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  1. 混打疫苗 相關
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  1. Hepatitis B vaccine - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hepatitis_B_vaccine
    • Medical Uses
    • Side Effects
    • Usage
    • History
    • Manufacture
    • Society and Culture
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    In the United States vaccination is recommended for nearly all babies at birth. Many countries now routinely vaccinate infants against hepatitis B. In countries with high rates of hepatitis B infection, vaccination of newborns has not only reduced the risk of infection, but has also led to a marked reduction in liver cancer. This was reported in Taiwan where the implementation of a nationwide hepatitis B vaccination program in 1984 was associated with a decline in the incidence of childhood hepatocellular carcinoma. In the UK, the vaccine is offered to men who have sex with men(MSM), usually as part of a sexual health check-up. A similar situation is in operation in Ireland. In many areas, vaccination against hepatitis B is also required for all health-care and laboratory staff.Both types of the vaccine, the plasma-derived vaccine (PDV) and recombinant vaccine (RV), seems to be able to elicit similar protective anti-HBs levels. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is...

    Serious side effects from the hepatitis B vaccine are very rare. Pain may occur at the site of injection. It is generally considered safe for use, during pregnancy or while breastfeeding. It has not been linked to Guillain–Barré syndrome.

    The following is a list of countries by the percentage of infants receiving three doses of hepatitis B vaccine as published by the World Health Organization(WHO) in 2017.

    Preliminary work

    In 1963, the American physician/geneticist Baruch Blumberg, working at the Fox Chase Cancer Center, discovered what he called the "Australia Antigen" (now called HBsAg) in the serum of an Australian Aboriginal person. In 1968, this protein was found to be part of the virus that causes "serum hepatitis" (hepatitis B) by virologist Alfred Prince. In 1976, Blumberg won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on hepatitis B (sharing it with Daniel Carleton Gajdusek for his work on...

    Blood-derived vaccine

    During the next few years, a series of human and primate observations by scientists including Maurice Hilleman(who was responsible for vaccines at Merck), S. Krugman, R. Purcell, P. Maupas, and others provided additional support for the vaccine. In 1980, the results of the first field trial were published by W. Szmuness and his colleagues in New York City." The American microbiologist/vaccinologist Maurice Hilleman at Merck used three treatments (pepsin, urea and formaldehyde) of blood serum...

    Recombinant vaccine

    The blood-derived hepatitis B vaccine was withdrawn from the marketplace in 1986, replaced by Maurice Hilleman's improved recombinant hepatitis B vaccine which was approved by the FDA on July 23, 1986. It was the first human vaccine produced by recombinant DNA methods. For this work, scientists at Merck & Co. collaborated with William J. Rutter and colleagues at the University of California at San Francisco, as well as Benjamin Hall and colleagues at the University of Washington. In 1981, Wil...

    The vaccine contains one of the viral envelope proteins, Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). It is produced by yeast cells, into which the gene for HBsAg has been inserted. Afterward an immune system antibody to HBsAg is established in the bloodstream. The antibody is known as anti-HBs. This antibody and immune system memory then provide immunity to Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)infection.

    Legal status

    On 10 December 2020, the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) adopted a positive opinion, recommending the granting of a marketing authorization for the medicinal product HeplisavB, intended for the active immunisation against hepatitisB virus infection (HBV).The applicant for this medicinal product is Dynavax GmbH.

    Brand names

    The common brands available are Recombivax HB (Merck), Engerix-B (GSK), Elovac B (Human Biologicals Institute, a division of Indian Immunologicals Limited), Genevac B (Serum Institute), Shanvac B, Heplisav-B,etc. These vaccines are given by the intramuscular route. Twinrix (GSK) is a vaccine against hepatitis Aand hepatitis B. Pediarix is a vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and poliomyelitis. Vaxelis is a vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis...

    Ramsay M, ed. (2019). "Chapter 18: Hepatitis B". Immunisation against infectious disease. Public Health England.

    "Hepatitis B Vaccine Information Statement". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
    Hepatitis B Vaccines at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings(MeSH)
    • Recombivax HB, Engerix-B, Heplisav-B, others
    • Hepatitis B virus
  2. COVID-19 pandemic in Taiwan - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic_in_Taiwan

    The COVID-19 pandemic in Taiwan is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).As of 22 July 2021, 3,387,224 tests had been conducted in Taiwan, of which

  3. Antibiotic - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antibiotic

    Antibiotics are screened for any negative effects before their approval for clinical use, and are usually considered safe and well tolerated. However, some antibiotics have been associated with a wide extent of adverse side effects ranging from ...

  4. Argentina - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argentina

    Argentina (Spanish: [aɾxenˈtina]), officially the Argentine Republic (Spanish: República Argentina), is a country in the southern half of South America.It shares the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, and is also bordered by ...

  5. Israel - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Israel

    Israel (/ ˈ ɪ z r i ə l, ˈ ɪ z r eɪ ə l /; Hebrew: י ש ר א ל , romanized: Yisra'el; Arabic: إ س ر ائ يل , romanized: ʾIsrāʾīl), officially known as the State of Israel (Hebrew: מ ד ינ ת י ש ר א ל , Medinat Yisra'el), is a country in ...

  6. Tōyō kanji - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tōyō_kanji
    • Reform
    • Applications and Limitations
    • Mazegaki
    • List of The 1,850 Tōyō Kanji
    • See Also
    • External Links

    Thousands of kanji characters were in use in various writing systems, leading to great difficulties for those learning written Japanese. Additionally, several characters had identical meanings but were written differently from each other, further increasing complexity. After World War II, the Ministry of Education decided to minimize the number of kanji by choosing the most commonly used kanji, along with simplified kanji (see Shinjitai) commonly appearing in contemporary literature, to form the tōyō kanji. This was an integral part of the postwar reform of Japanese national writing. This was meant as a preparation for re-introducing their previous unsuccessful reform abolishing Chinese characters. Although the postwar timing meant no public debate was held on the future of the Japanese written language, the defenders of the original kanji system considered and accepted the tōyō kanji as a reasonable compromise. Since this compromise could not then be withdrawn in favour of more rad...

    In addition to a list of the standardized tōyō kanji, the reform published by the Ministry for Education in 1946 also contains a set of guidelines for their use. Regarding provenance and scope, the foreword of the document states that: 1. The table of tōyō kanji put forth therein, are the selection of kanji recommended for use by the general public, including legal and governmental documents, newspapers, and magazines. 2. The presented kanji are selected as an approximate set of those characters found to be of no insignificant utility in the lives of today's Japanese citizens. 3. Concerning proper nouns, there is a wide range of usage beyond what may be formulated as rules, and consequently they are treated as outside the scope of this standard. 4. The simplified character forms from modern custom are taken as the proper form, and their original forms are provided alongside them for reference. 5. A systemization of the character forms and their readings is still under consideration...

    Because the majority of character-based words are composed of two (or more) kanji, many words were left with one character included in the Tōyō kanji, and the other character missing. In this case, the recommendation was to write the included part in kanji and the excluded part in kana, e.g. ふ頭 for 埠頭 and 危ぐ for 危惧. These words were called mazegaki(交ぜ書き, "mixed characters").

    Bold in 1981 and 2010 year added kanji 一 丁 七 丈 三 上 下 不 且 世 丘 丙 中 丸 丹 主 久 乏 乗 乙 九 乳 乾 乱 了 事 二 互 五 井 亜 亡 交 享 京 人 仁 今 介 仕 他 付 代 令 以 仰 仲 件 任 企 伏 伐 休 伯 伴 伸 伺 似 但 位 低 住 佐 何 仏 作 佳 使 来 例 侍 供 依 侮 侯 侵 便 係 促 俊 俗 保 信 修 俳 俵 併 倉 個 倍 倒 候 借 倣 値 倫 仮 偉 偏 停 健 側 偶 傍 傑 備 催 伝 債 傷 傾 働 像 僚 偽 僧 価 儀 億 倹 儒 償 優 元 兄 充 兆 先 光 克 免 児 入 内 全 両 八 公 六 共 兵 具 典 兼 冊 再 冒 冗 冠 冬 冷 准 凍 凝 凡 凶 出 刀 刃 分 切 刈 刊 刑 列 初 判 別 利 到 制 刷 券 刺 刻 則 削 前 剖 剛 剰 副 割 創 劇 剤 剣 力 功 加 劣 助 努 効 劾 勅 勇 勉 動 勘 務 勝 労 募 勢 勤 勲 励 勧 勺 匁 包 化 北 匠 匹 匿 区 十 千 升 午 半 卑 卒 卓 協 南 博 占 印 危 却 卵 巻 卸 即 厘 厚 原 去 参 又 及 友 反 叔 取 受 口 古 句 叫 召 可 史 右 司 各 合 吉 同 名 后 吏 吐 向 君 吟 否 含 呈 呉 吸 吹 告 周 味 呼 命 和 咲 哀 品 員 哲 唆 唐 唯 唱 商 問 啓 善 喚 喜 喪 喫 単 嗣 嘆 器 噴 嚇 厳 嘱 囚 四 回 因 困 固 圏 国 囲 園 円 図 団 土 在 地 坂 均 坊 坑 坪 垂 型 埋 城 域 執 培 基 堂 堅 堤 堪 報 場 塊 塑 塔 塗 境 墓 墜 増 墨 堕 墳 墾 壁 壇 圧 塁 壊 士 壮 壱 寿 夏 夕 外 多 夜 夢 大 天 太 夫 央 失 奇 奉 奏 契 奔 奥 奪 奨 奮 女 奴 好 如 妃 妊 妙 妥 妨 妹 妻 姉 始 姓 委 姫 姻 姿 威 娘 娯 娠 婆 婚 婦 婿 媒 嫁 嫡 嬢 子 孔 字 存 孝 季 孤 孫 学 宅 宇 守 安 完 宗 官 宙 定 宜 客 宣 室 宮 宰 害 宴 家 容 宿 寂 寄 密 富 寒 察 寡 寝 実 寧 審 写 寛 寮 宝 寸 寺 封 射 将 専 尉 尊 尋 対 導 小 少 就 尺 尼 尾 尿 局 居 届 屈...

  7. Kyōiku kanji - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_kanji_by_school_year

    Kyōiku kanji (教育漢字, literally "education kanji"), also known as Gakunenbetsu kanji haitōhyō (学年別漢字配当表, literally "list of kanji by school year") is a list of 1,026 kanji and associated readings developed and ...

  8. Sales and operations planning - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sales_and_operations_planning
    • Definitions
    • The Planning Process
    • Best Practices
    • See Also
    • External Links

    APICS defines S&OP as the "function of setting the overall level of manufacturing output (production plan) and other activities to best satisfy the current planned levels of sales (sales plan and/or forecasts), while meeting general business objectives of profitability, productivity, competitive customer lead times, etc., as expressed in the overall business plan." Institute for Supply Management defines it as "working cross-functionally with internal business units to forecast anticipated demand, inventory, supply and customer lead times based on the sales forecast, actual demand and capacity forecast." One of its primary purposes is to establish production rates that will achieve management’s objective of maintaining, raising, or lowering inventories or backlogs, while usually attempting to keep the workforce relatively stable. It must extend through a planning horizon sufficient to plan the labor, equipment, facilities, material, and finances required to accomplish the production...

    S&OP is the result of monthly planning activities. It is usually based on an Annual Operations Plan (AOP) that acts as the company's annual target in terms of sales and supply. Therefore, the sales and operations plans are a means to gradually accomplish the AOP targets – by linking monthly sales and marketing planning directly to the operations side of a business.The process for deciding upon the monthly S&OP is illustrated in the figure below. 1. Monthly S&OP Process The planning horizon for a typical S&OP process is long term and extends over 18–36 months. The selection of a time horizon is an important decision and there are different factors that influence this decision including type of industry, product characteristics, and the time of the year when S&OP planning takes place.Additionally, the S&OP process is conducted at an aggregate level. The focus is commonly on product families and not every single product.

    S&OP best practices share a common set of approaches: 1. Rely on a phased approach: S&OP is much more an integrated set of business processes and technologies than a single, all-encompassing process or technology. If you just focus on the implementation of a new technology and think that S&OP will miraculously take shape, you're wrong. 2. Develop an "outside-in" sequence of S&OP initiatives: typically, the events that will have the most profound and negative impact on your sales and operations planning are those outside of your control. For the most part, these are due to the decisions and actions of your customers, partners, and competitors, which have a direct impact on your revenue and your competitor's strategy. 3. Focus on more information, less data: another key to successful S&OP is clean, current, and accurate data. Plans are often slowed down by the effort of gathering data that has minimal importance to the overall project. It is important to ensure that you know exactly w...

    Palmatier, George E., "The Need to Lead"
    The Evolution of S&OP by Dick Ling, Andy Coldrick and Chris Turner
  9. Differences between Shinjitai and Simplified characters - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Differences_in_Shinjitai_and...
    • List of Different Simplifications
    • Traditional Characters That May Cause Problems Displaying
    • Different Stroke Orders in Chinese and Japanese

    The old and new forms of the Kyōiku Kanji and their Hànzì equivalents are listed below. In the following lists, the characters are sorted by the radicals of the Japanese kanji. The two Kokuji 働 and 畑 in the Kyōiku-Kanji List, which have no Chinese equivalents, are not listed here. Note that 弁 is used to simplify three different Traditional characters (辨, 瓣, and 辯) in Japan. 1. No simplificationin either language (The following characters were simplified neither in Japanese nor in Chinese.) 1. 一 丁 下 三 不 天 五 民 正 平 可 再 百 否 武 夏 中 内 出 本 世 申 由 史 冊 央 向 曲 印 州 表 果 半 必 永 求 九 丸 千 久 少 夫 午 失 末 未 包 年 危 后 兵 我 束 卵 承 垂 刷 重 省 看 勉 七 乳 才 予 事 二 元 亡 六 主 市 交 忘 夜 育 京 卒 商 率 就 人 化 今 仁 付 代 仕 他 令 以 合 全 任 休 件 仲 作 何 位 住 余 低 似 命 使 念 例 供 信 保 便 値 修 借 候 倍 俳 俵 健 停 働 像 先 入 八 分 公 共 弟 並 典 前 益 善 尊 同 周 次 兆 冷 弱 刀 切 別 判 制 券 刻 副 割 力 加 助 努 勇 勤 句 北 疑 十 古 孝 直 南 真 裁 博 上 反 灰 厚 原 台 能 友 収 口 司 右 兄 吸 告 君 味 呼 品 唱 器 四 回 因 困 固 土 去 地 在 寺 均 志 坂 幸 型 城 基 域 喜 境 士 冬 各 夕 外 名 多 大 太 奏 女 好 始 妻 姉 妹 姿 子 存 安 字 守 宅 宇 完 定 官 宙 宗 室 客 宣 家 害 案 容 宮 寄 密 宿 寒...

    Some of the traditional Kanji are not included in the Japanese font of Windows XP/2000, and only rectangles are shown. Downloading the Meiryo font from the Microsoft website (VistaFont_JPN.EXE) and installing it will solve this problem. Note that within the Jōyō Kanji there are 62 characters the old forms of which may cause problems displaying: Kyōiku Kanji (26): Grade 2 (2 Kanji): 海 社 Grade 3 (8 Kanji): 勉 暑 漢 神 福 練 者 都 Grade 4 (6 Kanji): 器 殺 祝 節 梅 類 Grade 5 (1 Kanji): 祖 Grade 6 (9 Kanji): 勤 穀 視 署 層 著 諸 難 朗 Secondary-School Kanji (36): 欄 廊 虜 隆 塚 祥 侮 僧 免 卑 喝 嘆 塀 墨 悔 慨 憎 懲 敏 既 煮 碑 祉 祈 禍 突 繁 臭 褐 謁 謹 賓 贈 逸 響 頻 These characters are Unicode CJK Unified Ideographs for which the old form (kyūjitai) and the new form (shinjitai) have been unified under the Unicode standard. Although the old and new forms are distinguished under the JIS X 0213 standard, the old forms map to Unicode CJK Compatibility Ideographs which are considered by Unicode to be canonically equivalent to the new forms and ma...

    Some characters, whether simplified or not, look the same in Chinese and Japanese, but have different stroke orders. For example, in Japan, 必 is written with the top dot first, while the Traditional stroke order writes the 丿 first. In the characters 王 and 玉, the vertical stroke is the third stroke in Chinese, but the second stroke in Japanese.Taiwan and Hong Kong use Traditional characters, though with an altered stroke order.

  10. List of jōyō kanji - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joyo_kanji_list

    List of characters For brevity, only one English translation is given per kanji. The "Grade" column specifies the grade in which the kanji is taught in Elementary schools in Japan.Grade "S" means that it is taught in ...

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  1. 混打疫苗 相關
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