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  1. Sri Lanka - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sri_lanka

    The pre-history of Sri Lanka goes back 125,000 years and possibly even as far back as 500,000 years. The era spans the Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, and early Iron Ages.Among the Paleolithic human settlements discovered in Sri Lanka, Pahiyangala ...

  2. HEPA - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HEPA
    • Mechanism
    • Specifications
    • Safety
    • Applications
    • History
    • See Also
    • References

    HEPA filters are composed of a mat of randomly arranged fibres. The fibers are typically composed of polypropylene or fiberglass with diameters between 0.5 and 2.0 micrometers. Most of the time, these filters are composed of tangled bundles of fine fibers. These fibers create a narrow convoluted pathway through which air passes. When the largest particles are passing through this pathway, they behave like a kitchen sieve which is blocked physically passing through. However, when the smaller particles pass with air, as the air twist and turns, the smaller particles can’t keep the same motion of air up and they crush with the fibers. The smallest particles have very little inertia and they always move around the air molecules like they are bombarded by these molecules (Brownian motion). Because of their movement, they end up crashing into the fibers. Key factors affecting its functions are fiber diameter, filter thickness, and face velocity. The air space between HEPA filter fibers is...

    HEPA filters, as defined by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) standard adopted by most American industries, remove at least 99.97% of aerosols 0.3 micrometers (μm) in diameter. The filter's minimal resistance to airflow, or pressure drop, is usually specified around 300 pascals (0.044 psi) at its nominal volumetric flow rate. The specification used in the European Union: European Standard EN 1822-1:2009, from which ISO 29463 is derived, defines several classes of filters by their retention at the given most penetrating particle size (MPPS): Efficient Particulate Air filters (EPA), HEPA and Ultra Low Particulate Air filters(ULPA). The averaged efficiency of the filter is called "overall", and the efficiency at a specific point is called "local": See also the different classes for air filtersfor comparison. Today, a HEPA filter rating is applicable to any highly efficient air filter that can attain the same filter efficiency performance standards as a minimum and is equival...

    It’s proven that purifying the mid-size particles is the hardest one in HEPA (0.15 to 0.2µm). HEPA filtration works by mechanical means, unlike the ionic and ozone filtration, which use negative ions and ozone gas respectively. So, the chances of potential pulmonary side-effects like asthma and allergies is much lower with HEPA purifiers.To ensure that a HEPA filter is working efficiently, they should be checked and changed at least every six months in commercial settings. In residential settings, they can be changed every two to three years. Failing to change a HEPA filter in a timely fashion will result in it putting stress on the machine or system and not removing particles from the air properly.

    Biomedical

    HEPA filters are critical in the prevention of the spread of airborne bacterial and viral organisms and, therefore, infection. Typically, medical use HEPA filtration systems also incorporate high-energy ultraviolet light units or panels with anti-microbial coating to kill off the live bacteria and viruses trapped by the filter media.[citation needed] Some of the best-rated HEPA units have an efficiency rating of 99.995%, which assures a very high level of protection against airborne disease t...

    Vacuum cleaners

    Many vacuum cleaners also use HEPA filters as part of their filtration systems. This is beneficial for asthma and allergy sufferers, because the HEPA filter traps the fine particles (such as pollen and house dust mite feces) which trigger allergy and asthma symptoms. For a HEPA filter in a vacuum cleaner to be effective, the vacuum cleaner must be designed so that all the air drawn into the machine is expelled through the filter, with none of the air leaking past it. This is often referred to...

    Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning

    Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) is technology that uses air filters, such as HEPA filters, to remove pollutants from the air either indoors or in vehicles. Pollutants include smoke, viruses, powders, etc., and can originate either outside or inside. HVAC is used to provide environmental comfort and in polluted cities to maintain health.[citation needed]

    The idea behind the development of the HEPA filter was born from gas masksworn by soldiers fighting in World War II. A piece of paper found inserted into a German gas mask had a remarkably high capture efficiency for chemical smoke. The British Army Chemical Corps duplicated this and began to manufacture it in large quantities for their own service gas masks. They needed another solution for operational headquarters, where individual gas masks were impractical. The Army Chemical Corps developed a combination mechanical blower and air purifier unit, which incorporated cellulose-asbestos paper in a deeply-pleated form with spacers between the pleats. It was referred to as an "absolute" air filter and laid the groundwork for further research to come in developing the HEPA filter. The next phase of the HEPA filter was designed in the 1940s and was used in the Manhattan Project to prevent the spread of airborne radioactive contaminants. The US Army Chemical Corps and National Defense Res...

    Sources

    1. TSI Application Note ITI-041: Mechanisms of Filtration for High Efficiency Fibrous Filters

  3. Twice - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TWICE

    Twice ( Korean : 트와이스; Japanese: トゥワイス ), commonly stylized as TWICE, is a South Korean girl group formed by JYP Entertainment. The group is composed of nine members: Nayeon, Jeongyeon, Momo, Sana, Jihyo, Mina, Dahyun, Chaeyoung, and ...

  4. Kt/V - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kt/V
    • Rationale For Kt/V as A Marker of Dialysis Adequacy
    • Relation to Urr
    • Peritoneal Dialysis
    • Reason For Adoption
    • Criticisms/Disadvantages of Kt/V
    • External Links

    K (clearance) multiplied by t (time) is a volume (since mL/min × min = mL, or L/h × h = L), and (K × t) can be thought of as the mL or L of fluid (blood in this case) cleared of urea (or any other solute) during the course of a single treatment. V also is a volume, expressed in mL or L. So the ratio of K × t / Vis a so-called "dimensionless ratio" and can be thought of as a multiple of the volume of plasma cleared of urea divided by the distribution volume of urea. When Kt/V = 1.0, a volume of blood equal to the distribution volume of urea has been completely cleared of urea. The relationship between Kt/V and the concentration of urea C at the end of dialysis can be derived from the first-order differential equation that describes exponential decayand models the clearance of any substance from the body where the concentration of that substance decreases in an exponential fashion: where 1. C is the concentration [mol/m3] 2. tis the time [s] 3. K is the clearance [m3/s] 4. V is the vo...

    The URR or Urea reduction ratio is simply the fractional reduction of urea during dialysis. So by definition, URR = 1 -C/C0. So 1-URR = C/C0. So by algebra, substituting into equation (4) above, since ln C/C0 = – ln C0/C, we get:

    Kt/V (in the context of peritoneal dialysis) was developed by Michael J. Lysaghtin a series of articles on peritoneal dialysis. The steady-state solution of a simplified mass transfer equation that is used to describe the mass exchange over a semi-permeable membrane and models peritoneal dialysisis where 1. CB is the concentration in the blood [ mol/m3] 2. KD is the clearance [ m3/s ] 3. m ˙ {\\displaystyle {\\dot {m}}} is the urea mass generation [ mol/s ] This can also be written as: The mass generation (of urea), in steady state, can be expressed as the mass (of urea) in the effluent per time: where 1. CE is the concentration of urea in effluent [ mol/m3] 2. VE is the volume of effluent [ m3] 3. tis the time [ s ] Lysaght, motivated by Equations 6b and 6c, defined the value KD: Lysaght uses "ml/min" for the clearance. In order to convert the above clearance (which is in m3/s) to ml/min one has to multiply by 60 × 1000 × 1000. Once KD is defined the following equation is used to cal...

    Kt/V has been widely adopted because it was correlated with survival. Before Kt/V nephrologists measured the serum urea concentration (specifically thetime-averaged concentration of urea (TAC of urea)), which was found not to be correlated with survival (due to its strong dependence on proteinintake) and thus deemed an unreliable marker of dialysis adequacy.

    It is complex and tedious to calculate. Many nephrologists have difficulty understanding it.
    Kt/V only measures a change in the concentration of urea and implicitly assumes the clearance of urea is comparable to other toxins. (It ignores molecules larger than urea having diffusion-limited...
    Kt/V does not take into account the role of ultrafiltration.

    Hemodialysis

    1. Hemodialysis Dose and Adequacy– a description of URR and Kt/V from the Kidney and Urologic Diseases Clearinghouse. 2. Kt/V and the adequacy of hemodialysis– UpToDate.com

    Peritoneal dialysis

    1. Advisory on Peritoneal Dialysis– American Association of Kidney Patients 2. Peritoneal Dialysis Dose and Adequacy– a description of URR and Kt/V from the Kidney and Urologic Diseases Clearinghouse.

    Calculators

    1. spKt/V,eKt/V,URR,nPCR,GNRI etc. dialysis calculation– hdtool.net. 2. free Kt/V calculators, single pool and equilibrated HD, PD, no login needed, site used by dozens of dialysis centers around the world for over 10 years– kt-v.net 3. Web/javascript program that does formal 2-pool urea kinetics in multiple patients– ureakinetics.org 4. Kt/V calculator– medindia.com 5. Kt/V– HDCN

  5. Vodka - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vodka
    • Etymology
    • History
    • Production
    • Today
    • Illegal Production
    • Public Health Effects
    • Cooking
    • See Also
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    The name vodka is a diminutive form of the Slavic word voda (water), interpreted as little water: root вод- (vod-) [water] + -к- (-k-) (diminutive suffix, among other functions) + -a (ending of feminine gender). The word vodka was recorded for the first time in 1405 in Akta Grodzkie, the court documents from the Palatinate of Sandomierz in Poland. At the time, wódka referred to medicines and cosmetic products, while the beverage was called gorzałka (from the Old Polish gorzeć meaning "to burn"), which is also the source of Ukrainian horilka (горілка). The word vodka written in Cyrillic appeared first in 1533, in relation to a medicinal drink brought from Poland to Russia by the merchants of Kievan Rus'. Although the word vodka could be found in early manuscripts and lubok pictograms, it began to appear in Russian dictionaries only in the mid-19th century. It was attested in Sámuel Gyarmathi's Russian-German-Hungarian glossary of 1799, where it is glossed with Latin vinum adustum("bu...

    Scholars debate the beginnings of vodka due to the little historical material available. For many centuries, beverages differed significantly compared to the vodka of today, as the spirit at that time had a different flavor, color, and smell, and was originally used as medicine. It contained little alcohol, an estimated maximum of about 14%. The still, allowing for distillation ("burning of wine"), increased purity and increased alcohol content, was invented in the 8th century.

    Vodka may be distilled from any starch- or sugar-rich plant matter; most vodka today is produced from grains such as sorghum, corn, rye or wheat. Among grain vodkas, rye and wheat vodkas are generally considered superior. Some vodkas are made from potatoes, molasses, soybeans, grapes, rice, sugar beets and sometimes even byproducts of oil refining or wood pulp processing. In some Central European countries, such as Poland, some vodka is produced by just fermenting a solution of crystal sugar and yeast. In the European Union there are talks about the standardization of vodka, and the Vodka Beltcountries insist that only spirits produced from grains, potato and sugar beet molasses be allowed to be branded as "vodka", following the traditional methods of production. In the United States, many vodkas are made from 95% pure grain alcohol produced in large quantities by agricultural-industrial giants Archer Daniels Midland, Grain Processing Corporation, and Midwest Grain Products (MGP). B...

    According to The Penguin Book of Spirits and Liqueurs, "Its low level of fusel oils and congeners—impurities that flavor spirits but that can contribute to the after-effects of heavy consumption—led to its being considered among the 'safer' spirits, though not in terms of its powers of intoxication, which, depending on strength, may be considerable." Since the year 2000, due to evolving consumer tastes and regulatory changes, several 'artisanal vodka' or even 'ultra premium vodka' brands have appeared.

    In some countries, black-market or "bathtub" vodka is widespread because it can be produced easily and avoid taxation. However, severe poisoning, blindness, or death can occur as a result of dangerous industrial ethanol substitutes being added by black-market producers. In March 2007 in a documentary, BBC News UK sought to find the cause of severe jaundice among imbibers of a "bathtub" vodka in Russia. The cause was suspected to be an industrial disinfectant (Extrasept) – 95% ethanol but also containing a highly toxic chemical – added to the vodka by the illegal traders because of its high alcohol content and low price. Death toll estimates list at least 120 dead and more than 1,000 poisoned. The death toll is expected to rise due to the chronic nature of the cirrhosis that is causing jaundice.[citation needed]

    Estimates of the annual death toll resulting from vodka consumption extend up to the thousands in Russia.

    Vodka can also be used in cooking and various recipes are improved by the addition of vodka or rely on it as a key ingredient. Vodka sauce is a pasta sauce made from tomato sauce, cream, and vodka that gained popularity in the 1970s. Vodka can be used in baking as a substitute for water: pie crusts can be made flakier with vodka. It may be used in seafood dishes, cheesecake, or bitters.

    Begg, Desmond (1997). The Vodka Companion: A Connoisseur's Guide. Running. ISBN 0-7624-0252-0.
    Broom, Dave (1998). Complete Book of Spirits and Cocktails. Italy: Carlton Books Ltd. ISBN 1-85868-485-4.
    Delos, Gilbert (1998). Vodkas of the World. Edison, New Jersey: Wellfleet Press. ISBN 0-7858-1018-8.
    Elborn, Geoffrey (2013). The Dedalus Book of Vodka. Dedalus. ISBN 978-1-907650-04-8.
  6. Enterprise resource planning - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enterprise_resource_planning
    • Origin
    • Expansion
    • Characteristics
    • Functional Areas
    • Best Practices
    • Connectivity to Plant Floor Information
    • Implementation
    • Postmodern ERP
    • See Also
    • Bibliography

    The Gartner Group first used the acronym ERP in the 1990s to include the capabilities of material requirements planning (MRP), and the later manufacturing resource planning (MRP II), as well as computer-integrated manufacturing. Without replacing these terms, ERP came to represent a larger whole that reflected the evolution of application integration beyond manufacturing. Not all ERP packages are developed from a manufacturing core; ERP vendors variously began assembling their packages with finance-and-accounting, maintenance, and human-resource components. By the mid-1990s ERP systems addressed all core enterprise functions. Governments and non–profit organizations also began to use ERP systems. An "ERP system selection methodology" is a formal process for selecting an enterprise resource planning(ERP) system. Existing methodologies include:

    ERP systems experienced rapid growth in the 1990s. Because of the year 2000 problemmany companies took the opportunity to replace their old systems with ERP. ERP systems initially focused on automating back office functions that did not directly affect customers and the public. Front office functions, such as customer relationship management (CRM), dealt directly with customers, or e-business systems such as e-commerce, e-government, e-telecom, and e-finance—or supplier relationship management(SRM) became integrated later, when the internet simplified communicating with external parties. "ERP II" was coined in 2000 in an article by Gartner Publications entitled ERP Is Dead—Long Live ERP II. It describes web–based software that provides real–time access to ERP systems to employees and partners (such as suppliers and customers). The ERP II role expands traditional ERP resource optimization and transaction processing. Rather than just manage buying, selling, etc.—ERP II leverages infor...

    ERP systems typically include the following characteristics: 1. An integrated system 2. Operates in (or near) real time 3. A common database that supports all the applications 4. A consistent look and feel across modules 5. Installation of the system with elaborate application/data integration by the Information Technology (IT) department, provided the implementation is not done in small steps 6. Deployment options include: on-premises, cloud hosted, or SaaS

    An ERP system covers the following common functional areas. In many ERP systems, these are called and grouped together as ERP modules: 1. Financial accounting: general ledger, fixed assets, payables including vouchering, matching and payment, receivables and collections, cash management, financial consolidation 2. Management accounting: budgeting, costing, cost management, activity based costing 3. Human resources: recruiting, training, rostering, payroll, benefits, retirement and pension plans, diversity management, retirement, separation 4. Manufacturing: engineering, bill of materials, work orders, scheduling, capacity, workflow management, quality control, manufacturing process, manufacturing projects, manufacturing flow, product life cycle management 5. Order processing: order to cash, order entry, credit checking, pricing, available to promise, inventory, shipping, sales analysis and reporting, sales commissioning 6. Supply chain management: supply chain planning, supplier sch...

    Most ERP systems incorporate best practices. This means the software reflects the vendor's interpretation of the most effective way to perform each business process. Systems vary in how conveniently the customer can modify these practices.In addition, best practices reduced risk by 71% compared to other software implementations. Use of best practices eases compliance with requirements such as IFRS, Sarbanes-Oxley, or Basel II. They can also help comply with de facto industry standards, such as electronic funds transfer. This is because the procedure can be readily codified within the ERP software and replicated with confidence across multiple businesses that share that business requirement.

    ERP systems connect to real–time data and transaction data in a variety of ways. These systems are typically configured by systems integrators, who bring unique knowledge on process, equipment, and vendor solutions. Direct integration—ERP systems have connectivity (communications to plant floor equipment) as part of their product offering. This requires that the vendors offer specific support for the plant floor equipment their customers operate. Database integration—ERP systems connect to plant floor data sources through staging tables in a database. Plant floor systems deposit the necessary information into the database. The ERP system reads the information in the table. The benefit of staging is that ERP vendors do not need to master the complexities of equipment integration. Connectivity becomes the responsibility of the systems integrator. Enterprise appliance transaction modules (EATM)—These devices communicate directly with plant floor equipment and with the ERP system via me...

    ERP's scope usually implies significant changes to staff work processes and practices. Generally, three types of services are available to help implement such changes: consulting, customization, and support. Implementation time depends on business size, number of modules, customization, the scope of process changes, and the readiness of the customer to take ownership for the project. Modular ERP systems can be implemented in stages. The typical project for a large enterprise takes about 14 months and requires around 150 consultants. Small projects can require months; multinational and other large implementations can take years. Customizationcan substantially increase implementation times. Besides that, information processing influences various business functions e.g. some large corporations like Wal-Mart use a just in time inventory system. This reduces inventory storage and increases delivery efficiency, and requires up-to-date data. Before 2014, Walmart used a system called Infore...

    The term "postmodern ERP" was coined by Gartner in 2013, when it first appeared in the paper series "Predicts 2014". According to Gartner's definition of the postmodern ERP strategy, legacy, monolithicand highly customized ERP suites, in which all parts are heavily reliant on each other, should sooner or later be replaced by a mixture of both cloud-based and on-premises applications, which are more loosely coupled and can be easily exchanged if needed. The basic idea is that there should still be a core ERP solution that would cover most important business functions, while other functions will be covered by specialist software solutions that merely extend the core ERP. This concept is similar to the so-called best-of-breed approach to software execution, but it shouldn't be confused with it. While in both cases, applications that make up the whole are relatively loosely connected and quite easily interchangeable, in the case of the latter there is no ERP solution whatsoever. Instead...

    Clemons, Eric. K. (1986). "IS for Sustainable Competitive Advantage". Information & Management. 11 (3): 131–136. doi:10.1016/0378-7206(86)90010-8.
    Grant, David; Richard Hall; Nick Wailes; Christopher Wright (March 2006). "The false promise of technological determinism: the case of enterprise resource planning systems". New Technology, Work an...
    Head, Simon (2005). The New Ruthless Economy. Work and Power in the Digital Age. Oxford UP. ISBN 978-0-19-517983-5.
    Henderson, Ian ERP from the Frontline MBE ISBN 978-1-898822-05-9 Making ERP Work
  7. Sodium bicarbonate - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sodium_bicarbonate
    • Nomenclature
    • Uses
    • Chemistry
    • Stability & Shelf Life
    • History
    • Production
    • in Popular Culture

    Because it has long been known and widely used, the salt has many related names such as baking soda, bread soda, cooking soda, and bicarbonate of soda, and can often be found near baking powder in stores. The term baking soda is more common in the United States, while bicarbonate of soda is more common in Australia and Britain, and in many northern/central European countries it is called Natron.Abbreviated colloquial forms such as sodium bicarb, bicarb soda, bicarbonate, and bicarb are common. The word saleratus, from Latin sal æratus (meaning "aerated salt"), was widely used in the 19th century for both sodium bicarbonate and potassium bicarbonate. Its E number food additive code is E500. The prefix bi in bicarbonate comes from an outdated naming system and is based on the observation that the sodium bicarbonate molecule (NaHCO3) contains twice as much carbonate (CO3) as does sodium carbonate (Na2CO3). The modern chemical formulas of these compounds express their precise chemical c...

    Pyrotechnics

    Sodium bicarbonate is one of the main components of the common "black snake" firework. The effect is caused by the thermal decomposition, which produces carbon dioxide gas to produce a long snake-like ash as a combustion product of the other main component, sucrose. Sodium bicarbonate is also used to delay combustion reactions by releasing CO2 and H2O when heated, both of which are flame retardants.

    Mild disinfectant

    It has weak disinfectant properties, and it may be an effective fungicide against some organisms. Because baking soda will absorb musty smells, it has become a reliable method for used booksellers when making books less malodorous.

    Fire extinguisher

    Sodium bicarbonate can be used to extinguish small grease or electrical fires by being thrown over the fire, as heating of sodium bicarbonate releases carbon dioxide. However, it should not be applied to fires in deep fryers; the sudden release of gas may cause the grease to splatter. Sodium bicarbonate is used in BC dry chemical fire extinguishers as an alternative to the more corrosive diammonium phosphate in ABC extinguishers. The alkaline nature of sodium bicarbonate makes it the only dry...

    Sodium bicarbonate is an amphoteric compound. Aqueous solutions are mildly alkaline due to the formation of carbonic acid and hydroxideion: 1. HCO− 3 + H2O → H2CO3 + OH− Sodium bicarbonate can be used as a wash to remove any acidic impurities from a "crude" liquid, producing a purer sample. Reaction of sodium bicarbonate and an acidproduces a salt and carbonic acid, which readily decomposes to carbon dioxide and water: 1. NaHCO3 + HCl → NaCl + H2CO3 2. H2CO3 → H2O + CO2(g) Sodium bicarbonate reacts with acetic acid (found in vinegar), producing sodium acetate, water, and carbon dioxide: 1. NaHCO3 + CH3COOH → CH3COONa + H2O + CO2(g) Sodium bicarbonate reacts with bases such as sodium hydroxideto form carbonates: 1. NaHCO3 + NaOH → Na2CO3 + H2O

    If kept cool (room temperature) and dry (an airtight container is recommended to keep out moist air), sodium bicarbonate can be kept without a significant amount of decomposition for at least two or three years.

    The word natron has been in use in many languages throughout modern times (in the forms of anatron,natrum and natron) and originated (like Spanish, French and English natron as well as 'sodium') via Arabic naṭrūn (or anatrūn; cf. the Lower Egyptian “Natrontal” Wadi El Natrun, where a mixture of sodium carbonate and sodium hydrogen carbonate for the dehydration of mummies was used ) from Greek nítron (νίτρον) (Herodotus; Attic lítron (λίτρον)), which can be traced back to ancient Egyptian ntr. The Greek nítron (soda, soda, saltpeter) was also used in Latin (sal) nitrum and in German Salniter (the source of Nitrogen, Nitratetc.). In 1791, French chemist Nicolas Leblanc produced sodium carbonate, also known as soda ash. The pharmacist Valentin Rose the Younger is credited with the discovery of sodium bicarbonate 1801 in Berlin. In 1846, two American bakers, John Dwight and Austin Church, established the first factory in the United States to produce baking soda from sodium carbonate and...

    Sodium bicarbonate is produced industrially from sodium carbonate: 1. Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O → 2 NaHCO3 It is produced on the scale of about 100,000 tonnes/year (as of 2001)[dubious – discuss] with a worldwide production capacity of 2.4 million tonnes per year (as of 2002). Commercial quantities of baking soda are also produced by a similar method: soda ash, mined in the form of the ore trona, is dissolved in water and treated with carbon dioxide. Sodium bicarbonate precipitates as a solid from this solution.[citation needed] Regarding the Solvay process, sodium bicarbonate is an intermediate in the reaction of sodium chloride, ammonia, and carbon dioxide. The product however shows low purity (75pc).[citation needed] 1. NaCl + CO2 + NH3 + H2O → NaHCO3 + NH4Cl Although of no practical value, NaHCO3 may be obtained by the reaction of carbon dioxide with an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide:[citation needed] 1. CO2 + NaOH → NaHCO3

    Sodium bicarbonate, as "bicarbonate of soda", was a frequent source of punch lines for Groucho Marx in Marx Brothers movies. In Duck Soup, Marx plays the leader of a nation at war. In one scene, he receives a message from the battlefield that his general is reporting a gas attack, and Groucho tells his aide: "Tell him to take a teaspoonful of bicarbonate of soda and a half a glass of water." In A Night at the Opera, Groucho's character addresses the opening night crowd at an opera by saying of the lead tenor: "Signor Lassparri comes from a very famous family. His mother was a well-known bass singer. His father was the first man to stuff spaghetti with bicarbonate of soda, thus causing and curing indigestion at the same time." In the Joseph L. Mankewicz classic All About Eve, the Max Fabian character (Gregory Ratoff) has an extended scene with Margo Channing (Bette Davis) in which, suffering from heartburn, he requests and then drinks bicarbonate of soda, eliciting a prominent burp....

  8. SWOT analysis - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SWOT_analysis
    • Overview
    • Use
    • in Community Organizations
    • Limitations and Alternatives
    • SWOT Analysis in Popular Culture
    • Bibliography

    SWOT assumes that strengths and weaknesses are frequently internal, while opportunities and threats are more commonly external.The name is an acronym for the four parameters the technique examines: 1. Strengths: characteristics of the business or project that give it an advantage over others. 2. Weaknesses: characteristics that place the business or project at a disadvantage relative to others. 3. Opportunities: elements in the environment that the business or project could exploit to its advantage. 4. Threats: elements in the environment that could cause trouble for the business or project. The degree to which the internal environment of the firm matches with the external environment is expressed by the concept of strategic fit. Identification of SWOTs is important because they can inform later steps in planning to achieve the objective. First, decision-makers should consider whether the objective is attainable, given the SWOTs. If the objective is notattainable, they must select a...

    SWOT analysis can be used in any decision-making situation when a desired end-state (objective) is defined, not just profit-seeking organizations. Examples include non-profit organizations, governmental units, and individuals. SWOT analysis may also be used in pre-crisis planning and preventive crisis management. SWOT analysis may also be used in creating a recommendation during a viability study/survey.

    The SWOT analysis has been used in community work as a tool to identify positive and negative factors within organizations, communities, and the broader society that promote or inhibit successful implementation of social services and social change efforts.It is used as a preliminary resource, assessing strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats in a community served by a nonprofit or community organization. Although SWOT analysis is a part of the planning, it will not provide a strategic plan if used by itself, but a SWOT list can becomes a series of recommendations. Strengths and weaknesses (internal factors within an organization): 1. Human resources—staff, volunteers, board members, target population 2. Physical resources—your location, building, equipment 3. Financial—grants, funding agencies, other sources of income 4. Activities and processes—programs you run, systems you employ 5. Past experiences—building blocks for learning and success, your reputation in the communi...

    SWOT is intended as a starting point for discussion and cannot, in itself, show managers how to achieve a competitive advantage,particularly in a rapidly changing environment. Menon et al. (1999) and Hill and Westbrook (1997) suggested "no-one subsequently used the outputs within the later stages of the strategy". Others have critiqued hastily designed SWOT lists. Preoccupation with a single strength, such as cost control, they can neglect their weaknesses, such as product quality.Domineering by one or two community workers devalues the possible contributions of community members. Michael Porter developed the five forces framework as a reaction to SWOT, which he found lacking in rigor and ad hoc. Other names include WOTS-UP (Gray and Smeltzer, 1989) and TOWS(reversing the emphasis, with external first).

    Ads: Coca-Cola has used SWOT analysisin targeting television ads
    Television shows: In the Silicon Valley episode "Homicide" (Season 2, Episode 6), Jared Dunn (Zach Woods) introduces the Pied Piper team to SWOT analysis. Later in that episode Dinesh (Kumail Nanji...

    Dag Øivind Madsen, "SWOT Analysis: A Management Fashion Perspective", International Journal of Business Research 16:1:39–56 (2016) full text

  9. Amino acid - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amino_acid

    Amino acids are organic compounds that contain amino (–NH 2) and carboxyl (–COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid. The key elements of an amino acid are carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), and ...

  10. Calvin Klein - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calvin_Klein
    • Early Years
    • Personal Life
    • Awards
    • Other
    • See Also
    • External Links

    Klein was born on November 19, 1942 to a Jewish family in the Bronx, the son of Flore (née Stern) (1909–2006) and Leo Klein. Leo had immigrated to New York from Hungary, while Flore was born in the United States to immigrants from Galicia and Buchenland, Austrian Empire (modern day-Ukraine). Klein went to Isobel Rooney Middle School 80 (M.S.80) as a child. He attended the High School of Art and Design in Manhattan and matriculated at, but never graduated from, New York's Fashion Institute of Technology, receiving an honorary doctorate in 2003. He did his apprenticeship in 1962 at an old line cloak-and-suit manufacturer, Dan Millstein, and spent five years designing at other New York City shops. In 1968, he launched his first company with a childhood friend, Barry K. Schwartz. Klein was one of several design leaders raised in the Jewish community in the Bronx, along with Robert Denning and Ralph Lauren. He became a protégé of Baron de Gunzburg, through whose introductions he became t...

    Klein married Jayne Centre, a textile designer, in 1964. They have a daughter, Award-winning television producer Marci Klein, who is best known for her work on NBC's Saturday Night Live and 30 Rock. They divorced in 1974. In September 1986 Klein married his assistant, Kelly Rector, in Rome while they were on a buying trip in Italy.She later became a well-known socialite photographer. After separating in 1996, they divorced in April 2006 after 20 years of marriage. In 2003, Klein bought an ocean-front estate in Southampton, New York on Long Island and demolished it to build a $75 million glass-and-concrete mansion. In 2015, he put his Miami Beach, Florida mansion on the market for $16 million. The Florida home sold in February 2017 for $12,850,000. In June 2015, Klein bought a mansion in Los Angeles, Californiafor $25 million. Calvin Klein dated Nicholas Gruber. Klein is a supporter of the U.S. Democratic Party, having given over $250,000 to candidates and PACssince 1980.

    In 1974, Klein designed the tight-fitting signature jeans that would go on to gross $200,000 in their first week of sales. In that same year he also became the first designer to receive outstanding design in men’s and women’s wear from the Council of Fashion Designers of America (CFDA) award show.[citation needed] In 1983, he was placed on the International Best Dressed List.Also in 1981, 1983, and 1993, he received an award from the CFDA.

    Klein made a cameo appearance in Season 3, Episode 15 ("The Bubble"), of the television series 30 Rock. A fictionalized version of him also appears in Season 4, Episode 13 ("The Pick"), of the television series Seinfeld.

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