- Applications and Limitations
- List of The 1,850 Tōyō Kanji
- See Also
- External Links
Thousands of kanji characters were in use in various writing systems, leading to great difficulties for those learning written Japanese. Additionally, several characters had identical meanings but were written differently from each other, further increasing complexity. After World War II, the Ministry of Education decided to minimize the number of kanji by choosing the most commonly used kanji, along with simplified kanji (see Shinjitai) commonly appearing in contemporary literature, to form the tōyō kanji. This was an integral part of the postwar reform of Japanese national writing. This was meant as a preparation for re-introducing their previous unsuccessful reform abolishing Chinese characters. Although the postwar timing meant no public debate was held on the future of the Japanese written language, the defenders of the original kanji system considered and accepted the tōyō kanji as a reasonable compromise. Since this compromise could not then be withdrawn in favour of more rad...
In addition to a list of the standardized tōyō kanji, the reform published by the Ministry for Education in 1946 also contains a set of guidelines for their use. Regarding provenance and scope, the foreword of the document states that: 1. The table of tōyō kanji put forth therein, are the selection of kanji recommended for use by the general public, including legal and governmental documents, newspapers, and magazines. 2. The presented kanji are selected as an approximate set of those characters found to be of no insignificant utility in the lives of today's Japanese citizens. 3. Concerning proper nouns, there is a wide range of usage beyond what may be formulated as rules, and consequently they are treated as outside the scope of this standard. 4. The simplified character forms from modern custom are taken as the proper form, and their original forms are provided alongside them for reference. 5. A systemization of the character forms and their readings is still under consideration...
Because the majority of character-based words are composed of two (or more) kanji, many words were left with one character included in the Tōyō kanji, and the other character missing. In this case, the recommendation was to write the included part in kanji and the excluded part in kana, e.g. ふ頭 for 埠頭 and 危ぐ for 危惧. These words were called mazegaki(交ぜ書き, "mixed characters").
Bold in 1981 and 2010 year added kanji 一 丁 七 丈 三 上 下 不 且 世 丘 丙 中 丸 丹 主 久 乏 乗 乙 九 乳 乾 乱 了 事 二 互 五 井 亜 亡 交 享 京 人 仁 今 介 仕 他 付 代 令 以 仰 仲 件 任 企 伏 伐 休 伯 伴 伸 伺 似 但 位 低 住 佐 何 仏 作 佳 使 来 例 侍 供 依 侮 侯 侵 便 係 促 俊 俗 保 信 修 俳 俵 併 倉 個 倍 倒 候 借 倣 値 倫 仮 偉 偏 停 健 側 偶 傍 傑 備 催 伝 債 傷 傾 働 像 僚 偽 僧 価 儀 億 倹 儒 償 優 元 兄 充 兆 先 光 克 免 児 入 内 全 両 八 公 六 共 兵 具 典 兼 冊 再 冒 冗 冠 冬 冷 准 凍 凝 凡 凶 出 刀 刃 分 切 刈 刊 刑 列 初 判 別 利 到 制 刷 券 刺 刻 則 削 前 剖 剛 剰 副 割 創 劇 剤 剣 力 功 加 劣 助 努 効 劾 勅 勇 勉 動 勘 務 勝 労 募 勢 勤 勲 励 勧 勺 匁 包 化 北 匠 匹 匿 区 十 千 升 午 半 卑 卒 卓 協 南 博 占 印 危 却 卵 巻 卸 即 厘 厚 原 去 参 又 及 友 反 叔 取 受 口 古 句 叫 召 可 史 右 司 各 合 吉 同 名 后 吏 吐 向 君 吟 否 含 呈 呉 吸 吹 告 周 味 呼 命 和 咲 哀 品 員 哲 唆 唐 唯 唱 商 問 啓 善 喚 喜 喪 喫 単 嗣 嘆 器 噴 嚇 厳 嘱 囚 四 回 因 困 固 圏 国 囲 園 円 図 団 土 在 地 坂 均 坊 坑 坪 垂 型 埋 城 域 執 培 基 堂 堅 堤 堪 報 場 塊 塑 塔 塗 境 墓 墜 増 墨 堕 墳 墾 壁 壇 圧 塁 壊 士 壮 壱 寿 夏 夕 外 多 夜 夢 大 天 太 夫 央 失 奇 奉 奏 契 奔 奥 奪 奨 奮 女 奴 好 如 妃 妊 妙 妥 妨 妹 妻 姉 始 姓 委 姫 姻 姿 威 娘 娯 娠 婆 婚 婦 婿 媒 嫁 嫡 嬢 子 孔 字 存 孝 季 孤 孫 学 宅 宇 守 安 完 宗 官 宙 定 宜 客 宣 室 宮 宰 害 宴 家 容 宿 寂 寄 密 富 寒 察 寡 寝 実 寧 審 写 寛 寮 宝 寸 寺 封 射 将 専 尉 尊 尋 対 導 小 少 就 尺 尼 尾 尿 局 居 届 屈...Pronunciation of the Kanji (in Japanese)[dead link]
- Table of Kanji Radicals
- Other Combinations
- See Also
- External Links
Position category: 1. へん (hen) - left ◧- radical forms the left component of a kanji. 2. つくり (tsukuri) - right ◨- radical forms the right component of a kanji. 3. かんむり (kanmuri) - top ⊤- radical forms the top component of a kanji. 4. あし (ashi) - bottom ⊥- radical forms the bottom component of a kanji. 5. かまえ (kamae) - wrap ⿴- radical encloses the other kanji components. 6. たれ (tare) - top-left ⿸- radical forms the left and top components of a kanji. 7. にょう (nyou) - bottom-left ⿺- radical form...
1. This is a simplified list, so the reading of the radical is only given if the kanji is used on its own. 2. Example kanji for each radical are all jōyō kanji, but some examples show all jōyō (ordered by stroke number) while others were from the Chinese radicals page with non-jōyō (and Chinese-only) characters removed. 3. No radicals with more than 12 strokes are listed as they are not as common and can all be formed from the other components. 4. The radicals are listed in the same basic ord...
Variations of this table
Many other combinations could realistically be called a simplified table of kanji radicals, here are a few examples. 1. 䒑 could replace both 丷 and 艹 2. ⺈ could be merged with 刀 or 勹(not commonly used as a radical by itself) 3. 聿or 書 could be used instead of ⺻ Entries with an upside-down exclamation mark (¡) are possibly made up "radicals," meaning only one online dictionary was found to use them (Tangorin Online). Possible additions: (Note that the examples below show allthe jōyō kanji exampl...
Radicals ordered by frequency
With frequency considered to be the amount of kanji where the radical or its variants can be found as a visual component. 1. Variants of the same radical are separated by forward slashes (for example 彐/ヨ/⺕) 2. The first radical on the list (口) is the most frequent and can be seen in 2839 kanji 3. The last radical on the list (斉) is the least frequent and can be seen in 5 kanji
The 79 Radicals
A simplification used in "The Kanji Dictionary","The Learner's Kanji Dictionary," "Japanese, Chinese, and Korean Surnames and How to Read Them", and in "Kanji & Kana."
List of characters For brevity, only one English translation is given per kanji. The "Grade" column specifies the grade in which the kanji is taught in Elementary schools in Japan.Grade "S" means that it is taught in ...
This Kanji index method groups together the kanji that are written with the same number of strokes. Currently, there are 2,187 individual kanji listed. Characters followed by an alternate in (parentheses) indicate a difference between the ...