Yahoo奇摩 網頁搜尋

  1. Kt/V - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kt/V
    • Rationale For Kt/V as A Marker of Dialysis Adequacy
    • Relation to Urr
    • Peritoneal Dialysis
    • Reason For Adoption
    • Criticisms/Disadvantages of Kt/V
    • External Links

    K (clearance) multiplied by t (time) is a volume (since mL/min × min = mL, or L/h × h = L), and (K × t) can be thought of as the mL or L of fluid (blood in this case) cleared of urea (or any other solute) during the course of a single treatment. V also is a volume, expressed in mL or L. So the ratio of K × t / Vis a so-called "dimensionless ratio" and can be thought of as a multiple of the volume of plasma cleared of urea divided by the distribution volume of urea. When Kt/V = 1.0, a volume of blood equal to the distribution volume of urea has been completely cleared of urea. The relationship between Kt/V and the concentration of urea C at the end of dialysis can be derived from the first-order differential equation that describes exponential decayand models the clearance of any substance from the body where the concentration of that substance decreases in an exponential fashion: where 1. C is the concentration [mol/m3] 2. tis the time [s] 3. K is the clearance [m3/s] 4. V is the vo...

    The URR or Urea reduction ratio is simply the fractional reduction of urea during dialysis. So by definition, URR = 1 -C/C0. So 1-URR = C/C0. So by algebra, substituting into equation (4) above, since ln C/C0 = – ln C0/C, we get:

    Kt/V (in the context of peritoneal dialysis) was developed by Michael J. Lysaghtin a series of articles on peritoneal dialysis. The steady-state solution of a simplified mass transfer equation that is used to describe the mass exchange over a semi-permeable membrane and models peritoneal dialysisis where 1. CB is the concentration in the blood [ mol/m3] 2. KD is the clearance [ m3/s ] 3. m ˙ {\\displaystyle {\\dot {m}}} is the urea mass generation [ mol/s ] This can also be written as: The mass generation (of urea), in steady state, can be expressed as the mass (of urea) in the effluent per time: where 1. CE is the concentration of urea in effluent [ mol/m3] 2. VE is the volume of effluent [ m3] 3. tis the time [ s ] Lysaght, motivated by Equations 6b and 6c, defined the value KD: Lysaght uses "ml/min" for the clearance. In order to convert the above clearance (which is in m3/s) to ml/min one has to multiply by 60 × 1000 × 1000. Once KD is defined the following equation is used to cal...

    Kt/V has been widely adopted because it was correlated with survival. Before Kt/V nephrologists measured the serum urea concentration (specifically thetime-averaged concentration of urea (TAC of urea)), which was found not to be correlated with survival (due to its strong dependence on proteinintake) and thus deemed an unreliable marker of dialysis adequacy.

    It is complex and tedious to calculate. Many nephrologists have difficulty understanding it.
    Kt/V only measures a change in the concentration of urea and implicitly assumes the clearance of urea is comparable to other toxins. (It ignores molecules larger than urea having diffusion-limited...
    Kt/V does not take into account the role of ultrafiltration.

    Hemodialysis

    1. Hemodialysis Dose and Adequacy– a description of URR and Kt/V from the Kidney and Urologic Diseases Clearinghouse. 2. Kt/V and the adequacy of hemodialysis– UpToDate.com

    Peritoneal dialysis

    1. Advisory on Peritoneal Dialysis– American Association of Kidney Patients 2. Peritoneal Dialysis Dose and Adequacy– a description of URR and Kt/V from the Kidney and Urologic Diseases Clearinghouse.

    Calculators

    1. spKt/V,eKt/V,URR,nPCR,GNRI etc. dialysis calculation– hdtool.net. 2. free Kt/V calculators, single pool and equilibrated HD, PD, no login needed, site used by dozens of dialysis centers around the world for over 10 years– kt-v.net 3. Web/javascript program that does formal 2-pool urea kinetics in multiple patients– ureakinetics.org 4. Kt/V calculator– medindia.com 5. Kt/V– HDCN

  2. IKEA - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ikea

    IKEA (Swedish: ) is a Swedish founded, Dutch multinational conglomerate that designs and sells ready-to-assemble furniture, kitchen appliances and home accessories, among other useful goods and occasionally home services.Founded in Sweden in ...

    • 28 July 1943; 77 years ago
    • Retail
  3. Line (software) - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Line_(software)
    • History
    • Creation
    • Market Share
    • Features
    • Line Lite
    • Limitations
    • Security
    • Censorship
    • in Popular Culture
    • Related Products

    LINE was originally developed as a mobile application for Android and iOS smartphones. The service has since expanded to BlackBerry OS (August 2012), Nokia Asha (Asia and Oceania, March 2013), Windows Phone (July 2013), Firefox OS (February 2014), iOS tablets (October 2014), and as a Chrome Browser Application (via the Chrome Web Store). The application also exists in versions for laptop and desktop computers using the Microsoft Windows and macOS platforms.[citation needed]. The application proved hugely popular, and by late October, LINE experienced an unexpected server overload. After concluding that the scalability process needed to be improved, NHN Japan chose to adopt HBase as the primary storage for user profiles, contacts, and groups. Within eighteen months of its release, LINE reached 100 million users; six months later, it reached 200 millionand by November 25, 2013, was used by 300 million users. On July 3, 2012, NHN Japan announced the new LINE features Home and Timeline....

    As its competitor Kakao dominated the South Korean messaging market, Naver Corporation launched a messenger application NAVER Talk in February 2011 in South Korea. However, because the South Korean messaging market was dominated by Kakao, the business of NAVER Talk was suppressed. Naver Corporation was expanding their messaging application and targeted other countries' messaging markets which had not been developed yet. Naver Corporation released their messaging application, which changed its name to 'LINE', to the Japanese messaging market in 2011. As LINE became a huge success, finally NAVER combined NAVER Talk and LINE in March 2012. They changed NAVER's Japanese branch name from NHN JAPAN to LINE Corporation. LINE reached 100 million users within eighteen months and 200 million users only six months later. LINE became Japan's largest social network in 2013. In October 2014, LINE announced that it had attracted 560 million users worldwide with 170 million active user accounts. In...

    Line began in Spring 2011 as a communication system for NHN Japan employees. It then saw explosive growth when released to the public in June of that year. By 18 January 2013, Line had been downloaded 100 million times worldwide. The number expanded to 140 million by early July 2013 and to 200 million by July 21. As of June 2016, Japan claimed 68 million users while Thailand had 33 million. As of February 2014, Indonesia had 20 million users, Taiwan 17 million, while India and Spain had 16 million each. NHN representatives announced plans to reach 300 million by further expansion in East Asia, Spain, and Chile. In April 2014, Naver announced that Line had reached 400 million worldwide users,and by 2017 this had grown to 700 million.

    Line is an application that works on multiple platforms and has access via multiple personal computers (Windows or macOS). The application will also give an option of address book syncing. This application also has a feature to add friends through the use of QR codes, by Line ID, and by shaking phones simultaneously. The application has a direct pop-out message box for reading and replying to make it easy for users to communicate. It also can share photos, videos and music with other users, send the current or any specific location, voice audio, emojis, stickers and emoticons to friends. Users can see a real-time confirmation when messages are sent and received or use a hidden chat feature, which can hide and delete a chat history (from both involved devices and Line servers) after a time set by the user.The application also makes free voice and video calls. Users can also chat and share media in a group by creating and joining groups that have up to 500 people. Chats also provide b...

    In 2015, a lower-overhead Android app was released for emerging markets called Line Lite. This supports messages and calls but not themes or timeline.It became available worldwide in August 2015.

    For Asian countries.Line accounts can be accessed on only one mobile device (running the app version), plus one personal computer (running the version for those). Additional mobile devices can install the app but require different mobile numbers or e-mail addresses for the Line account. If "LINE Lite" for Android is installed and activated, the user is told they will be "logged out of the normal LINE". This message does not make clear that it is impossible to log back in to the normal LINE, and the normal LINE will delete all history data when next launched.

    In August 2013, it was possible to intercept a Line chat session at the network level using packet capture software and to reconstruct it on a PC. Messages were sent in clear text to Line's server when on cellular data but encrypted when using Wi-Fi most of the time. Until February 2016, it was also possible to "clone" an iPhone from a backup, and then use the "cloned" iPhone to access the same Line account as used by the original iPhone. This loophole was widely rumored (but never proven) to have been used to intercept Line messages between the popular Japanese television personality Becky and her married romantic partner Enon Kawatani; the intercepted messages were published in the magazine Shukan Bunshunand led to the temporary suspension of Becky's television career. In July 2016, Line Corporation turned on end-to-end encryption by default for all Line users. It had earlier been available as an opt-in feature since October 2015. The app uses the ECDH protocol for client-to-clien...

    Line suppressed content in China to conform with government censorship. Analysis by Citizen Labshowed that accounts registered with Chinese phone numbers download a list of banned words that cannot be sent or received through Line. Line publicly confirmed the practice in December 2013. However, by 2014, access to Line chat servers has been entirely blocked by the Great Firewall, while the company still makes revenue in China from brick-and-mortar stores. In Indonesia, Line has responded to pressure from the Indonesian Communication and Information Ministryto remove emojis and stickers it believes make reference to homosexuality, for example the emoji "two men holding hands". Line issued a public statement on the issue: "Line regrets the incidents of some stickers which are considered sensitive by many people. We ask for your understanding because at the moment we are working on this issue to remove the stickers". In Thailand, Line is suspected of responding to pressure from the Thai...

    On November 20, 2012, Line was shown in Far East Movement's music video, featuring Sidney Samson, for the song "Change Your Life". DJ Virman is seen chatting with Sidney Samson at the middle of the music video. On December 16, 2012, the Line application was shown in American rap artist Big Sean's music video for the song "Guap". On May 16, 2014, Warner Music Italy released the music video for Italian singer Annalisa's "Sento solo il presente", in which the recording artist is seen using the Line application at the beginning of the video. In 2014, the LINE app was featured in Cycle 21 of America's Next Top Model. The app had a significant presence in the popular Korean TV drama My Love from the Star. The app is heavily featured in the visual novel Steins;Gate 0under the name "Rine". Naver Corporation and Mages also partnered during the Steins;Gate 5th Anniversary Goods Project. In the 2017 anime Tsuki ga Kirei, the Line app is the protagonists' main way of communication. The 2017 ori...

    Line Friends

    Line Friendsare featured characters that are shown in stickers of the application. They include Brown, Cony, Sally, James, Moon, Boss, Jessica, Edward, Leonard, Choco, Pangyo and Rangers. Two anime series, LINE OFFLINE and LINE TOWN, were produced in 2013, picturing the Line Friends as employees for the fictional Line Corporation.

    Line Man

    On-demand assistant for food and messenger delivery services in Bangkok.

    Line TV

    A video on demand service operating in Taiwan and Thailand.

  4. 其他人也搜尋了