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  1. Kinmen - Wikipedia › wiki › Kinmen

    Kinmen, alternatively known as Quemoy, is a group of islands off the southeastern coast of mainland China, governed as a county by the Republic of China Government based on Taiwan. It lies roughly 10 km (6.2 mi) east of the city of Xiamen in ...

  2. Tainan - Wikipedia › wiki › Tainan

    Tainan, officially Tainan City, is a special municipality in southern Taiwan facing the Taiwan Strait on its western coast. Tainan is the oldest city on the island and also commonly known as the "Capital City" for its over 200 years of ...

    • 2,191.65 km² (846.20 sq mi)
    • 7 out of 22
  3. New Zealand - Wikipedia › wiki › New_zealand

    New Zealand is one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest that Eastern Polynesians first settled the New Zealand ...

  4. Yangmingshan - Wikipedia › wiki › Yangmingshan
    • History
    • Landscape and Geology
    • Xiaoyoukeng
    • Flora and Fauna
    • Historical and Cultural Sites
    • Gallery
    • See Also
    • External Links

    This mountain range was originally called "Grass Mountain" (Chinese: 草山; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Chháu-soaⁿ) during the Qing Dynasty, in reference to the Datun Mountain (大屯山; Tōa-tūn-soaⁿ).Officials during this period were worried about thieves stealing sulfur from the rich sulfur deposits in the area, so they would regularly set fire to the mountain. Thus, only grass and no trees could be seen. Daiton National Park[ja], Taiwan's first national park, was established on 27 December 1937. It was one of three national parks designated by Governor-General of Taiwan Seizō Kobayashi during Japanese rule. In 1950, President Chiang Kai-shek renamed Grass Mountain to Yangmingshan to commemorate the Ming Dynasty scholar Wang Yangming. In 1962, the then Taiwan Provincial Bureau of Public Works began to plan the Yangmingshan National Park. The initial planning area was 28,400 hectares, including Mount Kwan-in and the Tatun Volcano Group.

    Different from the high mountain national parks, Yangmingshan National Park has a lower elevation. Even though mountain elevations range from only 200–1120 meters, beautiful landscapes such as ridges, valleys, lakes, waterfalls and basins are abundant. Andesite rocks make up most of the area's geology.

    Xiaoyoukeng is a post-volcanic geological landscape area located in the north of Taiwan in Yangmingshan National Park at the northwestern foot of Seven Star Mountain. It is approximately 805 meters above sea level and is famed for the fumaroles, sulfur crystals, hot springsand spectacular 'landslide terrain' formed by post-volcanic activity. Hiking trails to Seven Star Mountain are accessible from the Xiaoyoukeng parking lot. The top of the trail is 1,120 meters above sea level, which is the highest peak of Taipei City. The Xiaoyoukeng trail can connect to Qixing Park, Menghuan Pond, and Lengshuikeng. The trail also connects to visitor center, Yangmingshan Second Parking Lot and the Yangmingshan Bus Station.

    Due to the effects of post-volcanic activity and precipitation, soil in the region is highly acidic. With the influence of the northeast monsoon and the area's microclimates, winter temperatures are much lower than the surrounding areas. The above factors cause the vegetation to differ from those in other regions at the same latitude. Some medium and high altitude plants can be found here such as bird-lime tree and hairy Japanese maple. Vegetation groups can be divided into subtropical monsoon rain forests, temperate evergreen broadleaf forests and mountain ridge grasslands. There are 1360 species of vascular bundle plants in the region. Some of the common ones are red nanmu, large-leaved machilus, Formosan sweet gum, Taiwan cherry, Mori cleyera and dark spotted cherry. The most famous is Taiwan isoetes in Menghuan pond, an aquatic fern only found in Taiwan. Mt. Datun is one of the most well known places to see some of the 168 species of butterflies in northern Taiwan. The best time...

    Chinese Culture University

    The school was founded in 1962. The founder Dr. Zhang Qiyun and the Chinese Culture Foundation Committee originally proposed the school to be called "Far Eastern University". After a letter from the previous President Jiang Gong, he suggested that it be changed to "Chinese Cultural Institute". In 1963, 15 departments of the day department of the University Department began to enroll students, and then 4 departments of the night department were established and renamed "Chinese Culture College"...

    Chung-Shan Building - Meeting place of the now defunct National Assembly of the Republic of China

    During the administration of President Chiang Kai-shek, the Chung-Shan Building in Yangmingshan National Park was built in 1965 to honor the centenary birthday of Sun Yat-sen, the country's founding father. Ms. Xiu Zelan, a well-known architect, designed it. It is surrounded by mountains and is surrounded by flora. The exterior is a typical Chinese classical structure with exquisite and precise interior décor. It was once the home of the National Assembly and a popular location for heads of s...

    Grass Mountain Chateau - Summer residence of Chiang Kai-shek

    Grass Mountain is a valley area surrounded by Datun Mountain, Qixing Mountain, and Shamao Mountain, but it is not a mountain. The Grass Mountain Hotel was formerly the guest home of Taiwan Sugar Corporation, and Jiang Gong moved in when the Nationalist Government moved to Taiwan in 1949. The hotel is positioned on a strategic high point of a grassy mountain and is quiet and pleasant. In front of you, the Keelung River and the Danshui River meet. The natural splendor may be seen from the Guand...

  5. Taroko National Park - Wikipedia › wiki › Taroko_National_Park
    • History
    • Origin of The Name
    • Geology
    • Transportation
    • Gallery
    • External Links

    This national park was originally established as the Tsugitaka-Taroko National Park(Japanese: 次高タロコ國立公園, Hepburn: Tsugitaka Taroko kokuritsu kōen) by the Governor-General of Taiwan on 12 December 1937 when Taiwan was part of the Empire of Japan. After the Empire of Japan's defeat in World War II, the Republic of Chinatook over Taiwan in consequence. The ROC government subsequently abolished the park on 15 August 1945. It was not until 28 November 1986 that the park was reestablished. Taroko National Park covers an area of 92,000 hectares. It is located in Hualien County, Taichung City and Nantou County, and is home to unique geological and natural resources, including twenty seven peaks over 3,000 metres (9,843 ft) (Baiyu, 100 Top Peaks in Taiwan) located in and around the Qilai and Nanhu Mountain ranges. Park visitors can enjoy the spectacular marble gorge of Taroko, the Qingshui Cliff rising high above the Pacific Ocean, the peaceful trail along the Shakadang River, and the cascad...

    The name "Taroko" (太魯閣) derives from the Truku tribe, an indigenous group formally recognized by the Taiwanese government as of 2004. The Truku tribe originally resided in the upper region of the Zhuoshi river (濁水溪) before migrating eastward towards Hualien County through Mt. Qilai (Mt. Qilai: Truku languagecalled ”Klbiyun”) to the Liwu River. The Truku tribe continue to reside in Hualien County, including within the designated National Park area.

    Taiwan was created through the collision of the Philippine and the Eurasian plates in what is known as the Penglai Orogeny. This movement occurred some four million years ago and is responsible for the formation of the Central Mountain Range that runs north-south through much of Taiwan. Even today the shift in tectonic plates continues and this area continues to rise a few millimeters every year. Marble formations only revealed themselves after millions of years of erosion and continued uplifting. Calcium Carbonate remains accumulated some 230 million years ago. These deposits through time, pressure, and the elements were gradually lithified into limestone that in turn metamorphosed into marble. As Taiwan was uplifted from the pressures of the colliding plates, the erosive forces of weathering and water worked to carve out the gorges we see today. Erosion by the river against the constantly elevating land combined with the heavy sub-tropical rains resulted in a rapid transformation...

    Taroko National Park is typically accessed from Hualien City where various tours, buses and transport options are available next to Hualien Train station. The closest train station to the park is Xincheng Station of the Taiwan Railways Administration, roughly 7km from the park's main headquarters.Due to Xincheng's distance from the park itself, visitors looking to get closer to the park will typically utilize the many tour buses and taxis available. Those with a Taiwan driver's license can rent a scooter near Hualien Station to drive to the park, but Hualien's winding highways and steep drop-offs can be dangerous for inexperienced motorists.

    Xiangde Temple at Tianxiang
    Bicycling uphill
    Bicyclists share narrow roads with motor vehicles
    Rockfall Prevention Tunnel(明隧道)
  6. Liuqiu Island - Wikipedia › wiki › Liuqiu_Island
    • Names
    • History
    • Geography
    • Administration
    • Economy
    • Religion
    • Transportation
    • Education
    • See Also
    • External Links

    Liúqiú is the pinyin romanization of the Mandarin pronunciation of the Chinese name 琉球. The same name was previously written Liuchiu, Liu-chiu, or Liu-ch'iu using the Wade-Giles system; and Ryūkyū from its Japanese pronunciation. The original Liuqiu appears in the Book of Sui and other medieval Chinese records as an island kingdom somewhere in the East China Sea. It was written by different authors with different homophonous characters and appears to have transcribed a native name. That kingdom has been variously identified with states on Taiwan Island, Okinawa, and the Penghu Islands. The name Liuqiu Islet (嶼, yǔ) was first used during the Ming Dynasty. Since "Ryūkyū" is also the name of the nearby Ryukyu archipelago including Okinawa and a historical kingdom there, the island has also been nicknamed "Little Liuqiu" (小琉球, Pinyin Xiǎo Liúqiú) as opposed to "Big Liuqiu" (大琉球) for the Ryukyu Islands or Taiwan - since the early 20th century. Transcriptions of the nickname include Xiao...

    The Siraya, the Taiwanese indigenous peoples who also lived in nearby Pingtung Countyon Taiwan Island, are thought to have been the island's original inhabitants. According to historical records, in 607 and 610, Emperor Sui Yang of the Sui dynastytwice sent people to arrive to Liuqiu. In 1622, the Dutch ship Goude Leeuws or Gouden Leeuw (Dutch for "Golden Lion") hit the island's coral reefs. Its entire crew was massacred by the island's natives. In 1631, the Dutch yacht Beverwijck wrecked on the same reefs and its fifty-odd survivors battled for two days before also being slaughtered to a man. Hendrik Brouwer, the governor-general of the Dutch East Indies, personally ordered his lieutenant on Taiwan Hans Putmans to "punish and exterminate the people of... the Golden Lion Island as an example for their murderous actions committed against our people." A 1633 expedition under Claes Bruijn discovered it was undermanned for the task and accomplished little, aside from finding the large c...

    Liuqiu Island is a foot- or boot-shaped coral island covering 6.801 square kilometers (2.626 sq mi) at high tide and about 7.4 km2 (2.9 sq mi) at low tide, running about 4 kilometers (2.5 mi) north to south and 2 kilometers (1.2 mi) east to west. It lies in the southeast corner of the Taiwan Strait, about 8 nautical miles (15 km; 9 mi) SSW of Donggang at the mouth of the Gaoping River on the southwestern shore of Taiwan Island. Overall, the island inclines gently from the southwest to the northeast, but consists of two grabens—one NE to SW, the other NW to SE—that meet in the middle, dividing the island into four terraces. Its highest point is Belly Hill, about 80 meters (260 ft) above sea level. Liuqiu is the only island township in Pingtung County. It is one of Taiwan's largest coral islands, and the only one with significant population and human activities.[citation needed] It is also covered with limestone and land colored red by weathered iron oxide and silicon oxide. Its beach...

    The current township chief is Chen Lung-chin (t 陳隆進, s 陈隆进, Chén Lóngjìn). Liuqiu Township consists of 8 villages, with the township seat located in Zhongfu Village.

    In the early modern era and under the Japanese, Liuqiu's residents were mostly occupied with fishing and small-scale agriculture. After the restoration of Chinese control in 1945, some quarries were opened to export stone and lime. As Taiwan's economy has improved, tourismhas employed more and more people. Water and electricity are provided from Taiwan Island.Because of the constant threat of summer typhoons, construction on the island is now specially designed to accommodate strong winds and waves.

    Chinese ancestral veneration is abundantly demonstrated, with most plots of undeveloped land on the southern half of the island outside the tourist areas covered with graves. Regulations established by Taiwan's Ministry of the Interiorusually prohibit burials within 500 meters (1,600 ft) of a residence, but obeying that law on Liuqiu Island would be impossible. Liuqiu is famed for its many temples: at least 38 main ones and as many as 70 in total.The people are quite religious and it is common to pray and give offerings for recovery from illness; for blessings for new ships, houses, and marriages; for protection while fishing; and for appropriate times for funerals. The gods worshipped on the island are mostly those of the local faiths of Quanzhou and Zhangzhou in Fujian, whence the original Han settlers originated. The most important and popular is Guanyin, the Buddhist bodhisattva of mercy. Her Jade Cloud Temple (t 碧雲寺, s 碧云寺, Bìyún Sì) and her annual birthday festival on the 19th...

    The only public transportation to Liuqiu is by ship from Donggang in Pingtung County and Zhongyun in Kaohsiung on Taiwan Island. Boats arrive at Baisha Port on the north end of the island or Dafu Port on its east coast. The island is 8–9 nautical miles (15–17 km; 9.2–10.4 mi) from the Taiwan mainland, which is about a 25- to 30-minute boat ride. The island has two lighthouses: one guiding ships into Baisha Port and the White Lighthouse on Mount Dongnanjian. Although Liuqiu Airport once had passenger service with direct flights between Kaohsiung international airportand the island, it is now only used for helicopters.

    The island provides primary and junior high education. Its five schools are Liuqiu, Baisha, Quande, and Tiannan Primary Schools[citation needed] and Liuqiu Junior High School. High schooland university students attend schools on Taiwan Island. A 2004 report on the island described its brain drain before the growth of the tourism industry: "'Liuchiu has two problems... All the young people go over there,' he [said] pointing to Kaohsiungon the horizon, 'and all the old people go over there,'... pointing to the south of the island" and its graves.

  7. Hugo Boss - Wikipedia › wiki › Hugo_Boss
    • History
    • Products
    • Controversies
    • See Also
    • External Links

    Manufacturing for the Nazi Party

    In 1923, Hugo Boss founded his own clothing company in Metzingen, Germany, where it still operates. In 1924, he started a factory along with two partners. The company produced shirts, jackets, work clothing, sportswear and raincoats. Due to the economic climateof Germany at the time, Boss was forced into bankruptcy. In 1931, he reached an agreement with his creditors, leaving him with six sewing machines to start again. That same year, Hugo Boss became a member of the Nazi Party, receiving th...


    As a result of the ban on Boss being in business, his son-in-law Eugen Holy took over ownership and running of the company. In 1950, after a period supplying work uniforms, the company received its first order for men's suits, resulting in an expansion to 150 employees by the end of the year. By 1960, the company was producing ready made suits. In 1969, Eugen retired, leaving the company to his sons Jochen and Uwe, who began international development. In 1970, the first Boss branded suits wer...

    Recent history

    In 2005, Marzotto spun off its fashion brands into the Valentino Fashion Group, which was then sold to Permira private equity group. In March 2015, Permira announced plans to sell the remaining shareholding of 12%. Since the exit by Permira, 91% of the shares floated on the Börse Frankfurt, and the residual 2% was held by the company. 7% of the shares are owned by the Marzotto family. Hugo Boss has at least 6,102 points of sale in 124 countries. Hugo Boss AG directly owns over 364 shops, 537...

    There are two core brands, Boss and Hugo. Products are manufactured in a variety of locations, including the company's own production sites in: Metzingen, Germany; Morrovalle, Italy; Radom, Poland; Izmir, Turkey; and Cleveland, United States. Hugo Boss has invested in technology for its made-to-measure program, using machines for almost all the tailoringtraditionally made by hand. Hugo Boss has licensing agreements with various companies to produce Hugo Boss branded products. These include agreements with Samsung, HTC and Huawei to produce mobile phones; Nike, Inc. to produce sports equipment; C.W.F. Children Worldwide Fashion SAS to produce children's clothing; Coty to produce fragrances and skincare; Movado to produce watches; and Safiloto produce sunglasses and eyewear. In 2020, Hugo Boss created its first vegan men's suit, using all non-animal materials, dyes and chemicals.

    Russell Brand

    British comedian and actor, Russell Brand was sponsored by Hugo Boss. At the GQ awards, after receiving an award on stage, Brand proceeded to talk about Hugo Boss's Nazi connection and did the Hitler March. He was later ejected from the ceremony and later apologised.


    In March 2010, Hugo Boss was boycotted by actor Danny Glover for the company's plans to close the plant in Brooklyn, Ohio, after 375 employees of the Workers United Union reportedly rejected the Hugo Boss proposal to cut the workers' hourly wage 36% from $13 an hour to $8.30. After an initial statement by CFO Andreas Stockert saying the company had a responsibility to shareholders and would move suit manufacturing from Ohio to other facilities in Turkey, Bulgaria, and Romania, the company cap...

    Mirror fall

    In September 2015, Hugo Boss (UK) was fined £1.2m in relation to the death in June 2013 of a child who died four days after suffering fatal head injuries at its store in Bicester, Oxfordshire. The four-year-old boy had been injured when a steel-framed fitting-room mirror weighing 120 kg (250 lb) fell on him. Oxford Crown Court had earlier been told that it had "negligently been left free-standing without any fixings" and the coroner had said that the death was an "accident waiting to happen"....

  8. Sofa bed - Wikipedia › wiki › Sofa_bed

    A sofa bed or sofa-bed (in the US often called a sofabed, hide-a-bed, bed-couch, sleeper-sofa, or pullout sofa) is typically a sofa or couch that, underneath its seating cushions, hides a metal frame and thin mattress that can be unfolded or ...

  9. Kt/V - Wikipedia › wiki › Kt
    • Rationale For Kt/V as A Marker of Dialysis Adequacy
    • Relation to Urr
    • Peritoneal Dialysis
    • Reason For Adoption
    • Criticisms/Disadvantages of Kt/V
    • External Links

    K (clearance) multiplied by t (time) is a volume (since mL/min × min = mL, or L/h × h = L), and (K × t) can be thought of as the mL or L of fluid (blood in this case) cleared of urea (or any other solute) during the course of a single treatment. V also is a volume, expressed in mL or L. So the ratio of K × t / Vis a so-called "dimensionless ratio" and can be thought of as a multiple of the volume of plasma cleared of urea divided by the distribution volume of urea. When Kt/V = 1.0, a volume of blood equal to the distribution volume of urea has been completely cleared of urea. The relationship between Kt/V and the concentration of urea C at the end of dialysis can be derived from the first-order differential equation that describes exponential decayand models the clearance of any substance from the body where the concentration of that substance decreases in an exponential fashion: where 1. C is the concentration [mol/m3] 2. tis the time [s] 3. K is the clearance [m3/s] 4. V is the vo...

    The URR or Urea reduction ratio is simply the fractional reduction of urea during dialysis. So by definition, URR = 1 − C/C0. So 1−URR = C/C0. So by algebra, substituting into equation (4) above, since ln C/C0 = − ln C0/C, we get:

    Kt/V (in the context of peritoneal dialysis) was developed by Michael J. Lysaghtin a series of articles on peritoneal dialysis. The steady-state solution of a simplified mass transfer equation that is used to describe the mass exchange over a semi-permeable membrane and models peritoneal dialysisis where 1. CB is the concentration in the blood [ mol/m3] 2. KD is the clearance [ m3/s ] 3. m ˙ {\\displaystyle {\\dot {m}}} is the urea mass generation [ mol/s ] This can also be written as: The mass generation (of urea), in steady state, can be expressed as the mass (of urea) in the effluent per time: where 1. CE is the concentration of urea in effluent [ mol/m3] 2. VE is the volume of effluent [ m3] 3. tis the time [ s ] Lysaght, motivated by equations 6b and 6c, defined the value KD: Lysaght uses "ml/min" for the clearance. In order to convert the above clearance (which is in m3/s) to ml/min one has to multiply by 60 × 1000 × 1000. Once KD is defined the following equation is used to cal...

    Kt/V has been widely adopted because it was correlated with survival. Before Kt/V nephrologists measured the serum urea concentration (specifically thetime-averaged concentration of urea (TAC of urea)), which was found not to be correlated with survival (due to its strong dependence on proteinintake) and thus deemed an unreliable marker of dialysis adequacy.

    It is complex and tedious to calculate. Many nephrologists have difficulty understanding it.
    Kt/V only measures a change in the concentration of urea and implicitly assumes the clearance of urea is comparable to other toxins. (It ignores molecules larger than urea having diffusion-limited...
    Kt/V does not take into account the role of ultrafiltration.


    1. Hemodialysis Dose and Adequacy– a description of URR and Kt/V from the Kidney and Urologic Diseases Clearinghouse. 2. Kt/V and the adequacy of hemodialysis–

    Peritoneal dialysis

    1. Advisory on Peritoneal Dialysis– American Association of Kidney Patients 2. Peritoneal Dialysis Dose and Adequacy– a description of URR and Kt/V from the Kidney and Urologic Diseases Clearinghouse.


    1. spKt/V,eKt/V,URR,nPCR,GNRI etc. dialysis calculation– 2. free Kt/V calculators, single pool and equilibrated HD, PD, no login needed, site used by dozens of dialysis centers around the world for over 10 years– 3. Web/javascript program that does formal 2-pool urea kinetics in multiple patients– 4. Kt/V calculator– 5. Kt/V– HDCN

  10. GLOBALG.A.P - Wikipedia › wiki › GLOBALG

    GLOBALG.A.P. is a farm assurance program, translating consumer requirements into Good Agricultural Practice. EurepGAP is a common standard for farm management practice created in the late 1990s by several European supermarket chains and their ...

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