Dogecoin (/ˈdoʊ(d)ʒkɔɪn/ DOHJ-koyn or DOHZH-koyn, code: DOGE, symbol: Ð) is a cryptocurrency created by software engineers Billy Markus and Jackson Palmer, who decided to create a payment system as a joke, making fun of the wild speculation ...
New Zealand (Māori: Aotearoa [aɔˈtɛaɾɔa]) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island (Te Ika-a-Māui) and the South Island (Te Waipounamu)—and more than 700 smaller islands,  ...
- selector 4 + 氷/氵 = 改- selector 6 + 氷/氵 = 曷- 氷/氵 + selector 1 = 冷- 氷/氵 + selector 2 = 汰- ま/石 + 氷/氵 = 承- ふ/女 + 氷/氵 = 汝- た/⽥ + 氷/氵 = 油- 日 + 氷/氵 = 泉- み/耳 + 氷/氵 = 敢- ゆ/彳 + 氷/氵 = 微- 仁/亻 + 氷/氵 = 攸- こ/子 + 氷/氵 = 攻- て/扌 + 氷/氵 = 掲- 氷/氵 + 氷/氵 = 渇- ね/示 + 氷/氵 = 褐- え/訁 + 氷/氵 = 謁- さ/阝 + 氷/氵 = 凄- う/宀/#3 + 氷/氵 = 寒- 氷/氵 + 仁/亻 = 冶- 氷/氵 + い/糹/#2 = 准- れ/口 + 氷/氵 + selector 4 = 咏- る/忄 + 氷/氵 + selector 4 = 怺- 日 + 氷/氵 + selector 4 = 昶- ⺼ + 氷/氵 + selector 4 = 脉- 心 + 氷/氵 = 茜- ふ/女 + 氷/氵 + う/宀/#3 = 艀- む/車 + 氷/氵 + う/宀/#3 = 蜉- さ/阝 + 氷/氵 + う/宀/#3 = 郛
- Variants and Thematic Compounds
- Compounds of 氷 and 氵
- Compounds of 改 and 攵
- Compounds of 曷
- Compounds of 冫
- Compounds of 永
- Other Compounds
- Unified Braille
- Plus Dots 7 and 8
- Related 8-Dot Kantenji Patterns
In unified international braille, the braille pattern dots-1256 is used to represent a close back vowel, such as /u/ or /ɯ/ when multiple letters correspond to these values, and is otherwise assigned as needed.
Related to Braille pattern dots-1256 are Braille patterns 12567, 12568, and 125678, which are used in 8-dot braille systems, such as Gardner-Salinas and Luxembourgish Braille.
In the Japanese kantenjibraille, the standard 8-dot Braille patterns 2368, 12368, 23468, and 123468 are the patterns related to Braille pattern dots-1256, since the two additional dots of kantenji patterns 01256, 12567, and 012567 are placed above the base 6-dot cell, instead of below, as in standard 8-dot braille.
- Applications and Limitations
- List of The 1,850 Tōyō Kanji
- See Also
- External Links
Thousands of kanji characters were in use in various writing systems, leading to great difficulties for those learning written Japanese. Additionally, several characters had identical meanings but were written differently from each other, further increasing complexity. After World War II, the Ministry of Education decided to minimize the number of kanji by choosing the most commonly used kanji, along with simplified kanji (see Shinjitai) commonly appearing in contemporary literature, to form the tōyō kanji. This was an integral part of the postwar reform of Japanese national writing. This was meant as a preparation for re-introducing their previous unsuccessful reform abolishing Chinese characters. Although the postwar timing meant no public debate was held on the future of the Japanese written language, the defenders of the original kanji system considered and accepted the tōyō kanji as a reasonable compromise. Since this compromise could not then be withdrawn in favour of more rad...
In addition to a list of the standardized tōyō kanji, the reform published by the Ministry for Education in 1946 also contains a set of guidelines for their use. Regarding provenance and scope, the foreword of the document states that: 1. The table of tōyō kanji put forth therein, are the selection of kanji recommended for use by the general public, including legal and governmental documents, newspapers, and magazines. 2. The presented kanji are selected as an approximate set of those characters found to be of no insignificant utility in the lives of today's Japanese citizens. 3. Concerning proper nouns, there is a wide range of usage beyond what may be formulated as rules, and consequently they are treated as outside the scope of this standard. 4. The simplified character forms from modern custom are taken as the proper form, and their original forms are provided alongside them for reference. 5. A systemization of the character forms and their readings is still under consideration...
Because the majority of character-based words are composed of two (or more) kanji, many words were left with one character included in the Tōyō kanji, and the other character missing. In this case, the recommendation was to write the included part in kanji and the excluded part in kana, e.g. ふ頭 for 埠頭 and 危ぐ for 危惧. These words were called mazegaki(交ぜ書き, "mixed characters").
Bold in 1981 and 2010 year added kanji 一 丁 七 丈 三 上 下 不 且 世 丘 丙 中 丸 丹 主 久 乏 乗 乙 九 乳 乾 乱 了 事 二 互 五 井 亜 亡 交 享 京 人 仁 今 介 仕 他 付 代 令 以 仰 仲 件 任 企 伏 伐 休 伯 伴 伸 伺 似 但 位 低 住 佐 何 仏 作 佳 使 来 例 侍 供 依 侮 侯 侵 便 係 促 俊 俗 保 信 修 俳 俵 併 倉 個 倍 倒 候 借 倣 値 倫 仮 偉 偏 停 健 側 偶 傍 傑 備 催 伝 債 傷 傾 働 像 僚 偽 僧 価 儀 億 倹 儒 償 優 元 兄 充 兆 先 光 克 免 児 入 内 全 両 八 公 六 共 兵 具 典 兼 冊 再 冒 冗 冠 冬 冷 准 凍 凝 凡 凶 出 刀 刃 分 切 刈 刊 刑 列 初 判 別 利 到 制 刷 券 刺 刻 則 削 前 剖 剛 剰 副 割 創 劇 剤 剣 力 功 加 劣 助 努 効 劾 勅 勇 勉 動 勘 務 勝 労 募 勢 勤 勲 励 勧 勺 匁 包 化 北 匠 匹 匿 区 十 千 升 午 半 卑 卒 卓 協 南 博 占 印 危 却 卵 巻 卸 即 厘 厚 原 去 参 又 及 友 反 叔 取 受 口 古 句 叫 召 可 史 右 司 各 合 吉 同 名 后 吏 吐 向 君 吟 否 含 呈 呉 吸 吹 告 周 味 呼 命 和 咲 哀 品 員 哲 唆 唐 唯 唱 商 問 啓 善 喚 喜 喪 喫 単 嗣 嘆 器 噴 嚇 厳 嘱 囚 四 回 因 困 固 圏 国 囲 園 円 図 団 土 在 地 坂 均 坊 坑 坪 垂 型 埋 城 域 執 培 基 堂 堅 堤 堪 報 場 塊 塑 塔 塗 境 墓 墜 増 墨 堕 墳 墾 壁 壇 圧 塁 壊 士 壮 壱 寿 夏 夕 外 多 夜 夢 大 天 太 夫 央 失 奇 奉 奏 契 奔 奥 奪 奨 奮 女 奴 好 如 妃 妊 妙 妥 妨 妹 妻 姉 始 姓 委 姫 姻 姿 威 娘 娯 娠 婆 婚 婦 婿 媒 嫁 嫡 嬢 子 孔 字 存 孝 季 孤 孫 学 宅 宇 守 安 完 宗 官 宙 定 宜 客 宣 室 宮 宰 害 宴 家 容 宿 寂 寄 密 富 寒 察 寡 寝 実 寧 審 写 寛 寮 宝 寸 寺 封 射 将 専 尉 尊 尋 対 導 小 少 就 尺 尼 尾 尿 局 居 届 屈...Pronunciation of the Kanji (in Japanese)[dead link]
Radical 50 or radical turban (巾部) meaning "turban" or "scarf" is one of the 31 Kangxi radicals (214 radicals total) composed of three strokes. In the Kangxi Dictionary, there are 295 characters (out of 49,030) to be found ...
Russia (Russian: Россия, Rossiya, Russian pronunciation: [rɐˈsʲijə]), or the Russian Federation, [b] is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia.It is the largest country in the world by area, covering over 17 million square ...
Pakistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia.It is the world's fifth-most populous country, with a population exceeding 225.2 million, and has the world's second-largest Muslim population.Pakistan is ...
List of kanji by stroke count. This Kanji index method groups together the kanji that are written with the same number of strokes. Currently, there are 2,187 individual kanji listed. Characters followed by an alternate in (parentheses) indicate ...
- Species and Evolution
- Pharmacological Aspects
- Coca Use by The Incas
- Traditional Uses
- Commercial and Industrial Uses
- Literary References
- International Prohibition of Coca Leaf
The coca plant resembles a blackthorn bush, and grows to a height of 2 to 3 metres (7 to 10 feet). The branches are straight, and the leaves are thin, opaque, oval, and taper at the extremities. A marked characteristic of the leaf is an areolatedportion bounded by two longitudinal curved lines, one line on each side of the midrib, and more conspicuous on the under face of the leaf. The flowers are small, and disposed in clusters on short stalks; the corolla is composed of five yellowish-white petals, the anthers are heart-shaped, and the pistil consists of three carpels united to form a three-chambered ovary. The flowers mature into red berries. The leaves are sometimes eaten by the larvae of the moth Eloria noyesi.
There are two species of cultivated coca, each with two varieties: 1. Erythroxylum coca 1.1. Erythroxylum coca var. coca (Bolivian or Huánuco Coca) – well adapted to the eastern Andes of Peru and Bolivia, an area of humid, tropical, montane forest. 1.2. Erythroxylum coca var. ipadu (Amazonian Coca) – cultivated in the lowland Amazon Basinin Peru and Colombia. 2. Erythroxylum novogranatense 2.1. Erythroxylum novogranatense var. novogranatense (Colombian Coca) – a highland variety that is utilized in lowland areas. It is cultivated in drier regions found in Colombia. However, E. novogranatenseis very adaptable to varying ecological conditions. The leaves have parallel lines on either side of the central vein. 2.2. Erythroxylum novogranatense var. truxillense (Trujillo Coca) – grown primarily in Peru and Colombia. the leaves of E. novogranatense var. truxillensedo not have parallel lines on either side of the central vein like all other varieties. All four of the cultivated cocas were...
Coca is traditionally cultivated in the lower altitudes of the eastern slopes of the Andes (the Yungas), or the highlands depending on the species grown. Coca production begins in the valleys and upper jungle regions of the Andean region, where the countries of Colombia, Peru and Bolivia are host to more than 98 per cent of the global land area planted with coca. In 2014, Coca plantations were discovered in Mexico, and in 2020 in Honduras,which could have major implications for the illegal cultivation of the plant. The seeds are sown from December to January in small plots (almacigas) sheltered from the sun, and the young plants when at 40 to 60 centimetres (16 to 24 inches) in height are placed in final planting holes (aspi), or if the ground is level, in furrows (uachos) in carefully weeded soil. The plants thrive best in hot, damp and humid locations, such as the clearings of forests; but the leaves most preferred are obtained in drier areas, on the hillsides. The leaves are gath...
The pharmacologically active ingredient of coca is the cocaine alkaloid, which is found in the amount of about 0.3 to 1.5%, averaging 0.8%, in fresh leaves. Besides cocaine, the coca leaf contains a number of other alkaloids, including methylecgonine cinnamate, benzoylecgonine, truxilline, hydroxytropacocaine, tropacocaine, ecgonine, cuscohygrine, dihydrocuscohygrine, nicotine, and hygrine. When chewed, coca acts as a mild stimulant and suppresses hunger, thirst, pain, and fatigue. Absorption of coca from the leaf is less rapid than nasal application of purified forms of the alkaloid (almost all of the coca alkaloid is absorbed within 20 minutes of nasal application, while it takes 2–12 hours after ingestion of the raw leaf for alkaline concentrations to peak.). When the raw leaf is consumed in tea, between 59 and 90% of the coca alkaloid is absorbed. The coca leaf, when consumed in its natural form, does not induce a physiological or psychological dependence, nor does abstinence af...
Traces of coca leaves found in northern Peru dates the communal chewing of coca with lime (the alkaline mineral, not the citrus fruit) 8000 years back. Other evidence of coca traces have been found in mummies dating 3000 years back in northern Chile. Beginning with the Valdivian culture, circa 3000 BC, there is an unbroken record of coca leaf consumption by succeeding cultural groups on the coast of Ecuador until European arrival as shown in their ceramic sculpture and abundant caleros or lime pots. Lime containers found in the north coast of Peru date around 2000 BC as evidenced by the findings at Huaca Prieta and the Jetetepeque river valley. Extensive archaeological evidence for the chewing of coca leaves dates back at least to the 6th century AD Moche period, and the subsequent Inca period, based on mummies found with a supply of coca leaves, pottery depicting the characteristic cheek bulge of a coca chewer, spatulas for extracting alkali and figured bags for coca leaves and lim...
While many historians are in agreement that coca was a contributing factor to the daily life of the Inca, there are many different theories as to how this civilization came to adopt it as one of its staple crops and as a valued commodity. The Incas were able to accomplish significant things while stimulated by the effects of coca. The Incas did not have a graphical written language, but used the quipu, a fiber recording device. Spanish documents make it clear that coca was one of the most imp...
Coca use in labor and military service
One of the most common uses of coca during the reign of the Inca was in the context of mit'a labor, a labor tax required of all able-bodied men in the Inca empire, and also in military service. Pedro Cieza de León wrote that the indigenous people of the Andes always seemed to have coca in their mouths. Mit'a laborers, soldiers, and others chewed coca to alleviate hunger and thirst while they were working and fighting. The results of this are evident in monumental construction and the successf...
Coca use in religious rituals
Due to the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire, the Spaniards had direct access to the Inca. They had insight to their everyday lives, and it is through their lens that we learn about religion in the Inca Empire. While the indigenous author Pedro Cieza de León wrote about the effects coca had on the Inca, multiple Spanish men wrote about the importance of coca in their spirituality. For example Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa, Father Bernabé Cobo, and Juan de Ulloa Mogollón noted how the Incas woul...
Traditional medical uses of coca are foremost as a stimulant to overcome fatigue, hunger, and thirst. It is considered particularly effective against altitude sickness. It also is used as an anesthetic and analgesic to alleviate the pain of headache, rheumatism, wounds and sores, etc. Before stronger anaesthetics were available, it also was used for broken bones, childbirth, and during trepanning operations on the skull. The high calcium content in coca explains why people used it for bone fr...
Raw coca leaves, chewed or consumed as tea or mate de coca, are rich in nutritional properties. Specifically, the coca plant contains essential minerals (calcium, potassium, phosphorus), vitamins (B1, B2, C, and E) and nutrients such as protein and fiber.
Coca has also been a vital part of the religious cosmology of the Andean peoples of Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Colombia, northern Argentina, and Chile from the pre-Inca period through to the present. Coca leaves play a crucial part in offerings to the apus (mountains), Inti (the sun), or Pachamama (the earth). Coca leaves are also often read in a form of divination analogous to reading tea leaves in other cultures. As one example of the many traditional beliefs about coca, it is believed by the...
In the Andes commercially manufactured coca teas, granola bars, cookies, hard candies, etc. are available in most stores and supermarkets, including upscale suburban supermarkets. Coca is used industrially in the cosmetics and food industries. A decocainized extract of coca leaf is one of the flavoring ingredients in Coca-Cola. Before the criminalization of cocaine, however, the extract was not decocainized, and hence Coca-Cola's original formula did indeed include cocaine. Coca tea is produced industrially from coca leaves in South America by a number of companies, including Enaco S.A. (National Company of the Coca), a government enterprise in Peru. Coca leaves are also found in a brand of herbal liqueur called "Agwa de Bolivia" (grown in Bolivia and de-cocainized in Amsterdam), and a natural flavouring ingredient in Red Bull Cola, that was launched in March 2008.
Probably the earliest reference to coca in English literature is Abraham Cowley's poem "A Legend of Coca"in his 1662 collection of poems "Six Books of Plants". In the series of Aubrey-Maturin novels by Patrick O'Brien, set during the Napoleonic wars, Dr. Stephen Maturin, a naval physician, naturalist, and British intelligence agent discovers the use of coca leaves on a mission to Peru, and makes regular use of them in several of the later novels in the series.
Coca leaf is the raw material for the manufacture of the drug cocaine, a powerful stimulant and anaesthetic extracted chemically from large quantities of coca leaves. Today, since it has mostly been replaced as a medical anaesthetic by synthetic analogues such as procaine, cocaine is best known as an illegal recreational drug. The cultivation, sale, and possession of unprocessed coca leaf (but not of any processed form of cocaine) is generally legal in the countries – such as Bolivia, Peru, Chile, and Argentine Northwest– where traditional use is established, although cultivation is often restricted in an attempt to control the production of cocaine. In the case of Argentina, it is legal only in some northwest provinces where the practice is so common that the state has accepted it. The prohibition of the use of the coca leaf except for medical or scientific purposes was established by the United Nations in the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. The coca leaf is listed on Sch...