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  1. Yilan County, Taiwan - Wikipedia,_Taiwan
    • Name
    • History
    • Geography
    • Government
    • Demographics and Culture
    • Education
    • Energy
    • Tourist Attractions
    • Transportation
    • External Links

    The name Yilan derives from the indigenous Kavalan people. Other former names in reference to this area in the Yilan Plain include Kabalan, Kavalan, Kavaland, La-A-Lan, E-A-Lan, Yiland and Gilan. Before 2009, the county's official name was transliterated as Ilan.

    Early history

    Since early ages, many people have traveled from far places to Yilan. Indigenous tribes that have settled in Yilan are Kavalan people and Atayal people. The Kavalan people came by the sea and lived by the river at Yilan Plain since around 1,000 years ago. They mostly speak the Austronesian languages. Their settlements consisted of small villages along rivers with around 40-50 communities scattered around the area with a total population of approximately 10,000 people. The Atayal people came b...

    Spanish Formosa

    The Spaniards began arriving in Taiwan in the 17th century. In 1626, the Spaniards led an invasion under the pretext of ship crews having been slain by Taiwanese barbarians. They then torched harbors and surrounding villages, and even went as far as taking over Su'ao Townand established a city called Saint Lorenzo.

    Dutch Formosa

    The Spaniards were subsequently ousted by the Dutch who had taken over the southern part of Taiwan and established Dutch Formosa. In 1640, the Dutch began contacting Han Chinese merchants for trade and levying taxes on various commercial goods. The merchants had to pay all company taxes but also enjoyed the right to monopolize trade.

    Yilan County sits on the Yilan Plain, a combined alluvial plain created by Lanyang River and other minor streams with a rough shape of triangle. On the three vertices of the triangle sit the Toucheng, Sanxing and Su-ao Townships with a roughly equal distance of 30 km on the three sides. The Xueshan Range sits on the northwest of Yilan County from Toucheng to Sanxing. The county is geographically divided into the cliffs and the plains. The Central Mountain Rangesits to the south from Sanxing to Su'ao. The Upper Lanyang River is steep and the rapid current is highly erosive. Large amount of silt carried by the river have little time to settle because of the high slope of the lands where it flows out of the mountains and valleys. An alluvial fan is formed as a result of scattered sand and gravel settling down. Large amount of gravel accumulate in the shallow stream bed, creating alluvial fans that often forms into web-like pattern. The river tends to change courses after floods caused...

    Yilan County is administered as a county of Taiwan Province. Yilan City is the county seat which houses the Yilan County Government and Yilan County Council. The county is headed by Magistrate Lin Zi-miao of the Kuomintang.


    Today Han Chinesecomprises the majority of the population in Yilan County.

    Education related affairs in Yilan County is governed by the Education Department of Yilan County Government. The county houses several public and private universities and colleges such as the National Ilan University, National Lan-Yang Girls' Senior High school, National Yilan Senior High School, Lan Yang Institute of Technologyand St. Mary's Medicine Nursing and Management College.

    Yilan County has 40 MW renewable energy capacity from an incinerator plant and two hydroelectric power plants.


    The Yilan Line and North-Link Line of Taiwan Railways Administration pass the county. Train stations within the two lines in the county are Shihcheng, Dali, Daxi, Guishan, Wai-ao, Toucheng, Dingpu, Jiaoxi, Sicheng, Yilan, Erjie, Zhongli, Luodong, Dongshan, Xinma, Su'aoxin, Su'ao, Yongle, Dong-ao, Wuta and Hanben Station. On 21 October 2018, it was the site of a train derailmentthat killed 18 passengers and injured 178.


    Harbors in the county include Wushi Harbor.

    • 2,143.6251 km² (827.6583 sq mi)
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  2. Yilan City - Wikipedia
    • History
    • Government Institutions
    • Tourist Attractions
    • Bibliography
    • External Links

    The Yilan Plain in which the city is located has historically been referred to as Kapalan (Chinese: 蛤仔難; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Kap-á-lān), Kapsulan (蛤仔蘭; Kap-chú-lân; also 甲子蘭), Komalan (噶瑪蘭; Kat-má-lán), etc. These names, as well as that of Yilan itself, were given to the sites by the Kavalan tribe of Taiwanese aborigines. Later arrivals included Han Chinese settlers during the Qing Dynasty in China (1802) and settlers from Okinawa during Taiwan's Japanese era(1895-1945).

    Takekoshi, Yosaburō (1907). Japanese rule in Formosa. London, New York, Bombay and Calcutta: Longmans, Green, and co. OCLC 753129. OL 6986981M.

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    • Yilan
  3. Toucheng - Wikipedia,_Yilan

    Toucheng Township (Chinese: 頭城鎮; pinyin: tóu chéng zhèn[1]; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Thâu-siâⁿ-tìn) is an urban township in Yilan County, Taiwan. The township includes Guishan Island and Guiluan Island in the Philippine Sea. The Senkaku Islands, known in ...

  4. Asimina triloba - Wikipedia
    • Names
    • Description
    • Range and Ecology
    • Conservation Status
    • History
    • Research
    • Cultivation
    • Uses
    • Cultural Significance
    • Further Reading

    This plant's scientific name is Asimina triloba. The genus name Asimina is adapted from the Native American (probably Miami-Illinois) name assimin or rassimin through the French colonial asiminier. The specific epithet triloba in the species' scientific name refers to the flowers' three-lobed calices and doubly three-lobed corollas, the shape not unlike a tricorne hat. The common name of this species is variously spelled pawpaw, paw paw, paw-paw, and papaw. It probably derives from the Spanish papaya, an American tropical and subtropical fruit (Carica papaya) sometimes also called "papaw", perhaps because of the superficial similarity of their fruits and the fact that both have very large leaves. The name pawpaw or papaw, first recorded in print in English in 1598, originally meant the giant herb Carica papaya or its fruit (as it still commonly does in many English-speaking communities, including Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa). Daniel F. Austin's Florida Ethnobotanystates...

    A. triloba is a large shrub or small treegrowing to a height of 35 ft (11 m), rarely as tall as 45 ft (14 m), with trunks 8–12 in (20–30 cm) or more in diameter. The large leaves of pawpaw trees are clustered symmetrically at the ends of the branches, giving a distinctive imbricated appearance to the tree's foliage. The leaves of the species are simple, alternate and spirally arranged, entire, deciduous, obovate-lanceolate, 10–12 in (25–30 cm) long, 4–5 in (10–13 cm) broad, and wedge-shaped at the base, with an acute apex and an entire margin, with the midrib and primary veins prominent. The petioles are short and stout, with a prominent adaxial groove. Stipules are lacking. The expanding leaves are conduplicate, green, covered with rusty tomentum beneath, and hairy above; when fully grown they are smooth, dark green above, and paler beneath. When bruised, the leaves have a disagreeable odor similar to a green bell pepper. In autumn, the leaves are a rusty yellow, allowing pawpaw gr...

    The pawpaw is native to the Eastern, Southern, and Midwestern United States and adjacent Ontario, Canada, from New York west to southeastern Nebraska, and south to northern Florida and eastern Texas. The tree commonly grows in floodplains and shady, rich bottomlands, where it often forms a dense, clonally spreading undergrowth in the forest, often appearing as a patch or thicket of individual, small, slender trees. Pawpaws are not the first to colonize a disturbed site (arriving roughly four years after a clearcut), but may become dominant and slow the establishment of oaks and hickories. Pawpaws spread locally primarily by root suckers; sexual reproduction by seed does also occur, but at a fairly low rate.″Pawpaw flowers are insect-pollinated, but fruit production is sometimes limited as few if any pollinators are attracted to the flower's faint, or sometimes nonexistent scent. The flowers produce an odor similar to that of rotting meat to attract blowflies or carrion beetles for c...

    On a global (range-wide) scale, the common pawpaw (A. triloba) has a NatureServe global conservation rank of G5 (very common). In the United States, the species has an N5 (very common), but is considered a threatened species in New York, and an endangered species in New Jersey. In Canada, where the species is found only in portions of southern Ontario, it has a rank of N3 (vulnerable), and a NatureServe subnational conservation rank of S3 (vulnerable) in Ontario. The Ontario Ministry of Natural Resourceshas given the species a general status of "Sensitive", and its populations there are monitored. In areas in which deer populations are dense, pawpaws appear to be becoming more abundant locally, since the deer avoid them, but consume seedlings of most other woody plants.

    The natural distribution of the common pawpaw in North America, prior to the ice ages and lasting until roughly 10,000 years ago, was done by certain megafauna until they became extinct during the Quaternary extinction event. After the arrival of humans and the subsequent extinction of megafauna that were distributing A. triloba, the probable distribution of these large fruit-bearing plants has been by humans. The earliest documented mention of pawpaws is in the 1541 report of the Spanish de Soto expedition, who found Native Americans east of the Mississippi River cultivating what some have identified as the pawpaw. The Lewis and Clark Expedition consumed pawpaws during their travels. Thomas Jefferson planted it at Monticello, his home in Virginia. Legend has it that chilled pawpaw fruit was a favorite dessert of George Washington.

    Kentucky State University (KSU) has the only full-time pawpaw research program in the world; it was started in 1990 with the aim of developing pawpaw as a new tree-fruit crop for Kentucky. Pawpaw is the largest native fruit in North America and has very few diseases compared to other orchard crops. KSU is the site of the USDA National Clonal Germplasm Repository for Asimina species and the pawpaw orchards at KSU contain over 1,700 trees. Research activities include germplasm collection and variety trials, and efforts are directed towards improving propagation, understanding fruit ripening and storage, and developing orchard management practices. Cultivation is best in hardiness zones5-9 and trees take 7-8 years from seedling to fruiting. KYSU has created the three cultivars KSU-'Atwood', KSU-'Benson', and KSU-'Chappell', with foci on better flavors, higher yields, vigorous plants, and low seed-to-pulp ratios.

    In cultivation, lack of successful pollination is the most common cause of poor fruiting. Cultivation is best in hardiness zones 5-9 and trees take 7-8 years from seedling to fruiting. Cross-pollination of at least two different genetic varieties of the plant is recommended, and growers often resort to hand pollination or to use of pollinatorattractants such as spraying fish emulsion or hanging chicken necks or other meat near the open flowers to attract pollinators. While pawpaws are larval hosts for the zebra swallowtail butterfly, these caterpillars are usually present only at low density, and not detrimental to the foliage of the trees. Pawpaws have never been cultivated for their fruits on the scale of apples or peaches, primarily because pawpaw fruits ripen to the point of fermentation soon after they are picked, and only frozen fruit stores or ships well. Other methods of preservation include dehydration, production of jams or jellies, and pressure canning(using the numerical...


    As described by horticulturist Barbara Damrosch, the fruit of the pawpaw "looks a bit like mango, but with pale yellow, custardy, spoonable flesh and black, easy-to-remove seeds." Wild-collected pawpaw fruits, ripe in late August to mid-September, have long been a favorite treat throughout the tree's extensive native range in eastern North America, and on occasion are sold locally at farmers' markets. Pawpaw fruits have a sweet, custard-like flavor somewhat similar to banana, mango, and canta...


    Phytochemical extracts of the leaves and fruit contain acetogenins, including the neurotoxin annonacin. The seeds and bark contain the chemical asimitrin and other acetogenins, including asimin, asiminacin and asiminecin.

    Effect on insects

    Due to the presence of acetogenins, the leaves, twigs, and bark of pawpaw trees can be used to make an organic insecticide. The one notable exception is the zebra swallowtail butterfly (Eurytides marcellus), whose larvae feed on the leaves of various species of Asimina, conferring protection from predationthroughout the butterflies' lives, as trace amounts of acetogenins remain present, making them unpalatable to birds and other predators.

    Old song

    A traditional American folk songportrays wild harvesting of pawpaws; Arty Schronce of the Georgia Department of Agriculture gives these lyrics: He notes that "picking up pawpaws" refers to gathering the ripe, fallen fruit from beneath the trees, and that the "pocket" in the song is that of an apron or similar tie-on pocket, not a modern pants or blue-jeans pocket, into which pawpaws would hardly fit.A "pawpaw patch" refers to the plant's characteristic patch-forming clonal growth habit.

    Place names

    The pawpaw is the basis for various place and school names in the United States, almost all using the older spelling variant "paw paw". 1. The Paw Paw Tunnel in Maryland is a 3118-foot (950-m) canal tunnel completed in 1850 to bypass about 5 miles of the 6-mile-long Paw Paw Bends of the Potomac River near the town of Paw Paw, West Virginia, all ultimately named after the pawpaw tree. 2. In Michigan, the Paw Paw River is named for the pawpaw trees that grew along its banks. Paw Paw Lake and Li...


    1. Nineteenth-century naturalist and painter John James Audubon included pawpaw foliage and fruits in the background of his illustration of the yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus) in his classic work, The Birds of America(1827–1838). 2. Pawpaw fruits and a pawpaw leaf are featured in the painting Still Life with Pawpaws (circa 1870–1875) by Edward Edmondson, Jr. (1830–1884), at the Dayton Art Institute in Dayton, Ohio.

    Moore, Andrew (2015). Pawpaw: In Search of America's Forgotten Fruit. Chelsea Green Publishing. ISBN 978-1603585972.

  5. IKEA - Wikipedia

    IKEA (Swedish: ) is a Swedish founded, Dutch multinational conglomerate that designs and sells ready-to-assemble furniture, kitchen appliances and home accessories, among other useful goods and occasionally home services.Founded in Sweden in ...

  6. Kt/V - Wikipedia
    • Rationale For Kt/V as A Marker of Dialysis Adequacy
    • Relation to Urr
    • Peritoneal Dialysis
    • Reason For Adoption
    • Criticisms/Disadvantages of Kt/V
    • External Links

    K (clearance) multiplied by t (time) is a volume (since mL/min × min = mL, or L/h × h = L), and (K × t) can be thought of as the mL or L of fluid (blood in this case) cleared of urea (or any other solute) during the course of a single treatment. V also is a volume, expressed in mL or L. So the ratio of K × t / Vis a so-called "dimensionless ratio" and can be thought of as a multiple of the volume of plasma cleared of urea divided by the distribution volume of urea. When Kt/V = 1.0, a volume of blood equal to the distribution volume of urea has been completely cleared of urea. The relationship between Kt/V and the concentration of urea C at the end of dialysis can be derived from the first-order differential equation that describes exponential decayand models the clearance of any substance from the body where the concentration of that substance decreases in an exponential fashion: where 1. C is the concentration [mol/m3] 2. tis the time [s] 3. K is the clearance [m3/s] 4. V is the vo...

    The URR or Urea reduction ratio is simply the fractional reduction of urea during dialysis. So by definition, URR = 1 -C/C0. So 1-URR = C/C0. So by algebra, substituting into equation (4) above, since ln C/C0 = – ln C0/C, we get:

    Kt/V (in the context of peritoneal dialysis) was developed by Michael J. Lysaghtin a series of articles on peritoneal dialysis. The steady-state solution of a simplified mass transfer equation that is used to describe the mass exchange over a semi-permeable membrane and models peritoneal dialysisis where 1. CB is the concentration in the blood [ mol/m3] 2. KD is the clearance [ m3/s ] 3. m ˙ {\\displaystyle {\\dot {m}}} is the urea mass generation [ mol/s ] This can also be written as: The mass generation (of urea), in steady state, can be expressed as the mass (of urea) in the effluent per time: where 1. CE is the concentration of urea in effluent [ mol/m3] 2. VE is the volume of effluent [ m3] 3. tis the time [ s ] Lysaght, motivated by Equations 6b and 6c, defined the value KD: Lysaght uses "ml/min" for the clearance. In order to convert the above clearance (which is in m3/s) to ml/min one has to multiply by 60 × 1000 × 1000. Once KD is defined the following equation is used to cal...

    Kt/V has been widely adopted because it was correlated with survival. Before Kt/V nephrologists measured the serum urea concentration (specifically thetime-averaged concentration of urea (TAC of urea)), which was found not to be correlated with survival (due to its strong dependence on proteinintake) and thus deemed an unreliable marker of dialysis adequacy.

    It is complex and tedious to calculate. Many nephrologists have difficulty understanding it.
    Kt/V only measures a change in the concentration of urea and implicitly assumes the clearance of urea is comparable to other toxins. (It ignores molecules larger than urea having diffusion-limited...
    Kt/V does not take into account the role of ultrafiltration.


    1. Hemodialysis Dose and Adequacy– a description of URR and Kt/V from the Kidney and Urologic Diseases Clearinghouse. 2. Kt/V and the adequacy of hemodialysis–

    Peritoneal dialysis

    1. Advisory on Peritoneal Dialysis– American Association of Kidney Patients 2. Peritoneal Dialysis Dose and Adequacy– a description of URR and Kt/V from the Kidney and Urologic Diseases Clearinghouse.


    1. spKt/V,eKt/V,URR,nPCR,GNRI etc. dialysis calculation– 2. free Kt/V calculators, single pool and equilibrated HD, PD, no login needed, site used by dozens of dialysis centers around the world for over 10 years– 3. Web/javascript program that does formal 2-pool urea kinetics in multiple patients– 4. Kt/V calculator– 5. Kt/V– HDCN

  7. Walden - Wikipedia
    • Background Information
    • Plot
    • Themes
    • Style and Analysis
    • Reception
    • Adaptations
    • External Links

    There has been much guessing as to why Thoreau went to the pond. E. B. White stated on this note, "Henry went forth to battle when he took to the woods, and Walden is the report of a man torn by two powerful and opposing drives—the desire to enjoy the world and the urge to set the world straight", while Leo Marx noted that Thoreau's stay at Walden Pond was an experiment based on his teacher Emerson's "method and of nature" and that it was a "report of an experiment in transcendental pastoralism". Likewise others have assumed Thoreau's intentions during his time at Walden Pond was "to conduct an experiment: Could he survive, possibly even thrive, by stripping away all superfluous luxuries, living a plain, simple life in radically reduced conditions?" He thought of it as an experiment in "home economics". Although Thoreau went to Walden to escape what he considered "over-civilization", and in search of the "raw" and "savage delight" of the wilderness, he also spent considerable amount...

    Part memoir and part spiritual quest, Waldenopens with the announcement that Thoreau spent two years at Walden Pond living a simple life without support of any kind. Readers are reminded that at the time of publication, Thoreau is back to living among the civilized again. The book is separated into specific chapters, each of which focuses on specific themes: Economy: In this first and longest chapter, Thoreau outlines his project: a two-year, two-month, and two-day stay at a cozy, "tightly shingled and plastered", English-style 10' × 15' cottage in the woods near Walden Pond. He does this, he says, to illustrate the spiritual benefits of a simplified lifestyle. He easily supplies the four necessities of life (food, shelter, clothing, and fuel) with the help of family and friends, particularly his mother, his best friend, and Mr. and Mrs. Ralph Waldo Emerson. The latter provided Thoreau with a work exchange: he could build a small house and plant a garden if he cleared some land on t...

    Walden emphasizes the importance of solitude, contemplation, and closeness to nature in transcending the "desperate" existence that, he argues, is the lot of most people. The book is not a traditional autobiography, but combines autobiography with a social critique of contemporary Western culture's consumerist and materialist attitudes and its distance from and destruction of nature.Thoreau's proximity to Concord society and his admiration for classical literature suggest that the book is not simply a criticism of society, but also an attempt to engage creatively with the better aspects of contemporary culture. There are signs of ambiguity, or an attempt to see an alternative side of something common. Some of the major themes that are present within the text are: 1. Self-reliance: Thoreau constantly refuses to be in "need" of the companionship of others. Though he realizes its significance and importance, he thinks it unnecessary to always be in search for it. Self-reliance, to him,...

    Walden has been the subject of many scholarly articles. Book reviewers, critics, scholars, and many more have published literature on Thoreau's Walden. Thoreau carefully recounts his time in the woods through his writing in Walden. Critics have thoroughly analyzed the different writing styles that Thoreau uses. Critic Nicholas Bagnall writes that Thoreau's observations of nature are “lyrical” and “exact". Another critic, Henry Golemba, asserts that the writing style of Walden is very natural. Thoreau employs many styles of writing where his words are both intricate and simple at the same time. His word choice conveys a certain mood. For instance, when Thoreau describes the silence of nature, the reader may feel that serene moment as well.Thoreau continues to connect back to nature throughout the book because he wants to depict what he experienced and what he saw. Many scholars have compared Thoreau to fellow transcendentalist writer Ralph Waldo Emerson. Although Thoreau was 14 years...

    Walden enjoyed some success upon its release, but still took five years to sell 2,000 copies, and then went out of print until Thoreau's death in 1862. Despite its slow beginnings, later critics have praised it as an American classic that explores natural simplicity, harmony, and beauty. The American poet Robert Frostwrote of Thoreau, "In one book ... he surpasses everything we have had in America". It is often assumed that critics initially ignored Walden, and that those who reviewed the book were evenly split or slightly more negative than positive in their assessment of it. But, researchers have shown that Walden actually was "more favorably and widely received by Thoreau's contemporaries than hitherto suspected". Of the 66 initial reviews that have been found so far, 46 "were strongly favorable". Some reviews were rather superficial, merely recommending the book or predicting its success with the public; others were more lengthy, detailed, and nuanced with both positive and nega...

    Video games

    The National Endowment for the Arts in 2012 bestowed Tracy Fullerton, game designer and professor at the University of Southern California's Game Innovation Lab with a $40,000 grant to create, based on the book, a first person, open world video game called Walden, a game, in which players "inhabit an open, three-dimensional game world which will simulate the geography and environment of Walden Woods". The game production was also supported by grants from the National Endowment for the Humanit...

    Digitization and scholarship efforts

    Digital Thoreau, a collaboration among the State University of New York at Geneseo, the Thoreau Society, and the Walden Woods Project, has developed a fluid text edition of Walden across the different versions of the work to help readers trace the evolution of Thoreau's classic work across seven stages of revision from 1846 to 1854. Within any chapter of Walden, readers can compare up to seven manuscript versions with each other, with the Princeton University Press edition, and consult critic...


    1. Jonas Mekas' 1968 film Waldenis loosely inspired by the book. 2. Jean Craighead George's My Side of the Mountain trilogy (1959) draws heavily from themes expressed in Walden. Protagonist Sam Gribley is nicknamed "Thoreau" by an English teacher he befriends. 3. Shane Carruth's second film Upstream Color (2013) features Waldenas a central item of its story, and draws heavily on the themes expressed by Thoreau. 4. In 1962, William Melvin Kelley titled his first novel, A Different Drummer, aft...

    Walden at Project Gutenberg
    Walden – Digitized copy of the first edition from the Internet Archive.
    Walden at Standard Ebooks
    "Walden (book)" . Encyclopedia Americana. 1920.
  8. Heat wave - Wikipedia
    • Definitions
    • Formation
    • Health Effects
    • Global Warming
    • Examples
    • See Also
    • Notes
    • External Links

    A definition based on Frich et al.'s Heat Wave Duration Index is that a heat wave occurs when the daily maximum temperature of more than five consecutive days exceeds the average maximum temperature by 5 °C (9 °F), the normal period being 1961–1990. A formal, peer-reviewed definition from the Glossary of Meteorologyis: 1. A period of abnormally and uncomfortably hot and usually humid weather. 1.1. To be a heat wave such a period should last at least one day, but conventionally it lasts from several days to several weeks. In 1900, A. T. Burrows more rigidly defined a "hot wave" as a spell of three or more days on each of which the maximum shade temperature reaches or exceeds 90 °F (32.2 °C). More realistically, the comfort criteria for any one region are dependent upon the normal conditions of that area. The World Meteorological Organization, defines a heat wave as 5 or more consecutive days of prolonged heat in which the daily maximum temperature is higher than the average maximum t...

    Heat waves form when high pressure aloft (from 10,000–25,000 feet (3,000–7,600 metres)) strengthens and remains over a region for several days up to several weeks. This is common in summer (in both Northern and Southern Hemispheres) as the jet stream 'follows the sun'. On the equator side of the jet stream, in the upper layers of the atmosphere, is the high pressure area. Summertime weather patterns are generally slower to change than in winter. As a result, this upper level high pressure also moves slowly. Under high pressure, the air subsides (sinks) toward the surface, warming and drying adiabatically, inhibiting convection and preventing the formation of clouds. Reduction of clouds increases shortwave radiation reaching the surface. A low pressureat the surface leads to surface wind from lower latitudes that brings warm air, enhancing the warming. Alternatively, the surface winds could blow from the hot continental interior towards the coastal zone, leading to heat waves there,...

    The heat index (as shown in the table above) is a measure of how hot it feels when relative humidity is factored with the actual air temperature.Hyperthermia, also known as heat stroke, becomes commonplace during periods of sustained high temperature and humidity. Older adults, very young children, and those who are sick or overweight are at a higher risk for heat-related illness. The chronically ill and elderly are often taking prescription medications (e.g., diuretics, anticholinergics, antipsychotics, and antihypertensives) that interfere with the body's ability to dissipate heat. Heat edema presents as a transient swelling of the hands, feet, and ankles and is generally secondary to increased aldosterone secretion, which enhances water retention. When combined with peripheral vasodilation and venous stasis, the excess fluid accumulates in the dependent areas of the extremities. The heat edema usually resolves within several days after the patient becomes acclimated to the warmer...

    Climate models reveal that future heat waves will have a more intense geographic pattern. Model results show that areas associated with the severe heat waves in Chicago in 1995 and Paris in 2003 will experience more intense, more frequent, and longer-lasting heat waves in the second half of the 21st century. Heat waves today in Europe and North America happen parallel to the conditions of atmospheric circulation. Increased anthropogenic activities causing increased greenhouse gas emissionsshow that heat waves will be more severe. Heat waves and droughts as a result, minimize ecosystem carbon uptake. Carbon uptake is also known as carbon sequestration. Extreme heat wave events are predicted to happen with increased global warming, which puts stress on ecosystems. Stress on ecosystems due to future intensified heat waves will reduce biological productivity. This will cause changes in the ecosystem's carbon cycle feedbackbecause there will be less vegetation to hold the carbon from the...

    The great heatwave of 2018 impacted millions of people. Temperatures raised up to locally 47 degrees Celsius. June 2019 was the hottest month on record worldwide, the effects of this were especially prominent in Europe. The effects of climate change have been projected to make heat waves in places such as Europe up to five times more likely to occur. Among other effects, increased wildfires in places such as Spaincan also be attributed to heat waves. In July 2019, over 50 million people in the United States were present in a jurisdiction with any type of heat advisory - heat is the deadliest type of extreme weather in the United States. Scientists predicted that in the days following the issuance of these warnings, many records for highest low temperatures will be broken. (I.e. - the lowest temperature in a 24-hour period will be higher than any low temperature measured before.) In addition to posing threat to human health, heat waves significantly threaten agricultural production....

    Klinenberg, Eric (2002). Heat Wave: A Social Autopsy of Disaster in Chicago. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-44321-8.
    Social & Economic Costs of Temperature Extremes from "NOAA Socioeconomics" website initiative, National Centers for Environmental Information
    Study: Global Warming to Bring Increased Heat Waves to U.S. – video report by Democracy Now!
    Wu, Zhiwei; et al. (2012). "Heat wave frequency variability over North America: Two distinct leading modes". J. Geophys. Res. 117 (D02102): n/a. Bibcode:2012JGRD..117.2102W. doi:10.1029/2011JD016908.
  9. Hannah Arendt - Wikipedia

    Humanity as Homo faber Humanity as animal laborans The labor–work distinction The banality of evil Distinction between vita activa and vita contemplativa (praxis as the highest level of the vita activa) Hannah Arendt (/ ˈ ɛər ə n t, ˈ ɑːr-/, US ...

  10. Forty Scenes of the Yuanmingyuan - Wikipedia

    Forty Scenes of the Yuanmingyuan. The painting series Forty Scenes of the Yuanmingyuan depicts historically recognized vistas in the Old Summer Palace in Beijing, China. In 1744, the Qianlong Emperor commissioned a set of forty paintings from ...

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