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  1. Kt/V - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kt/V
    • Rationale For Kt/V as A Marker of Dialysis Adequacy
    • Relation to Urr
    • Peritoneal Dialysis
    • Reason For Adoption
    • Criticisms/Disadvantages of Kt/V
    • External Links

    K (clearance) multiplied by t (time) is a volume (since mL/min × min = mL, or L/h × h = L), and (K × t) can be thought of as the mL or L of fluid (blood in this case) cleared of urea (or any other solute) during the course of a single treatment. V also is a volume, expressed in mL or L. So the ratio of K × t / Vis a so-called "dimensionless ratio" and can be thought of as a multiple of the volume of plasma cleared of urea divided by the distribution volume of urea. When Kt/V = 1.0, a volume of blood equal to the distribution volume of urea has been completely cleared of urea. The relationship between Kt/V and the concentration of urea C at the end of dialysis can be derived from the first-order differential equation that describes exponential decayand models the clearance of any substance from the body where the concentration of that substance decreases in an exponential fashion: where 1. C is the concentration [mol/m3] 2. tis the time [s] 3. K is the clearance [m3/s] 4. V is the vo...

    The URR or Urea reduction ratio is simply the fractional reduction of urea during dialysis. So by definition, URR = 1 − C/C0. So 1−URR = C/C0. So by algebra, substituting into equation (4) above, since ln C/C0 = − ln C0/C, we get:

    Kt/V (in the context of peritoneal dialysis) was developed by Michael J. Lysaghtin a series of articles on peritoneal dialysis. The steady-state solution of a simplified mass transfer equation that is used to describe the mass exchange over a semi-permeable membrane and models peritoneal dialysisis where 1. CB is the concentration in the blood [ mol/m3] 2. KD is the clearance [ m3/s ] 3. m ˙ {\\displaystyle {\\dot {m}}} is the urea mass generation [ mol/s ] This can also be written as: The mass generation (of urea), in steady state, can be expressed as the mass (of urea) in the effluent per time: where 1. CE is the concentration of urea in effluent [ mol/m3] 2. VE is the volume of effluent [ m3] 3. tis the time [ s ] Lysaght, motivated by equations 6b and 6c, defined the value KD: Lysaght uses "ml/min" for the clearance. In order to convert the above clearance (which is in m3/s) to ml/min one has to multiply by 60 × 1000 × 1000. Once KD is defined the following equation is used to cal...

    Kt/V has been widely adopted because it was correlated with survival. Before Kt/V nephrologists measured the serum urea concentration (specifically thetime-averaged concentration of urea (TAC of urea)), which was found not to be correlated with survival (due to its strong dependence on proteinintake) and thus deemed an unreliable marker of dialysis adequacy.

    It is complex and tedious to calculate. Many nephrologists have difficulty understanding it.
    Kt/V only measures a change in the concentration of urea and implicitly assumes the clearance of urea is comparable to other toxins. (It ignores molecules larger than urea having diffusion-limited...
    Kt/V does not take into account the role of ultrafiltration.

    Hemodialysis

    1. Hemodialysis Dose and Adequacy– a description of URR and Kt/V from the Kidney and Urologic Diseases Clearinghouse. 2. Kt/V and the adequacy of hemodialysis– UpToDate.com

    Peritoneal dialysis

    1. Advisory on Peritoneal Dialysis– American Association of Kidney Patients 2. Peritoneal Dialysis Dose and Adequacy– a description of URR and Kt/V from the Kidney and Urologic Diseases Clearinghouse.

    Calculators

    1. spKt/V,eKt/V,URR,nPCR,GNRI etc. dialysis calculation– hdtool.net. 2. free Kt/V calculators, single pool and equilibrated HD, PD, no login needed, site used by dozens of dialysis centers around the world for over 10 years– kt-v.net 3. Web/javascript program that does formal 2-pool urea kinetics in multiple patients– ureakinetics.org 4. Kt/V calculator– medindia.com 5. Kt/V– HDCN

  2. Differences between Shinjitai and Simplified characters - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Differences_between_Shinjitai_and...
    • List of Different Simplifications
    • Traditional Characters That May Cause Problems Displaying
    • Different Stroke Orders in Chinese and Japanese

    The old and new forms of the Kyōiku Kanji and their Hànzì equivalents are listed below. In the following lists, the characters are sorted by the radicals of the Japanese kanji. The two Kokuji働 and 畑 in the Kyōiku Kanji List, which have no Chinese equivalents, are not listed here; in Japanese, neither character was affected by the simplifications. Note that 弁 is used to simplify three different Traditional characters (辨, 瓣, and 辯) in Japan. 1. No simplificationin either language (The following characters were simplified neither in Japanese nor in Chinese.) 1. 一 丁 下 三 不 天 五 民 正 平 可 再 百 否 武 夏 中 内 出 本 世 申 由 史 冊 央 向 曲 印 州 表 果 半 必 永 求 九 丸 千 久 少 夫 午 失 末 未 包 年 危 后 兵 我 束 卵 承 垂 刷 重 省 看 勉 七 乳 才 予 事 二 元 亡 六 主 市 交 忘 夜 育 京 卒 商 率 就 人 化 今 仁 付 代 仕 他 令 以 合 全 任 休 件 仲 作 何 位 住 余 低 似 命 使 念 例 供 信 保 便 値 修 借 候 倍 俳 俵 健 停 働 像 先 入 八 分 公 共 弟 並 典 前 益 善 尊 同 周 次 兆 冷 弱 刀 切 別 判 制 券 刻 副 割 力 加 助 努 勇 勤 句 北 疑 十 古 孝 直 南 真 裁 博 上 反 灰 厚 原 台 能 友 収 口 司 右 兄 吸 告 君 味 呼 品 唱 器 四 回 因 困 固 土 去 地 在 寺 均 志 坂 幸 型 城 基 域 喜 境 士 冬 各 夕 外 名 多...

    Some of the traditional Kanji are not included in the Japanese font of Windows XP/2000, and only rectangles are shown. Downloading the Meiryo font from the Microsoft website (VistaFont_JPN.EXE) and installing it will solve this problem. Note that within the Jōyō Kanji there are 62 characters the old forms of which may cause problems displaying: Kyōiku Kanji (26): Grade 2 (2 Kanji): 海 社 Grade 3 (8 Kanji): 勉 暑 漢 神 福 練 者 都 Grade 4 (6 Kanji): 器 殺 祝 節 梅 類 Grade 5 (1 Kanji): 祖 Grade 6 (9 Kanji): 勤 穀 視 署 層 著 諸 難 朗 Secondary-School Kanji (36): 欄 廊 虜 隆 塚 祥 侮 僧 免 卑 喝 嘆 塀 墨 悔 慨 憎 懲 敏 既 煮 碑 祉 祈 禍 突 繁 臭 褐 謁 謹 賓 贈 逸 響 頻 These characters are Unicode CJK Unified Ideographs for which the old form (kyūjitai) and the new form (shinjitai) have been unified under the Unicode standard. Although the old and new forms are distinguished under the JIS X 0213 standard, the old forms map to Unicode CJK Compatibility Ideographs which are considered by Unicode to be canonically equivalent to the new forms and ma...

    Some characters, whether simplified or not, look the same in Chinese and Japanese, but have different stroke orders. For example, in Japan, 必 is written with the top dot first, while the Traditional stroke order writes the 丿 first. In the characters 王 and 玉, the vertical stroke is the third stroke in Chinese, but the second stroke in Japanese.Taiwan and Hong Kong use Traditional characters, though with an altered stroke order.

  3. List of kanji by concept - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KanjiReference:IndexByConcept

    This Kanji index method groups together kanji that describe things that deal with the same concept, for example kanji for numbers or kanji for directions. Kanji with multiple meanings may appear more than once. Listed in alphabetical order. ...

  4. Tōyō kanji - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mazegaki
    • Reform
    • Applications and Limitations
    • Mazegaki
    • List of The 1,850 Tōyō Kanji
    • See Also
    • External Links

    Thousands of kanji characters were in use in various writing systems, leading to great difficulties for those learning written Japanese. Additionally, several characters had identical meanings but were written differently from each other, further increasing complexity. After World War II, the Ministry of Education decided to minimize the number of kanji by choosing the most commonly used kanji, along with simplified kanji (see Shinjitai) commonly appearing in contemporary literature, to form the tōyō kanji. This was an integral part of the postwar reform of Japanese national writing. This was meant as a preparation for re-introducing their previous unsuccessful reform abolishing Chinese characters. Although the postwar timing meant no public debate was held on the future of the Japanese written language, the defenders of the original kanji system considered and accepted the tōyō kanji as a reasonable compromise. Since this compromise could not then be withdrawn in favour of more rad...

    In addition to a list of the standardized tōyō kanji, the reform published by the Ministry for Education in 1946 also contains a set of guidelines for their use. Regarding provenance and scope, the foreword of the document states that: 1. The table of tōyō kanji put forth therein, are the selection of kanji recommended for use by the general public, including legal and governmental documents, newspapers, and magazines. 2. The presented kanji are selected as an approximate set of those characters found to be of no insignificant utility in the lives of today's Japanese citizens. 3. Concerning proper nouns, there is a wide range of usage beyond what may be formulated as rules, and consequently they are treated as outside the scope of this standard. 4. The simplified character forms from modern custom are taken as the proper form, and their original forms are provided alongside them for reference. 5. A systemization of the character forms and their readings is still under consideration...

    Because the majority of character-based words are composed of two (or more) kanji, many words were left with one character included in the Tōyō kanji, and the other character missing. In this case, the recommendation was to write the included part in kanji and the excluded part in kana, e.g. ふ頭 for 埠頭 and 危ぐ for 危惧. These words were called mazegaki(交ぜ書き, "mixed characters").

    Bold in 1981 and 2010 year added kanji 一 丁 七 丈 三 上 下 不 且 世 丘 丙 中 丸 丹 主 久 乏 乗 乙 九 乳 乾 乱 了 事 二 互 五 井 亜 亡 交 享 京 人 仁 今 介 仕 他 付 代 令 以 仰 仲 件 任 企 伏 伐 休 伯 伴 伸 伺 似 但 位 低 住 佐 何 仏 作 佳 使 来 例 侍 供 依 侮 侯 侵 便 係 促 俊 俗 保 信 修 俳 俵 併 倉 個 倍 倒 候 借 倣 値 倫 仮 偉 偏 停 健 側 偶 傍 傑 備 催 伝 債 傷 傾 働 像 僚 偽 僧 価 儀 億 倹 儒 償 優 元 兄 充 兆 先 光 克 免 児 入 内 全 両 八 公 六 共 兵 具 典 兼 冊 再 冒 冗 冠 冬 冷 准 凍 凝 凡 凶 出 刀 刃 分 切 刈 刊 刑 列 初 判 別 利 到 制 刷 券 刺 刻 則 削 前 剖 剛 剰 副 割 創 劇 剤 剣 力 功 加 劣 助 努 効 劾 勅 勇 勉 動 勘 務 勝 労 募 勢 勤 勲 励 勧 勺 匁 包 化 北 匠 匹 匿 区 十 千 升 午 半 卑 卒 卓 協 南 博 占 印 危 却 卵 巻 卸 即 厘 厚 原 去 参 又 及 友 反 叔 取 受 口 古 句 叫 召 可 史 右 司 各 合 吉 同 名 后 吏 吐 向 君 吟 否 含 呈 呉 吸 吹 告 周 味 呼 命 和 咲 哀 品 員 哲 唆 唐 唯 唱 商 問 啓 善 喚 喜 喪 喫 単 嗣 嘆 器 噴 嚇 厳 嘱 囚 四 回 因 困 固 圏 国 囲 園 円 図 団 土 在 地 坂 均 坊 坑 坪 垂 型 埋 城 域 執 培 基 堂 堅 堤 堪 報 場 塊 塑 塔 塗 境 墓 墜 増 墨 堕 墳 墾 壁 壇 圧 塁 壊 士 壮 壱 寿 夏 夕 外 多 夜 夢 大 天 太 夫 央 失 奇 奉 奏 契 奔 奥 奪 奨 奮 女 奴 好 如 妃 妊 妙 妥 妨 妹 妻 姉 始 姓 委 姫 姻 姿 威 娘 娯 娠 婆 婚 婦 婿 媒 嫁 嫡 嬢 子 孔 字 存 孝 季 孤 孫 学 宅 宇 守 安 完 宗 官 宙 定 宜 客 宣 室 宮 宰 害 宴 家 容 宿 寂 寄 密 富 寒 察 寡 寝 実 寧 審 写 寛 寮 宝 寸 寺 封 射 将 専 尉 尊 尋 対 導 小 少 就 尺 尼 尾 尿 局 居 届 屈...

  5. Kyōiku kanji - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_kanji_by_school_year

    Kyōiku kanji (教育漢字, literally "education kanji"), also known as Gakunenbetsu kanji haitōhyō (学年別漢字配当表, literally "list of kanji by school year") is a list of 1,026 kanji and associated readings developed and ...

  6. List of jōyō kanji - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joyo_kanji_list

    List of characters For brevity, only one English translation is given per kanji. The "Grade" column specifies the grade in which the kanji is taught in Elementary schools in Japan.Grade "S" means that it is taught in ...

  7. The Lego Group - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Lego_Group
    • History
    • Trademark and Patents
    • Financial Results
    • Legoland
    • Retail Stores
    • Lego Interactive
    • Toy Production
    • Environmental Issues
    • Gender Equality
    • Logos

    The history of Lego spans nearly 100 years, beginning with the creation of small wooden playthings during the early 20th century. Manufacturing of plastic Lego bricks began in Denmark in 1947, but since has grown to include factories throughout the world. In North America, Samsonitemanaged the Lego brand from 1961 until 1972 (United States) and 1986 (Canada).

    Since the expiry of the last standing Lego patent in 1989, a number of companies have produced interlocking bricks that are similar to Lego bricks. The toy company Tyco Toys produced such bricks for a time; other competitors include Mega Bloks and Best-Lock. These competitor products are typically "compatible" with Lego bricks, and are often marketed at a lower cost than Lego sets. One such competitor is Coko, manufactured by Chinese company Tianjin Coko Toy Co., Ltd. In 2002, Lego Group's Swiss subsidiary Interlego AG sued the company for copyright infringement. A trial court found many Coko bricks to be infringing; Coko was ordered to cease manufacture of the infringing bricks, publish a formal apology in the Beijing Daily, and pay a small fee in damages to Interlego. On appeal, the Beijing High People's Court upheld the trial court's ruling. In 2003, The Lego Group won a lawsuit in Norway against the marketing group Biltema for its sale of Coko products, on the grounds that the c...

    In 2003, The Lego Group faced a budget deficit of 1.4 billion DKK (US$220 million at then-current exchange rates; equal to EUR 175 million), causing Poul Plougmann to be replaced by Kjeld Kirk Kristiansenas president. In the following year, almost one thousand employees were laid off, due to budget cuts. However, in October 2004, on reporting an even larger deficit, Kristiansen also stepped down as president, while placing DKK800 million of his private funds into the company. In 2005, The Lego Group reported a 2004 net loss of DKK1,931 million on a total turnover, including Legoland amusement parks, of DKK7,934 million. For 2005, the company returned a profit of DKK702 million, having increased its revenue by 12% to DKK7,050 million in 2005 against DKK6,315 million in 2004. It also cut expenditures and disposed of amusement parks and a factory in Switzerland. In 2011, sales for the company grew 11%, rising from $2.847 billion in 2010 to $3.495 billion in 2011. Profit for 2011 fiscal...

    The Lego Group has built eight amusement parks around the world, each known as Legoland. Each park features large-scale Lego models of famous landmarks and miniature Lego models of famous cities, along with Lego themed rides. The first Legoland park was built in Lego's home town of Billund in Denmark. This was followed by Legoland Windsor in England, Legoland California in Carlsbad, US and Legoland Deutschland in Günzburg, Germany. In addition, Legoland Sierksdorf was opened in 1973, but soon closed in 1976. In July 2005, the Lego Group announced that it had reached a deal with private investment company the Blackstone Group to sell all four parks for €375m to the Blackstone subsidiary Merlin Entertainments. Under the terms of the deal, The Lego Group would take a 30% share in Merlin Entertainments and positions on their board.The sale of the theme parks was part of a wider strategy to restructure the company to focus on the core business of toy products. In 2010, Merlin Entertainme...

    The Lego Group operates 148 retail stores (83 in the United States, 17 in the United Kingdom, 11 in Germany, 10 in Canada, 7 in France, 2 in Spain, 2 in Austria, 2 in Italy, 2 in Serbia, 2 in Denmark, 1 in Belgium, 2 in China, 1 in Sweden, 1 in Poland, 1 in India, 1 in Lithuania and 3 in Mexico.). The Lego Group also franchised its store brand to Majid Al Futtaim Group, which opened 6 stores in 2015 (4 in the United Arab Emirates, and 2 in Kuwait).

    Lego Interactive (formerly Lego Media and later Lego Software) was the video game publishing division of The Lego Group. The company was founded as Lego Media in 1996 and headquartered in London, England. In February 1999, Lego Media announced their move into the girls' software industry, starting with Lego Friends. Eventually, The Lego Group opted out of the video game business and Lego Interactive was shut down. Former Lego Interactive staff opened Giant Interactive Entertainment, which later became part of TT Games. Lego Media also operated a motion picture division, which produced the BBC children's series Little Robots for Cosgrove Hall Films. In 2003, this division was rebranded to Create TV and Film Limited, and became independent from The Lego Group under Lego's majority owner Kirkbi A/S, which allowed Create TV and Film to branch onto other projects. The company later produced Bionicle: Mask of Light, Bionicle 2: Legends of Metru Nui and Bionicle 3: Web of Shadows for Creat...

    Lego products are mass-produced, packaged and shipped on a large scale. Lego Produktion AG was a major production facility for Lego. It was founded in Switzerland in 1974. At the time of its announced closing in 2001, 30% of the world production of Lego was produced at the Swiss facility in Baar.The Baar facility eventually closed in 2004. In April 1962, the Lego Group began producing miniature tires; it became the largest tire manufacturingcompany in 2011, when it produced 381 million tires that year.

    Lego acknowledges the impact of its operations on the environment, in particular in areas such as climate change, resource and energy use and waste. All manufacturing sites are certified according to the environmental standard ISO 14001. The first Borkum Riffgrund 1 wind turbines off the coast of Germany began producing electricity in February 2015, which will help The Lego Group reach its goal of being based 100% on renewable energy by 2020. The company claims to recycle 90% of its waste and that it had made its operations nearly one-third more energy efficient over the five-year period ending 31 December 2013. It is seeking alternatives to crude oil as the raw material for its bricks.This results in the establishment in June 2015 the Lego Sustainable Materials Centre, which is expected to recruit more than 100 employees, as a significant step towards the 2030 ambition of finding and implementing sustainable alternatives to current materials. In 2011, Lego bowed to pressure from th...

    In January 2014, a handwritten letter to Lego from a seven-year-old American girl, Charlotte Benjamin, received widespread attention in the media. In it the young author complained that there were "more Lego boy people and barely any Lego girls" and observed that "all the girls did was sit at home, go to the beach, and shop, and they had no jobs, but the boys went on adventures, worked, saved people … even swam with sharks". In June 2014, it was announced that Lego would be launching a new "Research Institute" collection featuring female scientists including a female chemist, palaeontologist, and astronomer. The science-themed project was selected as the latest Lego Ideas winner, and was submitted by Ellen Kooijman, a geochemist in Stockholm. Lego denied claims that the set was introduced to placate criticism of the company by activists, pointing to its Lego Ideas origins. The Research Institute range sold out within a week of its online release in August 2014. The BBC's Tom de Cast...

    Below are historical images of the Lego logo throughout the company's existence. 1. 1934–1936 2. 1936–1946 3. 1946–1948 4. 1948–1950 5. 1950–1953 6. 1953–1954 7. 1954–1959 8. 1959–1964 9. 1964–1972 10. 1972–1998 11. 1998–present

  8. List of kanji by stroke count - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kanji_Reference:IndexByStrokeCount

    List of kanji by stroke count. This Kanji index method groups together the kanji that are written with the same number of strokes. Currently, there are 2,187 individual kanji listed. Characters followed by an alternate in (parentheses) indicate ...

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