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Often marketed and sold for consumption as part of the diet or in dietary supplements in contemporary societies, fish oils also have found roles in external use, as emollientsor as general ointmentsas well as in body art,or for alleged insulation against cold temperatures.
The most widely available dietary source of EPA and DHA is cold-water oily fish, such as salmon, herring, mackerel, anchovies, and sardines. Oils from these fish have a profile of around seven times as much omega-3 oils as omega-6 oils. Other oily fish, such as tuna, also contain omega-3 in somewhat lesser amounts. Although fish is a dietary source of omega-3 oils, fish do not synthesize them; they obtain them from the algae (microalgae in particular) or planktonin their diets. For comparison, note the omega-3 levels in some common non-fish foods:
In a 2009 letter on a pending revision to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, the American Heart Association recommended 250–500 mg/day of EPA and DHA. The Guidelines were revised again for 2015–2020; included is a recommendation that adults consume at least eight ounces of a variety of types of fish per week, equating to at least 250 mg/day of EPA + DHA.The Food and Drug Administration recommends not exceeding 3 grams per day of EPA + DHA from all sources, with no more tha...
The effect of fish oil consumption on prostate cancer is controversial, as one study showed decreased risk with higher blood levels of DPA, whereas another reported increased risk of more aggressive prostate cancer with higher blood levels of combined EPA and DHA.Some evidence indicated an association between high blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids and an increased prostate cancer risk.
There has been a great deal of controversy in recent years about the role of fish oil in cardiovascular disease, with recent meta-analyses reaching different conclusions about its potential impact. Multiple evaluations suggest fish oil has little or no reduction in cardiovascular mortality, in distinction to earlier observational data, though there appears to be a small reduction in the incidence of actual cardiac events and strokes with its use. In 2007, the American Heart Association had re...
Fish oil is a commonly used dietary supplement, with sales in the U.S. alone reaching $976 million in 2009.Problems of quality have been identified in periodic tests by independent researchers of marketed supplements containing fish oil and other marine oils. These problems include contamination, inaccurate listing of EPA and DHA levels, spoilage and formulation issues.
A 2013 review concluded that the potential for adverse events amongst older adults taking fish oil "appear mild–moderate at worst and are unlikely to be of clinical significance".International Fish Oil Standards — An organization concerned with the quality of omega-3 products as it relates to the international standards established by the World Health Organizationand the Co...Joyce A. Nettleton, ed. "PUFA Newsletter". Retrieved 20 February 2006.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)Two newsletters, both quarterly, reviewing recent publications in essential fatty aci...
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and many other biological effects. In humans, the most important compounds in this group are vitamin D 3 ...