and create electrons...

    A large number of elements and compounds have semiconducting properties, including: 1. Certain pure elements are found in Group 14 of the periodic table; the most commercially important of these elements are silicon and germanium. Silicon and germanium are used here effectively because they have 4 valence electrons in their outermost shell which gives them the ability to gain or lose electrons equally at the same time. 2. Binary compounds, particularly between elements in Groups 13 and 15, such as gallium arsenide, Groups 12 and 16, groups 14 and 16, and between different group 14 elements, e.g. silicon carbide. 3. Certain ternary compounds, oxides, and alloys. 4. Organic semiconductors, made of organic compounds. 5. Semiconducting Metal-organic frameworks. The most common semiconducting materials are crystalline solids, but amorphous and liquid semiconductors are also known. These include hydrogenated amorphous silicon and mixtures of arsenic, selenium and tellurium in a variety of...

    Energy bands and electrical conduction

    Semiconductors are defined by their unique electric conductive behavior, somewhere between that of a conductor and an insulator. The differences between these materials can be understood in terms of the quantum states for electrons, each of which may contain zero or one electron (by the Pauli exclusion principle). These states are associated with the electronic band structure of the material. Electrical conductivity arises due to the presence of electrons in states that are delocalized (exten...

    Charge carriers

    The partial filling of the states at the bottom of the conduction band can be understood as adding electrons to that band. The electrons do not stay indefinitely (due to the natural thermal recombination) but they can move around for some time. The actual concentration of electrons is typically very dilute, and so (unlike in metals) it is possible to think of the electrons in the conduction band of a semiconductor as a sort of classical ideal gas, where the electrons fly around freely without...

    Doping

    The conductivity of semiconductors may easily be modified by introducing impurities into their crystal lattice. The process of adding controlled impurities to a semiconductor is known as doping. The amount of impurity, or dopant, added to an intrinsic (pure) semiconductor varies its level of conductivity. Doped semiconductors are referred to as extrinsic.By adding impurity to the pure semiconductors, the electrical conductivity may be varied by factors of thousands or millions. A 1 cm3 specim...

    The history of the understanding of semiconductors begins with experiments on the electrical properties of materials. The properties of the time-temperature coefficient of resistance, rectification, and light-sensitivity were observed starting in the early 19th century. Thomas Johann Seebeck was the first to notice an effect due to semiconductors, in 1821. In 1833, Michael Faraday reported that the resistance of specimens of silver sulfide decreases, when they are heated. This is contrary to the behavior of metallic substances such as copper. In 1839, Alexandre Edmond Becquerel reported observation of a voltage between a solid and a liquid electrolyte, when struck by light, the photovoltaic effect. In 1873, Willoughby Smith observed that selenium resistors exhibit decreasing resistance, when light falls on them. In 1874, Karl Ferdinand Braun observed conduction and rectification in metallic sulfides, although this effect had been discovered much earlier by Peter Munck af Rosenschold...

    A. A. Balandin & K. L. Wang (2006). Handbook of Semiconductor Nanostructures and Nanodevices (5-Volume Set). American Scientific Publishers. ISBN 978-1-58883-073-9.
    Sze, Simon M. (1981). Physics of Semiconductor Devices (2nd ed.). John Wiley and Sons (WIE). ISBN 978-0-471-05661-4.
    Turley, Jim (2002). The Essential Guide to Semiconductors. Prentice Hall PTR. ISBN 978-0-13-046404-0.
    Yu, Peter Y.; Cardona, Manuel (2004). Fundamentals of Semiconductors : Physics and Materials Properties. Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-41323-3.
    Calculator for the intrinsic carrier concentrationin silicon
    Semiconductor OneSource Hall of Fame, Glossary
  6. Russia - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Russia

    Russia (Russian: Россия, Rossiya, Russian pronunciation: [rɐˈsʲijə]), or the Russian Federation, [b] is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia.It is the largest country in the world by area, covering over 17 million square ...

  7. New Zealand - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › New_zealand

    New Zealand (Māori: Aotearoa [aɔˈtɛaɾɔa]) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island (Te Ika-a-Māui) and the South Island (Te Waipounamu)—and more than 700 smaller islands, [13] ...

  8. Turkey - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Turkey

    Turkey is a regional power, and a newly industrialized and developing country, with a geopolitically strategic location. Its economy, which is classified among the emerging and growth-leading economies, is the twentieth-largest in the world by ...

  9. Toyota Supra - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Toyota_Supra

    Toyota Celica XX (Japan, 1978–1986) Toyota Celica Supra (international, 1978–1986) Toyota GR Supra (2019–present) The Toyota Supra (Japanese: トヨタ・スープラ, Toyota Sūpura) is a sports car and grand tourer manufactured by Toyota Motor ...

  10. Phofsit Daibuun - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Phofsit_Daibuun

    Phofsit Daibuun (PSDB) is an orthography in the Latin alphabet for Taiwanese Hokkien based on Modern Literal Taiwanese. It is able to use the ASCII character set to indicate the proper variation of pitch without any subsidiary scripts or ...

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