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1. ### Federal Reserve - Wikipedia

en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Federal_Reserve

The Federal Reserve System (also known as the Federal Reserve or simply the Fed) is the central banking system of the United States of America.It was created on December 23, 1913, with the enactment of the Federal Reserve Act, after a series of ...

2. ### World Trade Organization - Wikipedia

• History
• Functions
• Principles of The Trading System
• Organizational Structure
• Decision-Making
• Dispute Settlement
• Accession and Membership
• Agreements
• Office of Director-General
• Budget

The WTO precursor General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), was established by a multilateral treaty of 23 countries in 1947 after World War II in the wake of other new multilateral institutions dedicated to international economic cooperation—such as the World Bank (founded 1944) and the International Monetary Fund (founded 1944 or 1945). A comparable international institution for trade, named the International Trade Organization never started as the U.S. and other signatories did not ratify the establishment treaty, and so GATT slowly became a de factointernational organization.

Among the various functions of the WTO, these are regarded by analysts as the most important: 1. It oversees the implementation, administration and operation of the covered agreements (with the exception is that it does not enforce any agreements when China came into the WTO in Dec 2001) 2. It provides a forum for negotiations and for settling disputes. Additionally, it is WTO's duty to review and propagate the national trade policies and to ensure the coherence and transparency of trade policies through surveillance in global economic policy-making. Another priority of the WTO is the assistance of developing, least-developed and low-income countries in transition to adjust to WTO rules and disciplines through technical cooperation and training. 1. The WTO shall facilitate the implementation, administration, and operation and further the objectives of this Agreement and the Multilateral Trade Agreements, and shall also provide the framework for the implementation, administration, an...

The WTO establishes a framework for trade policies; it does not define or specify outcomes. That is, it is concerned with setting the rules of "trade policy." Five principles are of particular importance in understanding both the pre-1994 GATT and the WTO: 1. Non-discrimination. It has two major components: the most favored nation (MFN) rule and the national treatment policy. Both are embedded in the main WTO rules on goods, services, and intellectual property, but their precise scope and nature differ across these areas. The MFN rule requires that a WTO member must apply the same conditions on all trade with other WTO members, i.e., a WTO member has to grant the most favorable conditions under which it allows trade in a certain product type to all other WTO members. "Grant someone a special favor and you have to do the same for all other WTO members." National treatment means that imported goods should be treated no less favorably than domestically produced goods (at least after th...

The highest authority of the WTO is the Ministerial Conference, which must meet at least every two years. In between each Ministerial Conference, the daily work is handled by three bodies whose membership is the same; they only differ by the terms of reference under which each body is constituted. 1. The General Council 2. The Dispute Settlement Body 3. The Trade Policy Review Body The General Council, whose Chair as of 2020 is David Walker of New Zealand,has the following subsidiary bodies which oversee committees in different areas: Council for Trade in Goods 1. There are 11 committees under the jurisdiction of the Goods Council each with a specific task. All members of the WTO participate in the committees. The Textiles Monitoring Body is separate from the other committees but still under the jurisdiction of the Goods Council. The body has its chairman and only 10 members. The body also has several groups relating to textiles. Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Pro...

The WTO describes itself as "a rules-based, member-driven organization—all decisions are made by the member governments, and the rules are the outcome of negotiations among members".The WTO Agreement foresees votes where consensus cannot be reached, but the practice of consensus dominates the process of decision-making. Richard Harold Steinberg (2002) argues that although the WTO's consensus governance model provides law-based initial bargaining, trading rounds close through power-based bargaining favoring Europe and the U.S., and may not lead to Pareto improvement.

The WTO's dispute-settlement system "is the result of the evolution of rules, procedures and practices developed over almost half a century under the GATT 1947". In 1994, the WTO members agreed on the Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes (DSU) annexed to the "Final Act" signed in Marrakesh in 1994. Dispute settlement is regarded by the WTO as the central pillar of the multilateral trading system, and as a "unique contribution to the stability of the global economy".WTO members have agreed that, if they believe fellow-members are violating trade rules, they will use the multilateral system of settling disputes instead of taking action unilaterally. The operation of the WTO dispute settlement process involves case-specific panels appointed by the Dispute Settlement Body (DSB), the Appellate Body, The Director-General and the WTO Secretariat, arbitrators,and advisory experts. The priority is to settle disputes, preferably through a mutually agreed...

The process of becoming a WTO member is unique to each applicant country, and the terms of accession are dependent upon the country's stage of economic development and the current trade regime. The process takes about five years, on average, but it can last longer if the country is less than fully committed to the process or if political issues interfere. The shortest accession negotiation was that of the Kyrgyz Republic, while the longest was that of Russia, which, having first applied to join GATT in 1993, was approved for membership in December 2011 and became a WTO member on 22 August 2012. Kazakhstan also had a long accession negotiation process. The Working Party on the Accession of Kazakhstan was established in 1996 and was approved for membership in 2015. The second longest was that of Vanuatu, whose Working Party on the Accession of Vanuatu was established on 11 July 1995. After a final meeting of the Working Party in October 2001, Vanuatu requested more time to consider it...

The WTO oversees about 60 different agreements which have the status of international legal texts. Member countries must sign and ratify all WTO agreements on accession.A discussion of some of the most important agreements follows. The Agreement on Agriculture came into effect with the establishment of the WTO at the beginning of 1995. The AoA has three central concepts, or "pillars": domestic support, market access and export subsidies. The General Agreement on Trade in Services was created to extend the multilateral trading system to service sector, in the same way as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) provided such a system for merchandise trade. The agreement entered into force in January 1995. The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rightssets down minimum standards for many forms of intellectual property (IP) regulation. It was negotiated at the end of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1994. The Agr...

The procedures for the appointment of the WTO director-general were updated in January 2003, and include quadrennial terms. Additionally, there are four deputy directors-general. As of 13 June 2018[update] under director-general Roberto Azevêdo, the four deputy directors-general are: 1. Yi Xiaozhunof China (since 1 October 2017), 2. Karl Braunerof Germany (since 1 October 2013), 3. Yonov Frederick Agahof Nigeria (since 1 October 2013) and 4. Alan W. Wolffof the United States (since 1 October 2017).

The WTO derives most of the income for its annual budget from contributions by its Members. These are established according to a formula based on their share of international trade.

• Reduction of tariffs and other barriers to trade
• 164 member states
3. ### Association of Zoos and Aquariums - Wikipedia

en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Association_of_Zoos_and_Aquariums
• History
• Activities
• Accreditation
• Saving Animals from Extinction
• Annual Report on Conservation and Science

In October 1924 the American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums was formed as an affiliate of the American Institute of Park Executives. In 1966, the American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums became a professional branch affiliate of the newly formed National Recreation and Park Association, which absorbed the American Institute of Park Executives. In the fall of 1971 the American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums membership voted to become an independent association and, on January 19, 1972, it was chartered as the American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums with its executive office located in Wheeling, West Virginia, within the Oglebay Park Good Zoo.In 1994 the shorter name American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA) was adopted. In early 2018 AZA acquired the Wildlife Trafficking Alliance to help grow public awareness about the purchase and sale of illegal wildlife products in the United States. The Association of Zoos and Aquariums...

The organization is active in institution accreditation, animal care initiatives, education and conservation programs, collaborative research and advocacy. AZA serves as an accrediting body for zoos and aquariums and ensures accredited facilities meet higher standards of animal care than required by law. Institutions are evaluated every five years in order to ensure standards are met and to maintain accreditation. As of 2019 AZA had 238 accredited facilities in the US and eleven other countries: Canada, Mexico, Bermuda, The Bahamas, the Dominican Republic, Colombia, Argentina, Spain, Hong Kong, Singapore, and South Korea. Approximately 800,000 animals representing 6,000 species are in the care of AZA-accredited facilities, including 1,000 threatened or endangered species. The association also facilitates both species survival plansand population management plans, which serve to sustainably manage genetically diverse captive populations of various animal species. AZA holds a conferen...

In the United States, any public animal exhibit must be licensed and inspected by the United States Department of Agriculture, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Drug Enforcement Administration, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, and others. Depending on the animals they exhibit, the activities of zoos are regulated by laws including the Endangered Species Act, the Animal Welfare Act, the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 and others. Additionally, zoos in North America may choose to pursue accreditation by AZA. The American association has developed a definition for zoological gardens and aquariums as part of its accreditation standards: "A permanent cultural institution which owns and maintains captive wild animals that represent more than a token collection and, under the direction of a professional staff, provides its collection with appropriate care and exhibits them in an aesthetic manner to the public on a regularly scheduled basis. They shall further b...

AZA's Saving Animals From Extinction (SAFE) program prioritizes collaboration between zoos and aquariums to support highly vulnerable species. SAFE builds on existing recovery plans to implement strategic conservation and public engagement activities.In 2017 AZA member zoos and aquariums invested $15.6 million towards SAFE program species. The SAFE program signature species include African lion, African vultures, Asian elephant, red wolf, Atlantic Acropora coral, black-footed ferret, black rhinoceros, cheetah, eastern indigo snake, giraffe, gorilla, sea turtles, orangutan, radiated tortoise, sea turtles, sharks and rays, vaquita, western pond turtle and whooping crane. There are more than 20 species or taxonomic groups included in the program as of 2019. The association has a computerized database called the Annual Report on Conservation and Science. It can help track AZA research projects worldwide. AZA member zoos and aquariums contribute$220 million to conservation projects each year.They participate in 115 reintroduction programs, including more than 40 programs for species listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act. In 2017, member institutions reported participating in field conservation projects benefiting over 860 species in 128 countries. AZA zoos and aquariums spent $25 million on research and published 170 books, book chapters, journal articles, conference proceeding papers, posters and theses or dissertations. Animal care, health and welfare, followed by species and habitat conservation, describe 68% of the AZA community's research. • AZA • October 1924; 96 years ago (as American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums) 4. ### The Accountant (2016 film) - Wikipedia en.wikipedia.org › wiki › The_Accountant_(2016_film) • Plot • Production • Release • Reception • Sequel • See Also • External Links Christian Wolff is diagnosed with autism at Harbor Neuroscience as a child. His father refuses to let him stay over the summer, with this environment being better for his sensory processing disorder and instead believing that he must overcome the hardships of his condition. Chris' overwhelmed mother abandons them. Fearing others will exploit Chris, his father, a US Army PSYOP officer, begins a brutal regimen of stoicismand martial-arts training for Chris and his younger brother, Braxton. In the present, Chris is a forensic accountant with a small office in Plainfield, Illinois. He unmasks insider financial deceptions, often for criminal enterprises. His clients contact him through the Voice, an unidentified woman who calls him "Dreamboat". He exposes himself daily to loud, hard driving Metal Rock and flashing lights to inure himself to any kind of sensory overload. Chris is hired to audit the firm Living Robotics after the company's founder and CEO, Lamar Blackburn, and his sister R... Casting On November 12, 2014, Variety reported that Anna Kendrick was in early talks to co-star in the film, alongside Affleck. Later that day, J. K. Simmons was also announced as being in talks to join the cast. On November 14, 2014, Jon Bernthal was also in talks. On January 6, 2015, Variety reported that Cynthia Addai-Robinson was added to the cast. On January 14, 2015, Jeffrey Tambor and John Lithgowwere added to the cast of the film. Filming Principal photography began on January 19, 2015, in Atlanta, Georgia. On March 16–20, filming was taking place at the Georgia Institute of Technology.Filming wrapped on April 2, 2015. Fight choreography The action sequences in the film featured the Indonesian martial art Pencak silat. The film was released in the United States on October 14, 2016. Before that, Warner Bros. had scheduled it for January 29, 2016 and October 7, 2016.It held its European premiere in London on October 17, 2016. Box office The Accountantgrossed$86.3 million in the United States and Canada and $68.9 million in other countries, for a worldwide total of$155.2 million, against a production budget of $44 million. The Accountant was released alongside Max Steel and Kevin Hart: What Now?, and was expected to gross$20–25 million from 3,332 theaters in its opening weekend, although the studio was projecting a conservative $15 million opening. The film made$1.35 million from its Thursday-night previews, more than Aff...

Critical response

On Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 52% based on 282 reviews, with an average rating of 5.67/10. The website's critical consensus reads: "The Accountant writes off a committed performance from Ben Affleck, leaving viewers with a scattershot action thriller beset by an array of ill-advised deductions." On Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating, the film has a weighted average score of 51 out of 100, based on reviews from 45 critics, indicating "mixed or average revi...

In June 2017, a sequel was announced to be in development, with Gavin O'Connor and Bill Dubuque returning in their respective roles as director and writer. Affleck was to return in the starring role.In February 2020, Affleck reiterated his desire for a sequel, also noting the possibility of a television series based on the character. In September 2021, O'Connor announced that deals for the sequel had just been made.

 The Accountant at IMDb The Accountant at Rotten Tomatoes The Accountant at AllMovie The Accountant at the Internet Movie Firearms Database
5. ### News Corporation - Wikipedia

en.wikipedia.org › wiki › News_Corporation
• History
• Shareholders
• Annual Conference
• Political Donations
• Corporate Governance
• Office of The Chairman
• Final Holdings

News Corp was created in 1980 by Rupert Murdoch, as a holding company for News Limited. News Limited was created in 1923 in Adelaide by James Edward Davidson, funded by the Collins House mining empire for the purpose of publishing anti-union propaganda; subsequently the controlling interest was bought by The Herald and Weekly Times. In 1949, Sir Keith Murdoch took control of The Adelaide News. When he died in 1952, his son Rupert inherited a controlling interest in an Adelaide afternoon tabloid, The News. News Limited operates today as News Corporation's Australian brand, The Australian operating out of Surry Hills, in Sydney.

 In August 2005, the Murdoch family owned only about 29% of the company of which as of June 2013 had been diluted to around 17%. However, nearly all of these shares were voting shares which currentl... Another major stakeholder has been Al-Waleed bin Talal, of the Saudi Royal Family. In 1997, Time reported that Al-Waleed owned about five percent of News Corporation. In 2010, Alwaleed's stake in N...

News Corporation organises an annual management conference, discussing media issues related to geopolitics. Attendees include News Corporation executives, senior journalists, politicians and celebrities. Previous events were in Cancún, Mexico, and the Hayman Islandoff the coast of Australia. The events are private and secretive, there are no records available for the agenda or talks given at the conferences, and no uninvited journalists are permitted access. The 2006 event in Pebble Beach, California was led by Rupert Murdoch. According to a copy of the agenda leaked to the Los Angeles Times and other media accounts, issues discussed related from Europe to broadcasting and new media, terrorism to the national policy. The event included speeches from Murdoch, Actor and former governor of California Arnold Schwarzenegger, former British Prime Minister Tony Blair, Bono, Al Gore, Senator John McCain and Bill Clinton while Israel's President, Shimon Peres, appeared on a panel named "Isla...

In anticipation of US midterm elections, News Corporation donated $1 million to the Republican Governors Association in June 2010. The move was criticised by Democrats, who said this was evidence of News Corporation's news outlets conservative leanings (see Fox News Channel controversies). The Democratic Governors Association also criticised the donation and demanded more transparency in the reporting by News Corporation companies. DGA head Nathan Daschle wrote to the chairman of News Corporation company Fox News, Roger Ailes: "In the interest of some fairness and balance, I request that you add a formal disclaimerto your coverage any time any of your programs covers governors or gubernatorial races between now and election day." Around the same time, News Corporation also donated$1 million to the United States Chamber of Commerce. The Chamber aggressively supported the Republican effort to retake Congress in 2010.This donation and an earlier \$1 million contribution that News Corpo...

The company's Board of Directors consisted of 16 individuals at the time of its break up: 1. Rupert Murdoch(Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer) 2. José María Aznar(Former Prime Minister of Spain) 3. Natalie Bancroft(Director) 4. Peter Barnes 5. James W. Breyer 6. Chase Carey(President and Chief Operating Officer) 7. Elaine Chao 8. David F. DeVoe(Chief Financial Officer) 9. Viet Dinh 10. Sir Roderick Ian Eddington 11. Joel I. Klein(Executive Vice President) 12. James Murdoch(Chairman & Chief Executive Officer, Europe & Asia) 13. Lachlan Murdoch 14. Álvaro Uribe(Former President of Colombia) 15. Stanley S. Shuman (Director Emeritus) 16. Arthur M. Siskind(Director Emeritus, Senior Advisor to the Chairman)

News Corporation split up to 21st Century Fox and the current incarnation of News Corporation on June 28, 2013. All media and broadcasting assets, except media assets owned by News Limited, now belong to The Walt Disney Company and Fox Corporation (successors to 21st Century Fox), its legal successors. Meanwhile, newspapers and other publishing assets, including media assets under News Limited, were spun off as a new News Corp.

 Official website News Corporation companies grouped at OpenCorporates Records of political donations at Opensecrets.org News Corp at Bloomberg Businessweek
6. ### Yangmingshan - Wikipedia

en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Yangmingshan
• History
• Landscape and Geology
• Xiaoyoukeng
• Flora and Fauna
• Historical and Cultural Sites
• Gallery

This mountain range was originally called "Grass Mountain" (Chinese: 草山; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Chháu-soaⁿ) during the Qing Dynasty, in reference to the Datun Mountain (大屯山; Tōa-tūn-soaⁿ).Officials during this period were worried about thieves stealing sulfur from the rich sulfur deposits in the area, so they would regularly set fire to the mountain. Thus, only grass and no trees could be seen. Daiton National Park[ja], Taiwan's first national park, was established on 27 December 1937. It was one of three national parks designated by Governor-General of Taiwan Seizō Kobayashi during Japanese rule. In 1950, President Chiang Kai-shek renamed Grass Mountain to Yangmingshan to commemorate the Ming Dynasty scholar Wang Yangming. In 1962, the then Taiwan Provincial Bureau of Public Works began to plan the Yangmingshan National Park. The initial planning area was 28,400 hectares, including Mount Kwan-in and the Tatun Volcano Group.

Different from the high mountain national parks, Yangmingshan National Park has a lower elevation. Even though mountain elevations range from only 200–1120 meters, beautiful landscapes such as ridges, valleys, lakes, waterfalls and basins are abundant. Andesite rocks make up most of the area's geology.

Xiaoyoukeng is a post-volcanic geological landscape area located in the north of Taiwan in Yangmingshan National Park at the northwestern foot of Seven Star Mountain. It is approximately 805 meters above sea level and is famed for the fumaroles, sulfur crystals, hot springsand spectacular 'landslide terrain' formed by post-volcanic activity. Hiking trails to Seven Star Mountain are accessible from the Xiaoyoukeng parking lot. The top of the trail is 1,120 meters above sea level, which is the highest peak of Taipei City. The Xiaoyoukeng trail can connect to Qixing Park, Menghuan Pond, and Lengshuikeng. The trail also connects to visitor center, Yangmingshan Second Parking Lot and the Yangmingshan Bus Station.

Due to the effects of post-volcanic activity and precipitation, soil in the region is highly acidic. With the influence of the northeast monsoon and the area's microclimates, winter temperatures are much lower than the surrounding areas. The above factors cause the vegetation to differ from those in other regions at the same latitude. Some medium and high altitude plants can be found here such as bird-lime tree and hairy Japanese maple. Vegetation groups can be divided into subtropical monsoon rain forests, temperate evergreen broadleaf forests and mountain ridge grasslands. There are 1360 species of vascular bundle plants in the region. Some of the common ones are red nanmu, large-leaved machilus, Formosan sweet gum, Taiwan cherry, Mori cleyera and dark spotted cherry. The most famous is Taiwan isoetes in Menghuan pond, an aquatic fern only found in Taiwan. Mt. Datun is one of the most well known places to see some of the 168 species of butterflies in northern Taiwan. The best time...

Chinese Culture University

The school was founded in 1962. The founder Dr. Zhang Qiyun and the Chinese Culture Foundation Committee originally proposed the school to be called "Far Eastern University". After a letter from the previous President Jiang Gong, he suggested that it be changed to "Chinese Cultural Institute". In 1963, 15 departments of the day department of the University Department began to enroll students, and then 4 departments of the night department were established and renamed "Chinese Culture College"...

Chung-Shan Building - Meeting place of the now defunct National Assembly of the Republic of China

During the administration of President Chiang Kai-shek, the Chung-Shan Building in Yangmingshan National Park was built in 1965 to honor the centenary birthday of Sun Yat-sen, the country's founding father. Ms. Xiu Zelan, a well-known architect, designed it. It is surrounded by mountains and is surrounded by flora. The exterior is a typical Chinese classical structure with exquisite and precise interior décor. It was once the home of the National Assembly and a popular location for heads of s...

Grass Mountain Chateau - Summer residence of Chiang Kai-shek

Grass Mountain is a valley area surrounded by Datun Mountain, Qixing Mountain, and Shamao Mountain, but it is not a mountain. The Grass Mountain Hotel was formerly the guest home of Taiwan Sugar Corporation, and Jiang Gong moved in when the Nationalist Government moved to Taiwan in 1949. The hotel is positioned on a strategic high point of a grassy mountain and is quiet and pleasant. In front of you, the Keelung River and the Danshui River meet. The natural splendor may be seen from the Guand...

 Dream Lake. Cherry Blossom Closer view of fumaroleon Seven Star Mountain. Chung-Shan Buildingin Yangmingshan.
 Media related to Yangmingshan National Parkat Wikimedia Commons Yangmingshantravel guide from Wikivoyage Official website
7. ### New Zealand - Wikipedia

en.wikipedia.org › wiki › New_zealand

New Zealand (Māori: Aotearoa [aɔˈtɛaɾɔa]) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island (Te Ika-a-Māui) and the South Island (Te Waipounamu)—and more than 700 smaller islands, [13] ...

8. ### Transformer - Wikipedia

en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Transformer
• Principles
• Construction
• Classification Parameters
• Applications
• History
• Bibliography

Ideal transformer

An ideal transformer is a theoretical linear transformer that is lossless and perfectly coupled. Perfect coupling implies infinitely high core magnetic permeability and winding inductances and zero net magnetomotive force (i.e. ipnp - isns = 0).[c] A varying current in the transformer's primary winding attempts to create a varying magnetic flux in the transformer core, which is also encircled by the secondary winding. This varying flux at the secondary winding induces a varying electromotive...

Transformer EMF equation

If the flux in the core is purely sinusoidal, the relationship for either winding between its rms voltage Erms of the winding, and the supply frequency f, number of turns N, core cross-sectional area a in m2 and peak magnetic flux density Bpeak in Wb/m2or T (tesla) is given by the universal EMF equation: 1. E rms = 2 π f N a B peak 2 ≈ 4.44 f N a B peak {\\displaystyle E_{\\text{rms}}={\\frac {2\\pi fNaB_{\\text{peak}}}{\\sqrt {2}}}\\approx 4.44fNaB_{\\text{peak}}}

Polarity

A dot convention is often used in transformer circuit diagrams, nameplates or terminal markings to define the relative polarity of transformer windings. Positively increasing instantaneous current entering the primary winding's ‘dot’ end induces positive polarity voltage exiting the secondary winding's ‘dot’ end. Three-phase transformers used in electric power systems will have a nameplate that indicate the phase relationships between their terminals. This may be in the form of a phasordiagra...

Cores

Core form = core type; shell form = shell type Closed-core transformers are constructed in 'core form' or 'shell form'. When windings surround the core, the transformer is core form; when windings are surrounded by the core, the transformer is shell form. Shell form design may be more prevalent than core form design for distribution transformer applications due to the relative ease in stacking the core around winding coils. Core form design tends to, as a general rule, be more economical, and...

Windings

The electrical conductor used for the windings depends upon the application, but in all cases the individual turns must be electrically insulated from each other to ensure that the current travels throughout every turn. For small transformers, in which currents are low and the potential difference between adjacent turns is small, the coils are often wound from enamelled magnet wire. Larger power transformers may be wound with copper rectangular strip conductors insulated by oil-impregnated pa...

Cooling

It is a rule of thumb that the life expectancy of electrical insulation is halved for about every 7 °C to 10 °C increase in operating temperature (an instance of the application of the Arrhenius equation). Small dry-type and liquid-immersed transformers are often self-cooled by natural convection and radiation heat dissipation. As power ratings increase, transformers are often cooled by forced-air cooling, forced-oil cooling, water-cooling, or combinations of these. Large transformers are fil...

Transformers can be classified in many ways, such as the following: 1. Power rating: From a fraction of a volt-ampere (VA) to over a thousand MVA. 2. Duty of a transformer: Continuous, short-time, intermittent, periodic, varying. 3. Frequency range: Power-frequency, audio-frequency, or radio-frequency. 4. Voltage class: From a few volts to hundreds of kilovolts. 5. Cooling type: Dry or liquid-immersed; self-cooled, forced air-cooled;forced oil-cooled, water-cooled. 6. Application: power supply, impedance matching, output voltage and current stabilizer, pulse, circuit isolation, power distribution, rectifier, arc furnace, amplifier output, etc.. 7. Basic magnetic form: Core form, shell form, concentric, sandwich. 8. Constant-potential transformer descriptor: Step-up, step-down, isolation. 9. General winding configuration: By IEC vector group, two-winding combinations of the phase designations delta, wye or star, and zigzag; autotransformer, Scott-T 10. Rectifier phase-shift winding c...

Various specific electrical application designs require a variety of transformer types. Although they all share the basic characteristic transformer principles, they are customized in construction or electrical properties for certain installation requirements or circuit conditions. In electric power transmission, transformers allow transmission of electric power at high voltages, which reduces the loss due to heating of the wires. This allows generating plants to be located economically at a distance from electrical consumers.All but a tiny fraction of the world's electrical power has passed through a series of transformers by the time it reaches the consumer. In many electronic devices, a transformer is used to convert voltage from the distribution wiring to convenient values for the circuit requirements, either directly at the power line frequency or through a switch mode power supply. Signal and audio transformers are used to couple stages of amplifiers and to match devices such...

Discovery of induction

Electromagnetic induction, the principle of the operation of the transformer, was discovered independently by Michael Faraday in 1831 and Joseph Henry in 1832. Only Faraday furthered his experiments to the point of working out the equation describing the relationship between EMF and magnetic flux now known as Faraday's law of induction: 1. | E | = | d Φ B d t | , {\\displaystyle |{\\mathcal {E}}|=\\left|{{\\mathrm {d} \\Phi _{\\text{B}}} \\over \\mathrm {d} t}\\right|,} where | E | {\\displaystyle |{\\m...

Induction coils

The first type of transformer to see wide use was the induction coil, invented by Rev. Nicholas Callan of Maynooth College, Ireland in 1836. He was one of the first researchers to realize the more turns the secondary winding has in relation to the primary winding, the larger the induced secondary EMF will be. Induction coils evolved from scientists' and inventors' efforts to get higher voltages from batteries. Since batteries produce direct current (DC) rather than AC, induction coils relied...

First alternating current transformers

By the 1870s, efficient generators producing alternating current (AC) were available, and it was found AC could power an induction coil directly, without an interrupter. In 1876, Russian engineer Pavel Yablochkov invented a lighting system based on a set of induction coils where the primary windings were connected to a source of AC. The secondary windings could be connected to several 'electric candles'(arc lamps) of his own design. The coils Yablochkov employed functioned essentially as tran...

 Beeman, Donald, ed. (1955). Industrial Power Systems Handbook. McGraw-Hill. Calvert, James (2001). "Inside Transformers". University of Denver. Archived from the original on May 9, 2007. Retrieved May 19, 2007. Coltman, J. W. (Jan 1988). "The Transformer". Scientific American. 258 (1): 86–95. Bibcode:1988SciAm.258a..86C. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0188-86. OSTI 6851152. Coltman, J.W. (Jan–Feb 2002). "The Transformer [Historical Overview]". IEEE Industry Applications Magazine. 8 (1): 8–15. doi:10.1109/2943.974352. S2CID 18160717.
9. ### Gore-Tex - Wikipedia

en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Gore-Tex
• History
• Manufacture
• Design
• Clothing Technology
• Other Uses

Gore-Tex was co-invented by Wilbert L. Gore and Gore's son, Robert W. Gore. In 1969, Bob Gore stretched heated rods of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and created expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE). His discovery of the right conditions for stretching PTFE was a happy accident, born partly of frustration. Instead of slowly stretching the heated material, he applied a sudden, accelerating yank. The solid PTFE unexpectedly stretched about 800%, forming a microporous structure that was about 70% air.It was introduced to the public under the trademark Gore-Tex. Gore promptly applied for and obtained the following patents: 1. U.S. Patent 3,953,566, issued April 27, 1976, for a porous form of polytetrafluoroethylene with a micro-structure characterized by nodes interconnected by fibrils 2. U.S. Patent 4,187,390, issued February 5, 1980 3. U.S. Patent 4,194,041on March 18, 1980 for a "waterproof laminate", together with Samuel Allen Another form of stretched PTFE tape was produced pri...

PTFE is made using an emulsion polymerization process that utilizes the fluorosurfactant PFOA,a persistent environmental contaminant. In 2013, Gore eliminated the use of PFOAs in the manufacture of its weatherproof functional fabrics.

Gore-Tex materials are typically based on thermo-mechanically expanded PTFE and other fluoropolymer products. They are used in a wide variety of applications such as high-performance fabrics, medical implants, filter media, insulation for wires and cables, gaskets, and sealants. However, Gore-Tex fabric is best known for its use in protective, yet breathable, rainwear. The simplest sort of rain wear is a two layer sandwich. The outer layer is typically woven nylon or polyester and provides strength. The inner one is polyurethane(abbreviated: PU), and provides water resistance, at the cost of breathability. Early Gore-Tex fabric replaced the inner layer of PU with a thin, porous fluoropolymer membrane (Teflon) coating that is bonded to a fabric. This membrane had about 9 billion pores per square inch (around 1.4 billion pores per square centimeter). Each pore is approximately ​1⁄20,000the size of a water droplet, making it impenetrable to liquid water while still allowing the more vo...

Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene is used in clothing due to its breathability and water protection capabilities. It is used in rain jackets, and ePTFE can now be found in space suits and heart patches.

Gore-Tex is also used internally in medical applications, because it is nearly inert inside the body. Specifically, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (E-PTFE) can take the form of a fabric-like mesh. Implementing and applying the mesh form in the medical field is a promising type of technological material feature. In addition, the porosity of Gore-Tex permits the body's own tissue to grow through the material, integrating grafted material into the circulation system. Gore-Tex is used in a wide variety of medical applications, including sutures, vascular grafts, heart patches, and synthetic knee ligaments, which have saved thousands of lives. In the form of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (E-PTFE), Gore-Tex has been shown to be a reliable synthetic, medical material in treating patients with nasal dorsal interruptions. In more recent observations, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (E-PTFE) has recently been used as membrane implants for glaucoma surgery. Gore-Tex has been used for man...

10. ### National Pension - Wikipedia

en.wikipedia.org › wiki › National_Pension
• History
• Types of Members
• Pension Handbook
• Monthly Contributions
• Payment Difficulties
• Recovery of Past Exempted Contributions
• Pension Benefits Offered by The National Pension System
• Lump-Sum Withdrawal Payments
• Social Security Agreements
• Financial Status

In 1942 the Workers Pension Insurance Act was enacted, and in 1944 the name was changed to Employees' Pension Insurance Act. It was amended substantially in 1954, and in 1961 the National Pension Act created universal pension coverage for residents of Japan.

(This is also described under Social Welfare in Japan) 1. Category 1 – All registered residents of Japan who are aged between 20 and 60 years old, but do not fit into either category 2 or 3 (i.e. typically the unemployed, self-employed, or employees of very small companies). People in this category should go to the National Pension counter at their local municipal office. (People in this category are enrolled in the national health insurancescheme). 2. Category 2 – Workers who are enrolled by their employer in Employees Pension schemes (such as the Kigyō Nenkin Rengōkai(企業年金連合会)　Pension Fund Association, successor to Kōsei Nenkin(厚生年金)), or Mutual Aid association (such as the Shigaku Kyōsai(私学共済) Private School Mutual Aid Association). These pension contributions include the basic national pension. Pension contributions are deducted from the workers' salary by the employer. (People in this category are enrolled in an employee health insurancescheme). 3. Category 3– People aged betwe...

Once a person has enrolled in the national pension they will receive a pension handbook with a social security number, which serves as proof of identity. If the pension handbook is lost, Category 1 members can apply at the local municipal office for it to be reissued. Category 2 members can ask their employer or the local Japan Pension Service office. Category 3 members must ask through the employer of the Category 2 member on whom they are financially dependent.

The monthly contribution amount for the national pension from April 2019 to March 2020 is ¥16,410. Contribution for each month must be paid by the end of the following month. Contributions can be paid at banks, post offices, or convenience stores, as well as by bank transfer or online.

If members have trouble paying due to low income or other reasons they should apply for exemption from contribution payments at their local municipal office. The pension office will examine their previous year's income and other factors and may give a total or partial exemption from payments. Failure to make partial payments after an arrangement has been made will be regarded as non-payment rather than partial exemption. Periods of non-payment may not be included in calculating the old-age basic pension that the member will receive in the future. In addition, non-paying members will not be entitled to the disability basic pension and survivors basic pension in the case of unexpected circumstances. People in their 20s can use the contribution postponement system for low-income youth. Students can use the special payment system for students. Generally speaking, students at Japanese schools overseas are not eligible for the special payment system for students.

Payments making up for payments that the member was exempted from in the past can be made for up to 10 years afterwards. If they are brought fully up to date, the members old age basic pension will be calculated in the same manner as for full contribution payments.

Old age basic pension– Pension benefits are paid from age 65 to persons who satisfy certain conditions, such as having paid their national pension contributions for 10 years or more. The benefit am...

Foreign residents who have contributed to the national pension for 6 months or more (not including as category 2 or 3 members) and who have not contributed for 10 years, can claim a lump-sum withdrawal payment within two years of leaving Japan. However, even if a Japanese or foreign resident has not contributed for 10 years, if their country has a reciprocal social security agreement with Japan, some such agreements allow the number of years of contributions in both countries to be totalize in determining eligibility. Even if there is no such reciprocal agreement, they may be able to receive a pension based on kara kikan(カラ期間)(period spent outside Japan after age 20) if they become permanent residents before the age of 65. The amount of the lump-sum withdrawal depends on the number of months that contributions were paid for: The total contribution period paid period is calculated as follows:Total number of months paid + (number of months of one-quarter contribution paid × 0.25) + (n...

Some countries have concluded bilateral agreements with Japan to eliminate dual coverage in pension systems and allow enrollment periods in foreign pension system to be counted when calculating eligibility and benefits to be paid.Social Security (mandatory health insurance, employment insurance, and pension contribution) payments by employees are typically about ¥40,000 per month.

In fiscal year2011 the National Pension program recorded a surplus of ¥198 billion. This was the third consecutive year that it had been profitable.

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